Glossary: T

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Term Definition French
T-notching see slit planting Bêchage en T
Taiga Subarea of the extensive boreal zone characterized by open coniferous forest with lichens. Taïga
Tall oil An oily liquid by-product of the so-called “kraft” pulping process (particularly of pine wood), composed of a mixture of rosins, fatty acids, and other substances. Soaps, emulsifiers, adhesives, and lubricants are only a few of the many value-added bioproducts that can be made from recovered tall oil. Résine liquide
Tariff An import tax or a list of articles and the import tax that must be paid on items on that list. A protective tariff is meant to protect local businesses from foreign competition; a retaliatory tariff is in response to a foreign country's tax on goods from your country; and an antidumping tariff is to prevent foreign countries from selling their goods in the importing country at a lower price than the goods sell for the foreign country or at a price lower than the manufacturing cost. Tarif
Taungya plantation The raising of a forest crop in conjunction with a temporary agricultural crop. Plantation en taungya
Taxonomy Set of rules governing the classification and naming of species. Taxinomie
Temperate forest One of three main forest zones in the world (see also boreal forest, tropical forest). The woodland of rather mild climatic areas; composed mainly of deciduous trees. Forêt tempérée
Tending Generally, any operation carried out for the benefit of a forest crop or an individual thereof, at any stage of its life; covers operations both on the crop itself, e.g., thinnings and improvement cuttings, and on competing vegetation. Soins culturaux
Tending felling An operation comprising cleanings and thinnings. Coupe d’entretien
Tenure The terms under which a forest manager or owner possesses the rights, and assumes the responsibilities, to use, harvest or manage one or more forest resource in a specified forest area for a specified period of time. Forest tenures of public land in Canada fall into two main categories: area-based and volume-based. Tenure
Terricolous Living in the soil or litter. Terricole
Thallus Vegetative plant body that is not differentiated into root, stem and leaves, although some analogous structures may be present. Thalle
Thermal paper Coated with a chemical that changes colour when exposed to heat. Used in thermal printers, cash registers and credit card terminals. Papier thermosensible
Thermochemical conversion Thermal and chemical processes by which carbon-rich substances are converted to intermediate chemicals for the production of energy, fuels, chemicals and materials. Conversion thermochimique
Thermoplastics The most commonly used material in plastics processing. Softens with heat and solidifies when cooled. Thermoplastiques
Thicket A dense growth of small trees or bushes. Fourré
Thinning A partial cutting or spacing operation made in an immature forest stand to accelerate the growth of the remaining trees. Éclaircie
Thinning cycle The time interval between thinnings in the same stand. Cycle d’éclaircie
Thinning grade The severity of low thinning based on the crown classes removed, ranging from very light (Grade A) to very heavy (Grade E). Dosage d’éclaircie
Thinning intensity A measure of the combined effect of thinning weight and thinning frequency, in terms of the volume removed during any succession of thinnings, sometimes expressed as an average annual stand depletion. Intensité d’éclaircie
Thinning out Removal of seedling or sapling in excess in a young stand in order to favor residual tree development. Dépressage
Thinning regime A term comprising the type, degree, and frequency of thinning for a given area, generally along with the year of commencement and sometimes termination. Système d’éclaircie
Thinning series Two or more adjacent forest plots that are thinned differently (e.g., to different thinning grades), essentially so as to compare the increment of individual stems. Groupe d’éclaircies comparées
Threatened species A species that is likely to become endangered in Canada if the factors affecting its vulnerability are not reversed. Espèce menacée
Thrips Any of numerous insects in the order Thysanoptera that are of minute size, have fringed wings (if winged) and feed mostly on plant juices. Thrips
Tick Parasitic acarian that feeds on animal blood. Tique
Tie ridge In contour furrowing and trenching, a narrow strip of ground left unexcavated so as to break the horizontal continuity of the trenching and thus contain and properly distribute any precipitation. Cloisonnement
Timber A general term for forest crops and stands, and sometimes for any lesser aggregation of such trees. Bois
Timberbelt Multiple rows of trees planted to provide environmental benefits (including wind protection, soil conservation, and wildlife corridors) and the opportunity for woody biomass production for conversion into bioenergy and other bioproducts. It can also act as an agroforestry system for the production of agricultural or forest-derived crops. Haie brise-vent
Tine plough A plough in which the leading edge of the landside is extended forward and downward as a tine-bearing replaceable sock. Charrue à éperon
