Glossary: F

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Term Definition French
Falldown A situation in which second-growth forests provide less timber than the original forests. Exploitation secondaire
Fauna A general term for all forms of animal life characteristic of a region, period or special environment. Faune
Featured-species management A type of wildlife management that does not attempt to manage for all species, but selects a few species of particular concern or interest (for example, big game species or endangered species) and aims management programs at them. With respect to habitat, it is generally assumed that providing habitat for these species provides habitat for other species as well. Gestion axée sur les espèces
Feedstock Raw material, such as forest biomass, used as input in an industrial process to make a product. Matière première
Feller-buncher A self-propelled machine used to fell trees by shearing them off near the ground using a hydraulic apparatus. Some models also strip limbs and bunch the logs for later pickup. Abatteuse-groupeuse
Female flower Part of the plant bearing the female sexual organ (pistil). Fleur femelle
Fermentation Transformation of organic substrates, especially carbohydrates, into chemical intermediates with micro-organisms such as bacteria, yeasts, molds and fungus for the production of energy, fuels, chemicals and materials. Fermentation
Fertilization The union of the nucleus and other cellular constituents of a male gamete (sperm, pollen grain) with those of the female gamete (ovum, egg cell) to form a zygote from which may develop a new organism. Fécondation
Fertilizing The application of chemical or organic fertilizers with the objective of increasing the unit area soil productivity. Fertilisation
Fibre (wood) A material in which the wood is reduced to predominantly individual fibres by mechanical or chemical means, or a combination of the two. Virgin fibre is derived from trees not previously processed into paper; recycled fibre has been reclaimed from a previous product such as old newsprint and reprocessed and incorporated into a new product. Fibre (ligneuse)
Fibre mats Carpet-like mats made from wood-fibre, with a variety of uses, including automotive composite mats and building insulation. Tapis de fibres
Fibre-reinforced composites Multilayer materials of carbon fibre, steel, glass, natural fibres including hemp, cereal straw, flax with binders (resins) moulded or formed into intermediate products such as building materials, automotive parts and machinery, etc. Distinct properties in each layer produce a composite with a combination of properties. Composés renforcés de fibres
Field germination Generally, measure of the percentage, by number, of seeds in a given sample that germinate and produce a seedling, irrespective of subsequent seedling survival. Germination au champ
Field nursery A nursery, generally not permanent, established in or near the forest rather than near an administrative or executive headquarters. Also referred to as satellite nursery in Ontario and in the Prairies. Pépinière volante
Filiform (threadliked) Thread-like. Filiforme
Fill planting The planting of trees in areas of inadequate stocking to achieve the desired level of stocking, either in plantations or areas of natural regeneration. cf. interplanting Regarni
Filler A tree or species of inferior value, retained in thinning or cleaning, in the absence of any better. Remplissage (arbre de)
Final cutting The last of a series of progressive regeneration cuts which removes the last of the original seed trees when the regeneration is considered established. Coupe définitive
Fire hazard reduction Any treatment of fuels that reduces the threat of ignition and spread of fire. Réduction du risque d’incendie
Fire weather index The fire weather index (FWI) is part of an approach that Canadian meteorologists use to estimate the wildfire risk in forest regions. Calculation of the index components is based on consecutive daily observations of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and 24-hour rainfall. Indice forêt-météo
First Nations Generally, "First Nations people" is used to describe both Status and Non-Status Indians. "First Nation" has been adopted by some Indian communities to replace the term "Indian band". A band is defined as a body of Indians for whose collective use and benefit lands have been set apart or money is held by the Crown, or declared to be a band for the purposes of the Indian Act. The term is rarely used as a synonym for "Aboriginal peoples" because it usually doesn't include Inuit or Métis people. Premières nations
Flange An outer structural element used with other connecting members to make engineered wood products. Semelle
Flitch A large rectangular block of wood cut from a log. Quartelet
Flora A general term for all forms of plant life characteristic of a region, period or special environment. Flore
Floricolous Pertaining to an organism that is associated with flowers. Frequenting flowers without harming them (eg, butterflies). Floricole
Flower The reproductive structure of a tree or other plant consisting of the male and/or female parts. Fleur
Foliage All the leaves of a tree. Feuillage
Forest Ecosystem that generally covers a large area and is composed of woody vegetation dominated by trees growing in a relatively dense pattern. Forêt
Forest Ecology: Generally, an ecosystem characterized by a more or less dense and extensive tree cover. More particularly, a plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, growing more or less closely together. Forêt
Forest biomaterial Any novel material derived from forest biomass (particularly wood fibre and cellulosic residues) for industrial use. Forest biomaterials can be blends of natural fibres and polymers (for example, biocomposite building materials) or biopolymers (for example, bioplastics, biotextiles, and nanofibres). Biomatériau forestier
Forest biorefinery A plant that uses renewable forest feedstocks (for example, harvest residues, effluent extracts, and black liquors) to integrate the production of conventional forest products with that of value-added bioproducts and bioenergy. A forest biorefinery aims at maximizing the feedstocks’ value by recovering all of the intermediate and end products, hence yielding minimum waste and pollution. Bioraffinerie forestière
Forest genetics The study of heredity in forest trees. Génétique forestière
Forest hygiene Care for the health of the forest, particularly by sanitation cutting. Hygiène sylvicole
Forest land Land primarily intended for growing, or currently supporting, forest. It includes land not now forested (for example, clearcut lands and northern lands that are forested but not intended for any commercial forestry use) and plantations. Terres forestières
Forest management That branch of forestry concerned with the overall administrative, economic, legal and social aspects and with the essentially scientific and technical aspects, especially silviculture, protection and forest regulation. Aménagement forestier
