Glossary: B

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Term Definition French
Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) A biological insecticide developed in Canada. This natural bacterium, which occurs in soils, is sprayed on forests to combat damaging insects. Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.)
Backlog An administrative term used to classify inadequately stocked forest land that has been denuded (cut over, burned, etc.). Arriéré
Bacteria Single-celled organisms that have no nucleus; Plural of bacterium. Bactérie
Balance of trade The difference between the value of the goods and services that a country exports and the value of the goods and services that it imports. If a country’s exports exceed its imports, it has a trade surplus; if imports exceed exports, the country has a trade deficit. Balance commerciale
Ball planting Setting out trees with their roots left undisturbed in a dug-out clod of soil. Note: if trees are bare-rooted, and roots are enclosed in a rough ball of soil, they are properly termed balled. Plantation en mottes
Band application Applying pesticides and/or fertilizers in a linear strip on or along crop rows rather than over the entire ground area. Pulvérisation en bandes
Band girdling Removing a broad band of bark, from several centimetres to a metre wide, all round a living bole with some sapwood or without, so as to kill (with or without the aid of herbicide), or at least weaken, the tree. Annélation totale
Banding Applying a chemical or other substance to the bole of a tree in the form of a band. Cerclage
Bark The outer covering of trees. Écorce
Bark stripping Removing the bark of a tree in narrow strips. Écorçage
Basal area 1. Of a tree: The area in square metres of the cross section at breast height of the stem. 2. Of a forest, stand, or forest type: The area in square metres per hectare of the cross section at breast height of all trees. Surface terrière
Basal bark treatment A treatment for killing trees and brush in which a herbicide is applied, by sprayer or brush, to a band of bark encircling the basal portion of the stem. Traitement arboricide cortical (à la base de l’arbre)
Basal injection A treatment consisting of forcing a liquid or an encapsulated herbicide into the basal portion of a tree. Injection à la base de la tige
Base of tree Part of the tree consisting of the first 25 cm of trunk. Base de l'arbre
Basic forest management Extensive forest management plus artificial regeneration where necessary. cf. extensive forest management Aménagement forestier de base
Basic silviculture All the silvicultural practices required to achieve free-growing (or established) regeneration of desired species at specified densities and stocking. Sylviculture de base
Basidiospore Fungus spore produced on a basidium. Basidiospore
Basket planting Setting out young trees, etc., in loosely-woven baskets in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed. Plantation en paniers
Beam A horizontal wood support member typically larger in cross-section than a joist. Poutre
Bedding A site preparation procedure in which the soil is mounded mechanically to provide a well-drained ridge on which seedlings are planted or seeds distributed naturally or directly. Billonnage
Billet A product made from composite material that is easier to manufacture in a large size than in many smaller pieces and that is then cut into the desired dimensions for the final product. Bille
Bio-based economy See bioeconomy. Bio-based economy
Bio-oil A volatile liquid produced through pyrolysis of carbon rich substances such as biomass from forestry and agricultural residues. Pyrolysis is the transformation of a carbon-rich substance into one or more substances by heat in the absence of oxygen. It is often referred to a destructive distillation. Bio-huile
Bioassay A technique for determining the effectiveness of a substance by measuring its effects on animals, tissues or organisms and comparing them to the effects of a standard preparation. Bioessai
Biochemicals A range of chemical substances made from forest biomass and typically used in industrial applications. Produits biochimiques
Biocomposites Made of a resin matrix and reinforced with natural fibres. Biocomposites
Biodegradable Capable of being decomposed (broken down into simpler forms of matter) under natural conditions—that is, by the action of insects, other animals, and microorganisms. Materials derived from biological sources, as well as artificial materials sufficiently similar to them, are biodegradable. Biodégradable
Biodiversity The collection of life on earth; the natural patterns that form from all the species of life (species diversity), the genes that each of them possess (genetic diversity), as well as the ecosystems which these species form (ecosystem diversity). Biodiversité
Bioeconomy An economy based on the manufacturing and trade of commodities and services derived from renewable biological resources as well as on the trade of non-timber forest products. Bioéconomie
Bioenergy The kinetic energy released from biomass when it is eaten, burned or converted into fuel, or the potential energy embodied in biomass. Bioénergie
Biofuel A fuel that is derived from plant biomass, by chemical or geological processes. Biocombustible
