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Term Definition French
Abiotic stress Stress induced by the non-living component of the environment. Stress abiotique
Aboriginal land Lands within Aboriginal reserves or Aboriginal settlements. Terres autochtones
Aboriginal peoples The descendants of the original inhabitants of North America. The Canadian Constitution recognizes three groups of Aboriginal people—Indians, Métis and Inuit. These are three separate peoples with unique heritages, languages, cultural practices and spiritual beliefs. Peuples autochtones
Aboriginal rights Rights that some Aboriginal peoples of Canada hold as a result of their ancestors’ long-standing use and occupancy of the land. The rights of certain Aboriginal peoples to hunt trap and fish on ancestral lands are examples of Aboriginal rights. Aboriginal rights will vary from group to group depending on the customs, practices and traditions that have formed part of their distinctive cultures. Droits des Autochtones
Aboriginal title A legal term that recognizes the interest of Aboriginals in the land. It is based on their long-standing use and occupancy of the land as descendants of the original inhabitants of Canada. Titre ancestral
Acari (Acarian) Order included in the class Arachnida. The members of this order (mites and ticks) are very tiny organisms with an unsegmented abdomen and generally four pairs of unjointed legs. Acarien
Accessory species A species of less commercial value than the principal species but sometimes useful in assisting the latter and liable to influence the method of treatment to some degree. Essences auxiliaires
Accessory systems Any silvicultural system derived from one or more of the basic systems and not dependent on any particular method of regeneration. Traitement combiné
Acid precipitation Rain, snow, sleet, hail or fog, usually with acidity below pH 5.6. Acidic precipitation is primarily the result of emissions of gases of sulphur and nitrogen oxides which are transformed into sulphuric acid and nitric acid respectively as they are transported over distances of hundreds to thousands of kilometres from their source. Précipitation acide
Acorn Hard fruit of the oak tree, which contains the seed. Gland
Adaptive management A dynamic approach to forest management in which the effects of treatments and decisions are continually monitored and used, along with research results, to modify management on a continuing basis to ensure that objectives are being met. Gestion adaptative
Adaptive management area Stands or forest types that require similar management practices and are grouped as one unit for the purposes of silviculture management. Aire de gestion adaptée
Adjuvant An additive used in pesticide spray formulations which enhances adherence to plants. Adjuvant
Advance regeneration Young trees under existing stands capable of becoming the next crop. Regeneration established before logging that has survived the logging operation. Régénération préexistante
Afforestation The establishment of a tree crop on an area from which it has always, or for very long, been absent. Where such establishment fails and is repeated, the latter may properly be termed reafforestation. Boisement
Age class A distinct group of trees or portion of growing stock recognized on the basis of age. Classe d’âge
Age gradation An age class of one or at the most a few years. Sous-classe d’âge
Agrobacterium A genus of naturally occurring soil bacteria used to transfer genes into plants. Agrobacterium
Agroforestry The deliberate integration, in space or time, of woody perennials with herbaceous crops and/or animals on the same land management unit. Agroforesterie
Air pruning Limiting extension of a root system beyond a container by exposure to air. Élagage aérien
All-aged Of a forest, crop, or stand that contains trees of all, or almost all, age classes, including those of exploitable age. De tous âges
Allele One of the possible alternative forms of a gene or of any DNA sequence occupying a specific position along a chromosome. The specific combination of alleles in an individual forms its genotype. Allèle
Allelopathy The negative influence of a plant, other than a microorganism, upon another plant, through chemical exudate during their metabolism. Allélopathie
Allowable annual cut (AAC) The amount of timber that is permitted to be cut annually from a particular area. AAC is used as the basis for regulating harvest levels to ensure a sustainable supply of timber. Possibilité annuelle de coupe (PAC)
Allowable cut The volume of wood that may be harvested, under management, for a given period. Possibilité de coupe
Amino acids A group of 20 organic compounds, combinations of which are bonded together in long chains to make proteins. Acide aminé
Ammoniacal copper quaternary A wood preservative used to replace a preservative (chromated copper arsenic) that contains arsenic. Cuivre ammoniacal quaternaire
Anchor chains Heavy chains, often with spikes welded to the links, used in drag scarification. Chaînes d’ancre
Anthophagous Feeding on flowers. Anthophage
Anthophilous Fond of flowers. Organism that has a close relationship with flowers, normally including the collection of pollen or nectar as a food source. Anthophile
Anthracnose Foliar disease characterized by reduced growth of some portions of the lobes and by the development of necrotic lesions between the veins and on the leaf margins; these lesions may spread to the entire leaf and then the buds and, in extreme cases, the twigs. Anthracnose
Anthropogenic emission Emission caused by human activities (for example, burning fossil fuels or setting fires to clear forest land for agricultural purposes). Émission anthropique
Antibiotic Chemical substance capable of preventing the development of micro-organisms. Antibiotique
Antifungal Capable of killing fungi or impeding their development. Antifongique
Antigen A substance that the organism identifies as foreign, hence triggering the release of antibodies as a defence response. Antigène
Apex Tip or top of an animal or plant structure. Apex
Apothecium Cup-shaped ascomatum found in certain ascomycetes fungi and containing the reproductive structures (asci and ascospores). Apothèce
Apterous Wingless. Aptère
Arboreal Pertaining to the culture of trees. Arboricole
Arboretum A place where many kinds of trees and shrubs are grown for scientific and educational purposes. Arboretum
Arboriculture The cultivation, that is, growing and tending, of trees and shrubs, individually or in small groups, generally for ornament, protection, and instruction rather than direct use or profit. Arboriculture
Area ignition The setting of a number of individual fires throughout an area, either simultaneously or in quick succession, and so spaced that they soon coalesce, influence, and support each other to produce a hot, fast-spreading fire throughout the area. Allumage de zone
Area regenerating Includes areas that have been harvested recently (less than 10 years ago), and areas depleted by such natural disturbances as fire, insects and disease. Superficie en régénération
Area-based tenures They allow licensees to harvest timber over a specific land base. Tenure holders are often required to assume forest management responsibilities. Tenures fondées sur la superficie
Arthropoda Phylum of invertebrate animals that possess an exoskeleton and a segmented body with jointed appendages (legs). Arthropods include crustaceans, spiders and insects. Arthropodes
Artificial regeneration Renewal of a tree crop by direct seeding or by planting seedlings or cuttings. Régénération artificielle
Ascomatum Sexual stage of ascomycetes fungi, either an apothecium, a perithecium or a cleistothecium, which contains the asci and ascospores. Ascome
Ascospore Fungus spore produced within an ascus. Ascospore
Ascus Bag-like structure that develops within an ascomata and is made up of a membrane in which ascospores are produced; the ascospores are discharged from the ascus at maturity. Asque
Asexual reproduction Reproduction without fertilization. New individuals may develop from vegetative parts such as tubers, bulbs, or rooted stems, or from sexual parts such as unfertilized eggs or other cells in the ovule. Propagation asexuée
Asymmetrical Having corresponding parts that are irregularly arranged in relation to one another. Opposite of symmetrical. Asymétrique
Atrophied Describes an organ or part of a body that is reduced in size, rudimentary. Atrophié
Auger planting Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole using an auger. Plantation à la tarière
Autotroph An organism capable of synthesizing the organic nutrients it needs from the mineral compounds present in nature. Plants and many bacteria are autotrophs or producers. Autotrophs do not need to obtain their nutrients from other living organisms. By contrast, heterotrophs cannot make their own food and so they feed on the tissues of other organisms. Organisme autotrophe
Avifauna Birds, in particular, all the birds of a given site: the avifauna of a marsh, a prairie, etc. Avifaune