Glossary: M

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Term Definition French
Machine stress rated (MSR) Softwood dimension lumber mechanically tested for strength. Used for engineered wood products such as roof trusses. Bois classé par contrainte mécanique
Maggot Whitish larva that resembles a worm and has no legs (example : fly larva). Asticot
Main crop In regular crops or stands, that portion of the growing stock retained after an intermediate cutting. Peuplement principal
Male flower Part of the plant bearing the male sexual organ (stamen). Fleur mâle
Mammal Four-legged vertebrate of the class Mammalia, characterized by females that produce milk with which to feed their young. Mammifère
Management plan A predetermined course of action and direction to achieve a set of results, usually specified as goals, objectives and policies. Plan d'aménagement
Manure Commonly the dung of farm animals. Also natural or artificial food material for plants and trees, supplying nitrogen, phosphates, and potash and other essential nutrients. Fumier
Marking hammer syn. marking axe, marking cog. A light hammer having a die for stamping letters, figures, or other distinctive devices. Marteau forestier
Marking rule Means of standardizing marking practice among individuals and for various areas of the same forest type, commonly for thinning purposes. Règle de marquage
Mature In even-aged management, those trees or stands that are sufficiently developed to be harvestable and that are at or near rotation age (includes overmature trees and stands for which an overmature class has not been recognized. Mûr
Maturity class Trees or stands grouped according to their stage of development, from establishment to suitability for harvest. A maturity class may comprise one or more age classes. Classe de maturité
Mechanical planting Setting out young trees by means of a machine specially designed for this operation. Plantation mécanique
Mechanical pulp Made from wood fibres ground into very fine particles. Used to make newsprint and some other communications papers. Pâte mécanique
Medium density fibreboard (MDF) A wood-based composite material that uses wood fibre rather than particles, strands or veneers to produce board or sheet products. It is made by combining wood fibre with a synthetic resin or other bonding system and applying pressure and heat to create a compressed fibreboard with a density ranging from 0.60 to 0.80 g/cm3. MDF is increasingly used in areas such as furniture manufacture, cabinetry, joinery, shelving, craftwork and flooring. Panneau de fibres à densité moyenne (MDF)
Merchantable Of a tree or stand that has attained sufficient size, quality, and/or volume to make it suitable for harvesting. Does not imply accessibility, economic or otherwise. Marchand
Merchantable snag A snag that is of sufficient quality and/or volume to make it suitable for harvesting. Chicot marchand
Metabolite Starting, intermediate, or product compound in a chemical reaction that involves the breaking down of a molecule or the joining of molecules by an enzyme. Métabolite
Metamorphosis All of the changes that an insect undergoes from the egg stage to adult form. Métamorphose
Micro-organism A microscopic one or multi-celled organism, such as a bacterium, virus, yeast, alga, fungus and protozoan. Micro-organisme
Micro-organisms Living organisms (bacteria, microbes, yeasts) that can be seen only with a microscope. Micro-organisms that are likely to cause disease in other living organisms are called pathogens. Micro-organismes
Microbe See microorganism. Microbe
Microfauna Soil-dwelling micro-organisms (animals) that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Synonym: soil fauna. Microfaune
Microinjection A genetic engineering technique that uses a fine-tipped glass needle to inject DNA into a cell. Microinjection
Microorganism A general term for a unicellular or multicellular microscopic organism. Classifications of microorganisms include algae, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. Microorganisme
Micropropagation In vitro asexual reproduction of a plant from a fragment of plant tissue. This technique creates multiple copies of progeny that are genetically identical to the parent (clones). Micropropagation
Microsite The ultimate unit of the habitat, i.e., the specific spot occupied by an individual organism. By extension, the more or less specialized relationships existing between an organism and its environment. Niche (écologique)
Mine Gallery excavated by a larva in plant tissues, such as a leaf or bark. Mine
Miner Organism that feeds inside the blade of a leaf, between the epidermal layers, or beneath the bark of plants, by first excavating a mine into these tissues. Mineuse
Mist forest A forest of high elevation that occurs along the foggy windward shores of continents and islands. Forêt de brouillard
Mist propagation An irrigation technique for rooting cuttings where water, with or without fertilizers, is sprayed in minute drops on the plants. Brumisation
Mite Acarian that feeds on plant or animal matter. Mite
Mixed forest Subarea of the northern temperate zone, which is dominated by mixed forests encompassing both coniferous boreal species and more southerly deciduous species. Forêt mélangée
Mixed stand A stand composed of two or more species in which less than 80% of trees in the main crown canopy are of a single species. The threshold in Manitoba and New Brunswick is 75%. cf. pure stand Mélangé
Mixedwoods Trees belonging to either of the botanical groups Gymnospermae or Angiospermae that are substantially intermingled in stands. Peuplement mixte
Mixing Site preparation technique involving rotating tillers or other devices that mix soil and surface organic material with fine debris. Mélange
Model forest A forest or designated area including forests and woodlands for which an integrated management plan is created and implemented to achieve multiple objectives on a sustainable basis. Forêt modèle
Modern biotechnology In vitro techniques that are rapid, efficient, and precise in obtaining novel gene combinations in living organisms. Most modern biotechnologies focus on organisms at the genetic level. (See also traditional biotechnology.) Biotechnologie moderne
Molecular marker See genetic marker. Marqueur moléculaire
Monoculture 1. General: Cultivation of a single crop or product without using the land for other purposes. 2. Biology: Extensive areas of land occupied or dominated by plant species that are closely related genetically. Monoculture
Monophagous Organism that feeds on a single host, whether plant or animal. Monophage
Montréal Criteria and Indicators Process This global initiative was so named because the first meeting sponsored by the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe was held in Montreal. Currently, 12 countries representing 90% of the world's boreal and temperate forests have agreed to collaborate to develop national C&I for the conservation and sustainable management of all boreal and temperate forests. Processus de Montréal sur les critères et les indicateurs
Mop-up (fire) The act of extinguishing a fire after it has been brought under control. Extinction (feu)
Morphology Form and structure of living organisms. Morphologie
Mortality Death or destruction of forest trees as result of competition, disease, insect damage, drought, wind, fire, old age, and other factors, excluding harvesting. Mortalité
Moulding Shaped lengths of wood or composite material used in decorative applications, such as crown moulding where walls meet ceilings, or baseboard moulding where walls meet floors. Moulure
Moult Process whereby arthropods shed their old cuticle (external covering) and replace it with a new one. Mue
Mound planting Setting out young trees on raised microsites. Plantation sur butte
Mulch Any loose covering on the surface of the soil, whether natural, like litter, or deliberately applied, like organic residues, crushed gravel, or artificial material like plastic, glass-wool, metal foil, and paper, used to reduce competing vegetation. Mulch
Multiple forest use A system of resource use where the forest resources in a given land unit serve more than one user. Utilisation intégrée de la forêt
Mushroom Visible reproductive part of any of various fungi. Champignon de sol
Mutagens Agents that cause a change in the DNA sequence of a cell. These include chemicals, X-rays, and ultraviolet light. Mutagènes
Mutation A change to the DNA sequence of a gene or chromosome; may be expressed or unexpressed by the cell. If a mutation occurs in a gene, it changes the structure, function, or expression of the protein produced. Mutation
Mycelium Vegetative part of a fungus, which is composed of a mass of hyphae and distinct from the fruiting body. Mycélium
Mycetophagous Feeding on fungi Mycétophage
Mycophagous Feeding on fungi. Mycophage
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