Biogas A combustible gas and type of biofuel produced by the decomposition of biological materials (for example, forestry residues and municipal waste) through anaerobic digestion (that is, in the absence of oxygen) or fermentation. Typical biogas consists of 50 to 60% methane and carbon dioxide. Biogaz
Biolistics A transformation method in which metal particles coated with one organism’s genetic material are propelled into the cells or tissues of another to allow for the uptake of the genetic material. Biolistique
Biological pest control methods The application of whole organisms or portions of organisms as biologically sound alternatives to broad-spectrum chemical pesticides. Méthodes de lutte biologique contre les ravageurs
Biomass The total mass of living organisms of one or more species per unit of area, or all the species in a community. It can be divided into above-ground biomass and below-ground biomass. Biomasse
Biomass The organic matter (cellulose and lignin) produced by plants. The term forest biomass generally refers to all of the material contained in the trees of a forest, including all their components (roots, branches, leaves, etc.). Biomasse
Biomaterials A range of novel materials made from forest biomass and typically used in industrial applications. Biomatériaux
Biomaterials and Biochemicals A growing and diverse class of forest biomass-based products that are not typical pulp and paper or wood products. Biomatériaux et produits biochimiques
Biome A major biotic community composed of all the plants and animals in a specific geographical region and smaller biotic communities. The smaller communities in a biome possess similarities in gross external appearances and gross climatic conditions. Biome
Biomethanol Methanol produced from biomass instead of the conventional raw material and processes. Biométhanol
Biopesticide A pesticide derived from natural sources such as fungi and bacteria or created to closely resemble or be identical to a chemical produced in nature such as a pheromone. Typically a biopesticide is target-specific and has little or no impact on non-target organisms and the environment. Biopesticide
Bioplastics Plastic-like materials made from renewable, carbon-rich substances such as biomass (carbohydrates, cellulose, etc.). Bioplastique
Biopolymer Any polymer that is produced by a living organism or synthesized from renewable biomass. Naturally occurring biopolymers include proteins and starch (which are composed of amino acid and sugar monomer units, respectively); synthetic biopolymers include bioplastics, biotextiles, and some nanofibres. Biopolymère
Bioprocess A process that uses the processing capability of living cells (for example, yeasts) or their components (for example, enzymes) to create a commercially useful product. Bioprocédé
Bioproduct A consumer or industrial product that is made from biomass. Bioproducts are often made using a bioprocess and include a broad range of commodities intended for markets such as energy, transportation, chemicals, plastics, foods, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. Bioproduit
Bioprospecting The search for compounds within plants and other organisms that, due to their effects on living cells, could lead to new pharmaceuticals and other bioproducts. Bioprospection
Biorefinery The refining or separating of raw materials, such as biomass into their molecular components—mainly cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin—then further refining or transforming these intermediates into further manufactured products such as energy, fuels, chemicals and material. Bioraffinage
Biosphere The portion of the earth comprising the lower atmosphere, the seas, and the land surface (mantle rock) in which living organisms exist. Biosphère
Biotechnology As defined in the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, the application of science and engineering in the direct or indirect use of living organisms, or parts or products of living organisms, in their natural or modified forms. It refers to the techniques through which organisms such as plants, fungi, or microorganisms can be used to provide products or services. Biotechnologie
Biotic Pertaining to life; concerning the living component of the environment. Biotique
Black liquor A liquid solution by-product of the so-called “kraft” wood pulping process, composed of lignin residues, hemicellulose, and the chemicals used in the process. Polluting if discharged into water, black liquor can be recovered and put to good use to create value-added bioproducts. Liqueur noire
Blade Thin, flat part of a leaf. Limbe
Blading Using the straight blade of a crawler tractor or similar equipment to remove coarse woody debris and thick duff off the site to create planting lines or spots. Préparation du terrain par coupe à la cisaille
Blank A relatively large wood product made by gluing together small pieces of wood, which can then be cut to size for different uses and products. Carrelet
Blank area Any forest area in a crop or stand that has remained virtually unstocked, more particularly in plantations. A planting point where the tree has failed or is missing. Manque