Forest management unit An area of forest land managed as a unit for fiber production and other renewable resources. This unit can be the entire province or territory, a provincial forest management subdivision, an industrial timber limit, etc. Unité d’aménagement forestier
Forest model A computer-based simulation that, within definable parameters, forecasts the development of a forest. Modèle de forêt
Forest practices Any activities that enhance or recover forest growth or harvest yield (e.g., site preparation, planting, thinning, fertilizing, harvesting, etc.), and road construction or reconstruction within forest lands. Pratiques forestières
Forest regions classification A process of delineating large geographic areas according to landform and climate, associated with broad variations in overall forest composition. Classification des régions forestières
Forest sector The forest sector includes governments, conservation and environmental groups, woodlot owners, Aboriginals, urban forestry interests, lumber and pulp and paper producers and value-added industries, forest-reliant communities, the recreation and tourism industries, and other sectors of the economy (including the energy, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries) that derive wealth and well-being from forest resources. Secteur forestier
Forest site see forest site type Site forestier
Forest site classification Grouping of forest sites using either the composition or the productivity of the vegetation as well as soil and topographic position. Classification de station forestière
Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) An international certification and labelling system under which forests are certified against strict environmental and social standards, and fibre from certified forests is tracked from the forest to consumers. Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
Forest tree breeding The genetic manipulation of trees, usually involving selection, testing, and controlled mating, to solve some specific problem or to produce a specially desired product. Amélioration génétique des arbres forestiers
Forest tree improvement The control of parentage combined with other silvicultural activities (such as site preparation or fertilizing) to improve the overall yield and quality of products from forest lands. Amélioration générale des arbres forestiers
Forest tree species Group of individuals that possess common characteristics and are capable of producing fertile progeny Essences forestières
Forest type A group of forested areas or stands of similar composition; forest types are usually separated and identified by species composition and often by height and crown closure classes. Type forestier
Forest value chain The "chain" of steps in forestry and the manufacturing of forest products from seed to final consumer product. Chaîne de valeur forestière
Forest-dependent community A community that depends on a forest region for at least 50 percent of its total economy. Collectivité dépendante de la forêt
Forested tundra Subarea of the vast boreal zone characterized by a mosaic of stands of variable density and by tundra consisting mainly of shrubs and lichens. This plant formation is located at the tree line, and marks the division between the boreal zone and the arctic zone. Toundra forestière
Forestry Generally, a profession embracing the science, business, and art of creating, conserving, and managing forests and forest lands for the continuing use of their resources, material or other. Foresterie
Forestry practices Any activity that is carried out on forest land to facilitate the use of forest resources, including, but not limited to, timber harvesting, road construction, silviculture, grazing, recreation, pest control and wildfire suppression. Pratiques forestières
Form General shape of a tree. Port
Formation All the operations contributing to the creation of a new forest cover up to the stage where it is considered established. Période d’établissement
Forwarder A self-propelled machine, usually self-loading, that transports trees or logs by carrying them completely off the ground. Porteur
Fossil fuel Solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel formed in the ground over millions of years from fossilized plant and animal remains exposed to high temperatures and pressures. Petroleum (crude oil), natural gas, and coal are fossil fuels. Fossil fuel reserves are being used much faster than they can rebuild and therefore, are non-renewable resources. The high rate of combustion of fossil fuels in industrialized societies contributes to global warming because natural processes have a limited capacity to absorb the carbon dioxide emitted. (See also carbon sequestration.) Combustible fossile
Fossil fuels Oil, gas, coal and other fuels that were formed under the Earth's surface from the fossilized remains of plants and tiny animals that lived millions of years ago. Combustible fossile
Four-sided Geometric shape with four sides. Quadrangulaire
Fragmentation The splitting or isolating of patches of similar habitat, typically forest cover, but including other types of habitat. Habitat can be fragmented naturally or from forest management activities, such as clearcut logging. Fragmentation
Freesheet Made from at least 80% chemical pulp, and can be bleached or unbleached and coated or not, depending on desired characteristics. Uses include office paper for printing and copying. Papier fin non couché et couché
Frill girdling Girdling by making a series of downward, more or less overlapping incisions, generally for the introduction of herbicide. Spaced incisions are termed frill cuts. A double series of such incisions is referred to as double-frill girdling. Annélation en encoches
Frugivorous Feeding on fruit or the reproductive structures of plants. Carpophage
Fruit Reproductive organ of plants that results from fertilization of the flower and contains the seeds. Fruit
Fruit body A reproductive structure on or in which spores of a fungus are produced. Fructification
Fuel plantation syn. fuelwood plantation Setting out young trees to be hogged for burning. Plantation énergétique
Fuelwood Trees used for the production of firewood logs or other wood fuel. Bois de chauffage
Full seed Seed showing apparently complete embryo and endosperm or megagametophyte structures, irrespective of actual viability. Graine pleine
Full-sibs Trees with both parents in common. Defined in Manitoba as trees where both parents are known. Pleins germains
Functional food According to Health Canada, any food or food component demonstrated to have a compound that provides physiological benefits and/or reduces the risk of chronic disease beyond its basic nutritional functions. Functional foods are similar in appearance to or may be conventional foods and are consumed as part of a usual diet. Aliment fonctionnel
Fungicide Substance used to kill fungi. Fongicide
Fungicide Any agent used to kill or inhibit the growth of fungi and their spores. Fongicide
Fungicides Products that can inhibit the growth of fungi or kill them. Fungicides are used in agriculture and industrial plantation forestry to protect plants and trees from certain fungal diseases. Fongicides
Fungivorous Feeding on fungi. Fongivore
Fusiform Spindle-shaped. Fusiforme
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