Selective Cuttings

Selective Cuttings

Canada ranks second among leading global wood product exporters

January 24, 2018

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Canadian wood product exports have been growing year after year since 2010. In 2016, Canada exported $17B of wood products, maintaining its position among the world’s top wood product exporters.

In this post, we compare Canada’s wood product exports with those of other countries, in terms of type, size and significance. We also discuss changes in these rankings since our previous post in 2013.

The table details the top ten global wood product exporters in 2016, indicating their global market share, value (in Canadian dollars), wood product trade balance, percentage of wood products as a share of each country’s total exports, the major type of wood product exports, and the change in percent of each country’s global market share since 2012.
Country Global market share of total wood product exports Value (C$ billion) Wood product trade balance Wood product share of country exports Largest type of wood product exports % change since 2012
China 12.8% 18.1 - 0.64% Panels 47.2%
Canada 12.3% 17.5 + 3.38% Lumber 74.5%
United States 8.4% 12.0 - 0.62% Lumber 51.5%
Germany 7.6% 10.8 - 0.61% Lumber 30.5%
Russia 6% 8.6 + 2.28% Lumber 36.5%
Austria 4.1% 5.9 + 3.06% Lumber 25.0%
Poland 3.9% 5.6 + 2.10% Joinery 59.5%
Indonesia 3.6% 5.1 + 2.68% Panels 48.6%
Sweden 3.5% 5.0 + 2.73% Lumber 15.4%
Finland 2.7% 3.8 + 5.03% Lumber 39.0%

Canada is the second largest exporter of wood products in the world with lumber being its dominant product. Canada’s ranking has not changed since 2012; however, its global wood product market share increased slightly from 10% in 2012 to 12% in 2016.

The countries in the top 10 were generally consistent with our 2012 analysis, but their rankings have shifted.  China continues to be the largest exporter of wood products. The United States (US), Poland and Indonesia jumped up in the ranking due to a rapid increase in their exports value, bumping down Germany and Sweden. Overall, the top 10 exporting countries accounted for 65% of total global wood product exports in 2016.

Although the global rankings for wood product exporters have shifted over recent years, the type of wood product exported from each country has nearly stayed the same. In 2016, lumber was the dominant export product type, except for China and Indonesia that led with panels and Poland, which exported mostly joinery. Germany is the only country on the list that has seen their major exported wood product type change since 2012 (from fibreboard to lumber).

One measure that captures the importance of wood product trade for each country is its share of total exports. At 3.38%, Canada’s export mix has a higher reliance on wood products now than in 2012 (2.2%). Comparatively, Finland (5.03%) has the highest reliance while Germany (0.61%) and the US (0.62%) have the lowest reliance on wood products. About half of the top ten wood product exporters demonstrated relatively stable percentages between 2012 and 2016.

Overall, Canada remains one of the leading wood product exporters. Nonetheless, additional export growth over the medium term could be challenged by anticipated fibre shortages due to pests (e.g. the mountain pine beetle in the West and the spruce budworm in the East), increasing incidences of wildfires, geopolitical uncertainty and volatility in trade.

Low Canadian dollar boosts competitiveness of Canadian newsprint producers

February 22, 2017

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In the previous blog post we showed that the current low value of the Canadian dollar allows Canadian NBSK producers to maintain their competitive advantage over international competitors; a situation that is unlikely to change anytime soon. We ran some exchange rates scenarios to see if the situation was similar for newsprint producers.

Canada is the largest producer and exporter of newsprint worldwide. In 2015, newsprint exports were valued at $2.3 billion. Sixty percent of our exports are destined for the US market, and American producers are our main competitors in the regional North American market.

Currently, the North American higher cost producers are all concentrated in the United States, but exchange rate movements could significantly alter our competitive position. The graph below illustrates how Canadian production costs increase when the Canadian dollar appreciates to 90 cents (Scenario 1) and to parity (Scenario 2) against the US dollar. In Scenario 1, Eastern Canada remains the low cost North American producer, while Western Canada producers become higher cost producers than Western US. Scenario 2 shows that further appreciation of the Canadian dollar erodes the competitive advantage of all Canadian producers compared to their US competitors.

Exchange Rate Scenarios: Canadian dollar appreciates to 90 cents (Scenario 1) and at par with the US dollar (Scenario 2)

This chart shows how the production cost of Canadian newsprint producers in Eastern and Western Canada 
        increase when the Canadian dollar appreciates to 90 cents (Scenario 1) and to par (Scenario 2) with the US dollar. 
        This is shown in relation to the US regions of West and Southeast.

