Statistical data

Forest inventory



The National Forest Inventory uses 12 of Canada’s 15 terrestrial ecozones as the basis for reporting on the extent, state, and sustainable development of Canada’s forests.

The Arctic ecozones—Arctic Cordillera, Northern Arctic, Southern Arctic—and the James Bay islands within the Hudson Plains ecozone are not inventoried because they are not forested.

An ecozone is an area of the Earth's surface representing large and very generalized ecological units characterized by interacting abiotic (non-living) and biotic (living) factors.

Canada has 20 ecozones—15 terrestrial and 5 marine. The 15 terrestrial ecozones are subdivided into 53 ecoprovinces, which can be further subdivided into 194 ecoregions. Ecozones place Canada’s ecosystems in a North American and global context, as they are linked to the ecological regions of North America and the global ecological zones of the United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization.

Ecozones, ecoprovinces and ecoregions are useful for reporting and planning purposes at national, provincial and regional levels. Regardless of its level in the hierarchy, each of these units is distinguished from the others by a unique interplay of geologic, climatic, vegetative, wildlife and human activity factors.

Forest area by classification (hectares) Footnote 1
Forest land 346,964,664.00
Other wooded land 40,865,660.00
Other land with tree cover 8,498,940.00
Forest area change (hectares, 2018) Footnote 2
Afforestation Not available
Deforestation 34,257
Forest type (forest land only) Footnote 3
Coniferous 67.8%
Mixedwood 15.8%
Broadleaf 10.5%
Temporarily non-treed 5.9%
Forest ownership Footnote 4
Federal 1.6%
Private 6.2%
Provincial 76.6%
Indigenous 2.0%
Municipal 0.3%
Territorial 12.9%
Other 0.4%
Growing stock (million cubic metres) Footnote 5
Total volume 44,648
Predominant tree genus (forest land only)—volume
Spruce 47.3%
Pine 11.9%
Fir 7.4%
Hemlock 5.8%
Douglas-fir 3.5%
Larch 0.6%
Cedar and other conifers 2.7%
Unspecified conifers 0.7%
Poplar 13.1%
Birch 3.3%
Maple 3.0%
Other hardwoods 0.5%
Unspecified hardwoods 0.2%
Unclassified 0.1%
Land use (thousand hectares)
Agriculture 62,154.3
Conservation 83,508.9
Forestry 258,604.3
Industrial 472.8
Infrastructure 8,051.9
National Defence 2,314.1
Recreation 70,443.7
Settlement 4,453.0
Unknown 158,350.7
Total 648,353.6