Canadian Forest Service Publications
Life cycle and phenology of a cone maggot, Stobilomyia appalachensis Michelsen (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), on black spruce, Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P., in eastern Canada. 1994. Sweeney, J.D.; Turgeon, J.J. The Canadian Entomologist 126: 49-59.
Issued by: Atlantic Forestry Centre
Catalog ID: 7523
CFS Availability: PDF (request by e-mail)
The life cycle of Strobilomyia appalachensis Michelsen, a maggot exploiting black spruce seed cones, was studied in two plantations in northern Ontario in 1987 and 1988, and two seed orchards in New Brunswick in 1991 and 1992. Oviposition by S. appalachensis occurs slightly later than the white spruce cone maggot, S. neanthracina Michelsen, relative to seed cone development; otherwise the life cycles of the two species are similar. Adults were trapped near host foliage in May and early June. Eggs were laid between the scales of seed cones during early June, starting when the scales on most cones were closed and ending 1 week after cones were fully pendant. Up to five eggs per cone were observed but single eggs were most common. The first larval molt occurred within the egg chorion and second-instar larvae emerged from the egg. Second-instar larvae were found in the cones during the 2nd and 3rd week of June, and third instars from the 3rd week of June until mid to late July. Larvae tunneled around the cone axis and destroyed an average of 60% of the total seed per cone before exiting and dropping to the soil. Larval drop occurred from late June to late July and was significantly correlated with periods of rainfall. Mature larvae moved into the duff and overwintered in the soil as pupae. Aspects of the maggot’s life history are discussed in relation to pest management strategies.