Tissue culture A general term for the cultivation of plant or animal tissues in a controlled artificial environment on defined media under aseptic conditions. Culture de tissus
Tolerance The ability of an organism or biological process to subsist under a given set of environmental conditions. The range of these under which it can subsist, representing its limits of tolerance, is termed its ecological amplitude. Tolérance
Tongue-and-groove A method of connecting two pieces of a wooden product by shaping a ridge on one piece that fits into a slot on an adjacent piece (the connection hides the gap between the two pieces). Assemblage à rainure et languette
Traditional biotechnology Specifically within forestry, this involves the selection of trees with desirable traits and breeding them to produce improved offspring. (See also modern biotechnology.) Biotechnologie traditionnelle
Trainer A tree beneath the main canopy which by its shading and/or abrasive action hastens the natural pruning or improves the form of some other tree. Dominé élagueur
Trait A distinguishable characteristic of an organism. Caractère
Transformation Transfer of foreign DNA into the cell of an organism to change its genetic makeup. This is a natural process for many bacteria. Transformation
Transgenic Genetically engineered to contain DNA from an external source, such as another species or a different variety. Many transgenic plants are more herbicide tolerant, are resistant to insect or viral pests, or produce modified versions of fruit or flowers. Transgénique
Transplant A seedling that has been replanted one or more times in a nursery to improve its size and growth potential characteristics. Also a tree that is moved from one place to another. Plant repiqué
Transplanting board A simple device having regularly spaced slots for the individual plants so as to ensure proper spacing and lining out in the new bed. Planche à repiquer
Transplanting machine An implement used to line out transplants in a nursery. Repiqueuse mécanique
Transplanting plough A plough used in the nursery to open trench for the roots of plants being lined out, while simultaneously backfilling it. Charrue planteuse
Treaty A legally binding agreement, often between two parties. Traité
Tree class Any class into which the trees forming a crop or stand may be divided for a variety of purposes. Classe d’arbre
Tree farm Privately owned woodland in which the production of wood fibre is a primary management goal, as distinct from a tree nursery, fruit orchard, or landscape business. Propriété forestière de production
Tree injection The deliberate introduction, by pressure or simple absorption of a chemical -- generally a water-soluble salt in solution -- into the sapstream of a living tree. Injection d’arbres
Tree injector A specially designed tool used to inject a solution into a living tree. Injecteur
Tree marking Selection and indication, usually by marking with paint on the stem, of trees to be felled or retained. Marquage
Tree shaker A machine designed to shake a tree in order to dislodge its fruits for collection from the ground. Secoueuse mécanique
Tree spade Hydraulic accessory attached to a machine used for transplanting landscape stock. Pelle hydraulique à arbres
Tree surgery The care and repair of trees valued for amenity. Chirurgie des arbres
Trench planting Setting out young trees in a shallow trench or a continuous slit. Plantation en sillon
Trencher In a planting machine, a metal shoe behind the share, which makes the trench for the plant roots. Soc planteur
Trenching Site preparation technique creating a more or less continuous furrow, with surface debris, duff, and low vegetation scattered to one side, using shaping devices pulled or often hydraulically powered by a prime mover. Scarifiage par sillons
Trim Shaped lengths of wood or composite material used in decorative applications such as around door or window frames (moulding is often used for trim). Boiserie
Tropical forest One of three main forest zones in the world (see also boreal forest, temperate forest). A tropical woodland with an annual rainfall of a least 250 cm; marked by broad-leaved evergreen trees forming a continuous canopy. Forêt tropicale
Trunk Part of the tree that is generally straight and vertical, located between the root collar and the branches (crown). Tronc
Trusses Structural frames with a triangular arrangement of webs and chords to transfer loads to reaction points. Used as a structural support in residential and non-residential roof structures. Ferme
Tube planting Setting out young trees in narrow, open-ended cylinders of various materials, in which they have been raised from seed or into which they have been transplanted. Plantation de semis en tube
Tubes Cylindrical structures beneath the fungus cap constituting the hymenium in certain fungi. A tubular opening made by a worm or another animal. Tubes
Tubicolous Dwelling in a tube, eg pine tube moth. Tubicole
Tubular Tube-shaped. Tubulaire
Twig The smallest division of a branch which bears the annual shoot. Rameau
Twisting A type of warp that results in the four corners of a piece of lumber no longer being in the same plane. Torsion
Two-furrow plough A plough with two moldboards turning the furrow slices to the same side. Charrue à deux socs et versoirs simultanés
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