Glossary: E

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Term Definition French
Ecodistrict A part of an ecoregion characterized by distinctive geologic, soil, water, fauna and land use. Écodistrict
Ecolabeling Process used to determine when a product can display a special seal or mark signifying that it is less harmful to the environment than most other similar products. The two-steps are: establishment of criteria, and certification that a product meets the criteria. Écoétiquetage
Ecoregion A part of an ecozone characterized by distinctive regional ecological factors, including climate, physical geography, vegetation, soil, water, fauna and land use. Écorégion
Ecosystem The sum of the plants, animals, environmental influences, and their interactions within a particular habitat. Écosystème
Ecosystem integrity The quality of a natural unmanaged or managed ecosystem in which the natural ecological processes sustain the function, composition and structure of the system. Intégrité d’un écosystème
Ecosystem-based management Management systems that attempt to simulate ecological processes with the goal of maintaining a satisfactory level of diversity in natural landscapes and their pattern of distribution in order to ensure the sustainability of forest ecosystem processes. Aménagement écosystémique
Ecotourism A type of tourism that focuses on nature-related experiences (for example, bird watching). Écotourisme
Ecotype A race (provenance) adapted to the selective action of a particular environment. Ecotypes are described in terms of the primary environmental influence, e.g., climatic or edaphic. Écotype
Ecozone An area of the Earth's surface representing large and very generalized ecological units characterized by interacting abiotic (non-living) and biotic (living) factors. Écozone
Ectoparasite External parasite that lives permanently on the body of a vertebrate or in accessible openings, such as the nose or ears. They are obligate parasites during part of or their entire life cycle. This type of parasite lives on the outside of its host's body without entering it or killing it. Ectoparasite
Edge habitat A loosely defined type of habitat that occurs at the boundary between two different habitat types. Typically, edge habitats share characteristics with both adjacent habitat types and have particular transitional characteristics that are important to wildlife. Habitat de lisière
Effective seedling Any seedling, whether natural or planted, that has survived in reasonable vigor for some arbitrary time and is so sited that it should make an effective contribution to the crop. Semis établi
Electrophoresis A laboratory procedure that separates large molecules, such as DNA fragments or proteins, on the basis of their electric charge by running them through a gel placed in an electric field. This is one of the steps in DNA fingerprinting. Électrophorèse
Electroporation A transformation method in which a weak electric current induces the formation of transient pores in the membrane of a cell, hence allowing new genes to enter the cell. Électroporation
Elongated leaf Leaf that is a lot longer than it is wide. Feuille allongée
Elytron A scleotized fore wing that covers the hind wing like a sheath. Found in Coleoptera. Élytre
Emergent A tree whose crown at maturity projects well above the level of the highest canopy. Émergent
Emissions Waste substances released into the air or water. Émissions
End grain The surface of wood when it is cut across the growth rings. Veine d’extrémité
Endangered species Species that are threatened with imminent extinction; includes species whose numbers or habitats have been reduced to critical levels. Espèce en voie de disparition
Endoparasitoid Organism that lives inside and feeds on a single host, which dies after the parasitoid has completed its larval development. Endoparasitoïde
Engineered wood products A composite wood product made from glued fibre, lumber and/or veneer to meet specific design criteria. Produits du bois de haute technologie
Entomology Part of zoology concerned with the study of insects. Entomologie
Environmental assessment A process designed to contribute pertinent environmental information to the decision-making process of forest management or other natural resource projects and programs. Évaluation environnementale
Environmental goods and services Benefits humans get directly or indirectly from ecosystem functions. Ecosystem functions are the "…habitat, biological or system properties or processes of ecosystems" (Costanza et al. 1997). They include clean air and water, soil retention, and wildlife habitat, to name a few. Biens et services écologiques [ou environnementaux]
Enzyme A protein produced by a living organism and that speeds up a specific biochemical reaction. Enzymes are necessary to make almost all processes occurring in cells fast enough to sustain life. Enzyme
Epicormic shoot syn. sprout A shoot arising from a dormant or adventitious bud on the stem or branch of a woody plant. Pousse adventive
Epidermis Tissue covering the aerial portions of a plant. Épiderme
Establishment The process of developing a crop to the stage at which the young trees may be considered established, i.e., safe from juvenile mortality and no longer in need of special protection or special tending, but only routine cleaning and thinning. Établissement
Establishment period The time elapsing between the initiation of a new crop and its establishment. Période d’implantation
Eugenic Favorable to the genetic quality of a population. cf. dysgenic. Eugénique
Eutrophication The enrichment of water by nutrients, especially compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus, that will accelerate the growth of algae and higher forms of plant life. This enrichment may interfere with the normal ecological balance of the receiving waters. Eutrophisation
Even-aged Of a forest, stand, or forest type in which relatively small age differences exist between individual trees. The differences in age permitted are usually 10 to 20 years. Équienne
Even-aged (forest) A forest stand or type in which relatively small age differences exist between individual trees (usually 10–20 years). Équienne (forêt)
Even-aged system Silvicultural systems in which stands have an even-aged structure, e.g., clearcutting method, coppice method, seed-tree method. Régime équienne
Ex situ conservation The preservation of a plant or plant part outside of the species normal or original habitat, for example, within a gene bank. Conservation ex situ
Exotic An introduced, non-native tree species. Exotique
Extirpated species Refers to the local extinction of a species that is no longer found in a locality or country, but exists elsewhere in the world. Espèce disparue
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