Source: FisherSolve
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Additionally, we considered the cost of getting product to market and found that Eastern Canada remains the lowest cost producer once transportation cost is factored in — that is, until the Canadian dollar is at par with the US dollar.

Canada is in a good position and is likely to remain the lowest cost producer over the medium term. However, the low Canadian dollar offers a limited buffer in the long run against permanently lower newsprint demand.

Exchange rate movements and competitiveness in the global NBSK market

February 7, 2017

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Canada has the largest share of the northern bleached softwood kraft pulp (NBSK) capacity (>40%), and our mills are among the lowest cost global producers.
However, exchange rate movements could alter our position in a globally competitive market.

We examine the importance of exchange rate movements in two scenarios for NBSK market pulp producers:

  1. Canada relative to large European competitors. Large European competitors include Russia, Finland, Sweden, and Germany;
  2. Canada relative to the United States. The United States is a small producer, but an important market given its size and proximity to Canada.

Scenario 1

As seen in Graph1, average production costs in the three large Canadian provinces are significantly lower than in Finland, Sweden, and Germany. This is in large part due to high fibre cost in the European countries. As a result, the Canadian dollar would have to appreciate beyond historical highs against the Euro and Swedish Krona to hinder our cost competitiveness.

Graph 1: Canadian dollar appreciation against Euro and Swedish Krona scenarios

This bubble-chart illustrates that the NBSK production cost of Finland decreases to Canadian levels when the Canadian 
dollar appreciates 22% against the Euro; production cost of Sweden decreases to Canadian levels when Canadian dollar appreciates 20% 
against the Krona; and production cost of Germany decreases to Canadian levels when the dollar appreciates 15% against the Euro. Canadian 
levels are shown by the big producers of BC, Alberta and Ontario. A bubble for lowest cost producer, Russia, is also shown on the 

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For example, the Canadian dollar would need to appreciate 15% against the Euro to reduce German production cost to Canadian levels. An even larger 22% appreciation against the Euro would be required to lower Finnish production costs to the Canadian levels. Similarly, the Canadian dollar would have to appreciate 20% against the Swedish Krona to bring Sweden’s cost down to Canadian levels.

The good news for Canadian producers is that these scenarios seem unlikely as the dollar has not been traded at those levels in recent years. A 22% appreciation against the Euro would actually take it past the historical high of August 2012 (CAD/Euro 0.81), and a 20% appreciation against the Swedish Krona would take it beyond the historical high of 7.5 (June 2010).

Canada also remains more competitive than European producers after accounting for transportation cost to the largest market, China. However, once transportation costs are considered, the Canadian dollar would only have to appreciate 6% against the Euro for German costs to China to equal that of Canada’s. This would imply a Canadian dollar-Euro exchange rate trading near its historical upper bound, which is unlikely in the short-term.

The only European country that can currently compete on cost with Canadian producers is Russia. Russia remains the global lowest cost producer under any plausible currency scenario given their significant labour cost advantage and low fibre and energy costs. Additionally, Russia has a proximity advantage to the large Chinese market and will remain the lowest cost supplier of NBSK.

Scenario 2

Closer to home, Canada is more competitive than the US in part due to lower energy, labour and fibre costs. This relationship holds in all scenarios where the exchange rate ranges from 70 cents to parity with the US dollar.

Graph 2: Changes in Canadian production cost with CAD-USD exchange rate movements

This chart shows how the NBSK production cost of Canada increases as the Canadian dollar appreciates from 70 
cents to parity with the US dollar.

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Over the short-term, the exchange rate is forecasted around 75-80 cents, which would give Canada about USD100/tonne cost advantage. This advantage remains after we factor in transportation cost to the US market. In fact, even with transportation costs Canada is more competitive than the US. Only once the exchange rate reaches parity would the US producers gain a slight advantage of $5 per tonne advantage. However, this latter scenario is very unlikely in the medium term.

Overall, the low Canadian dollar supports the industry at a time when it is challenged by continued shrinking printing and writing paper demand, additional softwood kraft pulp capacity coming online in the next few years, and strong competition from low-cost hardwood kraft pulp producers.