Bleached chemi-thermo mechanical pulp (BCTMP) A semi-chemical pulp that has been bleached. Used to produce printing and writing papers, coated papers, packaging and tissue. Pâte chimico-thermomécanique blanchie (PCTMB)
Blight Rapid browning or blackening of leaves, which subsequently die, caused by the deterioration of growing tissues. Brûlure
Blister Circular bulge caused by the excessive growth of cells in part of a leaf, often with fungal cells mixed in. Cloque
Block cutting Removal of the crop in blocks in one or more operations, generally for wildlife management purposes, encouraging regeneration, or protecting fragile sites. Considered in Ontario to be a variation of clearcutting. Coupe par blocs
Blockboard A panel product made by gluing together strips of wood, which can be used as core by covering both surfaces with wooden veneers or used as is for cutting boards and other products. Panneau latté
Blowdown Tree or trees felled or broken off by wind, snow, ice or age. Chablis
Board feet A unit of volume used for softwood and hardwood lumber: one board foot equals 1/12 of a cubic foot. Pied-planche
Boards Softwood lumber of standardized sizes that is typically less than 2 inches thick. Used in manufacturing and carpentry Planche
Boreal forest One of three main forest zones in the world (see also tropical forest, temperate forest) located in northern regions and is characterized by the predominance of conifers (such as pine, spruce, larch and fir) and some deciduous (such as poplar and birch). The boreal forest (singular) is a colloquial term often used to refer to the overall forested area within the boreal zone, and sometimes to refer to the boreal zone itself because forests dominate this landscape. Boreal forests (plural) is the preferred term for the forested areas within the boreal zone. Forêt boréale
Boreal zone The broad circumpolar vegetation zone of the high northern latitudes. Although mainly covered with trees, the boreal zone is more than just forest. It contains lakes, rivers and wetlands, as well as naturally treeless terrain such as alpine areas, heathlands in regions where the climate is influenced by the ocean, and grasslands in drier areas. Zone boréale
Borer Relates to an organism that bores into and feeds on the woody and non-woody portions of plants. Perceur
Box pruning Lateral root pruning on four sides of nursery stock in situ. Previous undercutting is usually implicit. Élagage latéral (des racines)
Boxboard (also known as paperboard) A thick, strong paper material suitable for packaging lighter products, such as cereal or batteries. Carton pour boîtes (aussi appelé carton)
Brachypterous Having reduced wings that are shorter than the abdomen. Brachyptère
Branch Secondary woody stem arising from the trunk of a tree and bearing shoots. Branche
Breast height The standard height, 1.3 m above ground level, at which the diameter of a standing tree is measured. On sloping ground, breast height is usually measured on the uphill side of the tree. Hauteur de poitrine
Broadcast burning Allowing a controlled fire to burn over a designated area within well-defined boundaries, for reduction of fuel hazard, as a silvicultural treatment, or both. Brûlage extensif
Broadcast fertilizing The scattering of fertilizer or other mixture more or less evenly over an area. Fertilisation à la volée
Brush Shrubs and stands of short, scrubby tree species that do not reach merchantable size. Sometimes includes woody and herbaceous plants that impede regeneration or growth of desirable species. Often rated as "brush hazard". Broussailles
Brush blade A blade having scarifier teeth instead of a plain edge, for pushing large objects like tree roots and rocks off a site, leaving smaller stones, soil, etc. in place. Lame à rémanents
Brush chopper An implement with blades mounted on a horizontal power-driven shaft, for reducing the bulk of slash after felling and so facilitating planting. Broyeuse de rémanents
Brushing The removal of undesirable herbaceous and woody vegetation by manual or mechanical means. Débroussaillement
Bud Plant organ containing the immature tissues that will become a leaf, branch or flower. Bourgeon
Bud pruning Removal of lateral buds from a stem to prevent them from developing into branches. Ébourgeonnage
Budding Grafting by inserting a bud, with a small amount of tissue, into a slit or hole made in the bark of a stock plant. After union has formed, the portion of the stock plant above the bud is removed. Écussonnage
Buffer strip A band of forest left relatively undisturbed so as to protect some element of the environment, such as a streambank from erosion. Rideau vert
Buffer zone A strip of land where disturbances are not allowed, or are closely monitored, to preserve aesthetic and other qualities adjacent to roads, trails, waterways and recreation sites. Zone tampon
Bulb A modified stem, usually underground, consisting of one or more buds surrounded by thick, fleshy, food storage scale leaves. Bulbe
Bullet planting Setting out young trees grown in bullet-shaped rigid plastic tubes, which are injected into the ground by a spring-loaded gun, sometimes into prepared holes. Plantation en cartouches
Butt joint A connection between two pieces of wood by simply gluing together two end surfaces without any additional reinforcements. Joint d’extrémité
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