Glossary: D

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Term Definition French
De-inking A process that removes the inks, coatings and other contaminants from waste papers so that the fibres can be recycled into new products. Désencrage
Deadwood Timber produced from dead standing trees. More commonly, timber in dead standing trees. Bois mort
Decay Decomposition of wood caused by micro-organisms, mostly fungi. The wood generally becomes soft and crumbly, loses density and changes colour. Carie
Deciduous forest Subarea of the northern temperate zone, which is characterized mainly by sugar maple-dominated deciduous forests. This is the subarea with the greatest floristic richness. Forêt décidue
Deciduous species Trees that lose their leaves in the fall, such as birch, maple and basswood, are deciduous species. “Deciduous” means falling off or shed seasonally. Espèce arborescente décidue
Deciduous tree Member of a group of trees commonly called hardwoods or angiosperms. The latter term comes from the Greek "angion (vessel) + "sperma" (seed), denoting the fact that the seed is carried in a fruit. Deciduous trees shed their leaves in autumn. Feuillu
Decline Disease that is characterized by a progressive decline in a tree’s health and in its growth and that may kill it. While the causes of this phenomenon are not known, it is generally believed that a combination of factors is to blame: pollution, soil acidification, drought, freeze-thaw action, etc. Dépérissement
Decomposers Micro-organisms that break down, digest and metabolize organic wastes, such as dead leaves, dropped fruits, wood and dead animals. Décomposeurs
Decurrent Refers to gills, folds, tubes or teeth that run down the stem of fungi. Décurrent
Deep chiseling A surface treatment that loosens compacted soils. In Saskatchewan, termed decompaction. Ameublissement profond
Deeply notched leaf Leaf that has deep sinuses cut into its outer edge. Feuille fortement découpée
Defoliation The removal of all or most of a plant’s leaves by natural disturbance agents (e.g., insects) or through the actions of humans (e.g., the application of herbicides). Défoliation
Defoliator Organism that feeds on the foliage of plants. Eg, insects that feed on and destroy whole leaves or parts of leaves. Défoliateur
Deforestation Permanent removal of forest cover and withdrawal of land from forest use, whether deliberately or circumstantially. Déboisement
Dendrology The study of trees; tree identification. Dendrologie
Desertification The transformation of once-productive arid and semi-arid areas into deserts through prolonged drought or continued mismanagement of land and water resources. Désertification
Desiccation Process of becoming dried out. Dessiccation
Desirable plant species Species that contribute to management objectives. Espèces privilégiées
Detritivorous Feeding on detritus, decomposing organic matter. Détritivore
Diameter diameter at breast height (dbh) [diamètre à hauteur de poitrine (dhp)]: The stem diameter of a tree measured at breast height (1.3 m above ground level). Diamètre
Diameter-limit cutting Removal of all merchantable trees above a specified minimum diameter, which in mixed stands may vary with species. (1) Abattage au diamètre limite
Diapause A period of greatly decreased metabolic activity occurring in arthropods. This period may occur during any of various developmental stages depending on the species. Diapause
Dibble planting Sowing seeds or setting out seedlings in rough holes made with a stick or peg. Also termed dibbling if done with a specially adapted tool such as a dibble. Plantation au bâton
Digital model Computer-based representation of a mathematical model describing natural phenomena. These models use complex equations to perform essentially mathematical simulations of natural phenomena. They are used to study and test hypotheses about tides, climate change, the changes in an insect population or a forest, and so on. Modèles numériques
Dimension lumber Softwood lumber of standardized sizes that is usually 2 inches thick (e.g. 2x4). Used to frame wood buildings like houses. Bois d’échantillon
Dipping The immersion of seedling roots in a solution or water prior to planting. Trempage
Direct employment Persons employed directly in the following industries: forestry and logging (includes timber tract operations, nurseries and logging), industries involved in support activities for forestry (for example, fire prevention/fighting, reforestation, pest control), and paper manufacturing and wood product manufacturing (includes production of lumber and other wood products). Emploi direct
Discing Scarification technique using disks to break small slash and the organic layer and to cut vegetation, loosening and incorporating these into the soil. Déchaumage
Discoloration Change in the normal colour of wood following infection by a micro-organism. Coloration
Disease Alteration of the normal functions of a whole plant or part of it, caused by a living or dead agent. The main agents involved in the initiation of disease are pollution, animals, fungi and other plants. Maladie
Disease Harmful deviation from normal functioning of physiological processes, generally pathogenic or environmental in origin. Maladie
Dissolving pulp Has a high hemicellulose content and can be made from hardwood or softwood tree species. Used mostly for non-paper applications, such as manufacturing rayon and compounds for food and cosmetics. Pâte à dissoudre
Diurnal Pertaining to organisms that are active during the day. Diurne
DNA - Deoxyribonucleic acid The molecule that encodes genetic information. It is made up of units called nucleotides, each including one of four bases—adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), or thymine (T). The molecule comprises two strands held together by bonds between A and T and between G and C, resulting in a structure often referred to as a double helix. It is found in the nucleus of cells, within bacteria and some viruses, as well as in organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts. ADN - Acide désoxyribonucléique
DNA fingerprinting A method to isolate and create images of DNA sequences. The image created is an identification aid for organisms, similar to that of taking human fingerprints. Analyse des empreintes génétiques
DNA sequence The linear order of the nucleotides along the DNA strand. This sequence determines the unique genetic composition of an organism. Séquence d’ADN
DNA sequencing The process of determining the exact order of the bases in a DNA segment. Séquençage de l'ADN
Dominance potential The relative ability of a tree or plant species to dominate a forest ecosystem, given an opportunity equal to that of its associates. Potentiel de dominance
Downed tree Any tree that is lying on the ground, whether uprooted, stem-broken, or deliberately cut. Arbre abattu
Drag scarification Towing one or more rows of anchor chains, sharkfin barrels, tractor pads, alone or in various combinations, to break up and possibly spread slash and to loosen the forest floor and topsoil or expose mineral soil. Scarifiage par traînage
Drainage Hydrology/engineering: The process of removal of water from soil, particularly by surface runoff and subsurface percolation and artificially by measures for hastening removal, e.g., by ditching. Drainage
Drill seeder A mechanical device for sowing seed in furrowed lines (i.e., in drills). Semoir en ligne
Drupe Fleshy fruit with a central hard core. Drupe
Dry packing In tree injection, a method of banding that uses a tight waterproof bandage packed with a chemical, either dry or in paste form. Injection à sec
Duff layer A general term referring to the litter and humus layers of the forest floor. Litière
Dysgenic Detrimental to the genetic quality of a population and future generations. cf. eugenic. Dysgénique
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