The forest sector Q3 financial results rebounded

February 8, 2016

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The financial performance of Canadian forest sector firms rebounded during the third quarter of 2015. The ten largest publicly traded Canadian forest companies1 reported a combined operating income of $476 million, up 109% compared to the second quarter of 2015, though this still represented a 9% drop relative to the third quarter of 2014. On an individual basis, all those companies also reported positive operating income. This is an improvement compared to the previous quarter, when only seven firms reported positive operating income.

Total sales of those ten companies reached $8 billion, a 6% increase compared to the previous quarter. It is the highest quarterly sales level since 2009.

Financial results of the largest Canadian publicly traded forest companies

This chart shows the quarterly financial results of ten largest Canada-based publicly traded forest products companies, from Q3 2014 to Q3 2015. Together, the ten largest publicly traded Canadian forest companies reported an operating income of $ 476 million.

The improved financial results of the third quarter of 2015 were in part the result of weaker Canadian currency, as the exchange rate declined by 6%. It more than offset the challenging market conditions in forest products markets:

Going forward, North American lumber market should slightly improve in the fourth quarter of 2015 due to relatively stable North American demand. Offshore markets are also expected to improve; lumber market in Japan is expected to remain stable while market conditions in China are projected to show a slight improvement. Global pulp markets are expected to continue to be under downward pressure in the fourth quarter of 2015. However, the weakening of the Canadian dollar should continue to cushion the negative impacts of weak markets for Canadian forest companies.

1Including Domtar, Resolute, Cascades, West Fraser Timber, Canfor, Tembec, Norbord, Mercer, Catalyst, and Western Forest Products

Vulnerability of B.C. pulp and paper mills to MPB infestation

November 16, 2015

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Over the past decade, B.C. pulp and paper mills have greatly benefited from increased demand from Asian markets; however, the aftermath of the mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation is increasingly constraining B.C.’s fibre supply. Since 2014, at least two sawmills in the B.C. interior have shuttered due to a shortage of pine, and more closures are anticipated in the coming years. Because pulp mills tend to purchase wood chips from nearby sawmills, the MPB impact is likely to spread to the pulp subsector if many more sawmills shut down.

There is an important interrelationship between pulp and paper mills and sawmills in Canada. Pulp and paper mills purchase wood chips residues from nearby sawmills, which reduces the need for higher cost whole log chipping. This also provides sawmills an important revenue stream, As nearby sawmills shutter, pulp and paper mills either need to purchase and transport wood chips from more distant sawmills or invest in sourcing and chipping logs themselves – both situations greatly increase the operating cost of the mill.

To gauge how vulnerable B.C. pulp mills are to a decrease in pine supply, let’s first have a look at how much pine is currently used in B.C.’s pulp and paper industry.

B.C. pulp production using pine in 2014

Table detailing the estimated amount of pulp that was produced from pine in B.C. in 2014 at the pulp production stage only. Finished products are not listed. Data is based on 2014 Q3 data from FisherSolve.
Pine usage Number
of mills
Pulp production from pine (tonnes per year, air dry metric ton)
Northern bleached softwood kraft pulp Bleached chemi-thermomechanical pulp / Thermo-mechanical pulp Unbleached northern softwood kraft Dissolving pulp
70% or more 3 290,907 560,632 n/a n/a
60 - 69% 2 593,320 n/a n/a n/a
40 - 59% 4 461,184 n/a 73,527 n/a
20 - 39% 2 127,238 68,094 n/a n/a
1 - 20% 1 39,156 59,769 n/a n/a
Total B.C. production 17 4,036,843 1,741,562 179,804 190,874

(Source: FisherSolve)

Pine represents about a third of B.C.’s SPF growing stock and about a fifth of the province’s total growing stock, so not surprisingly, nearly all of B.C.’s pulp and paper mills used fibre from pine in 2014. For many mills, pine accounts for less than half of their fibre source; these mills will likely be less impacted by a pine shortage because they have other sources of fibre.

However, of the five mills that used the greatest proportion of pine in 2014 (60% or greater), four are located in the heart of the MPB ravaged area. They produce pulp only and have manufacturing costs hovering near the national average. The added cost required to replace 60%+ of their fibre with whole logs rather than chips could be prohibitive.

While both northern bleached softwood kraft pulp (NBSK) and bleached chemi-thermomechanical pulp (BCTMP) have positive market outlooks, global competition is expected to keep heating up which means that demand for pulp feedstock – chips – will become an increasingly important determinant of competitiveness, The viability of mid-quartile B.C. pulp mills that currently rely heavily on pine woodchips could be in jeopardy as their fibre sources become more limited.