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Forest ecology

Term Definition French
-3/2 power law of self-thinning Dense populations that have reached a size at which mortality occurs demonstrate a negative relationship between log mean plant weight and log stand density; this generally has a slope of -3/2. Relation à la puissance -3/2 de l’éclaircie naturelle
Abiotic stress Stress induced by the non-living component of the environment. Stress abiotique
Acari (Acarian) Order included in the class Arachnida. The members of this order (mites and ticks) are very tiny organisms with an unsegmented abdomen and generally four pairs of unjointed legs. Acarien
Accessory species A species of less commercial value than the principal species but sometimes useful in assisting the latter and liable to influence the method of treatment to some degree. Essences auxiliaires
Adaptive management A dynamic approach to forest management in which the effects of treatments and decisions are continually monitored and used, along with research results, to modify management on a continuing basis to ensure that objectives are being met. Gestion adaptative
Adaptive management area Stands or forest types that require similar management practices and are grouped as one unit for the purposes of silviculture management. Aire de gestion adaptée
Advance regeneration Young trees under existing stands capable of becoming the next crop. Regeneration established before logging that has survived the logging operation. Régénération préexistante
Afforestation The establishment of a tree crop on an area from which it has always, or for very long, been absent. Where such establishment fails and is repeated, the latter may properly be termed reafforestation. Boisement
Age class A distinct group of trees or portion of growing stock recognized on the basis of age. Classe d’âge
Age gradation An age class of one or at the most a few years. Sous-classe d’âge
All-aged Of a forest, crop, or stand that contains trees of all, or almost all, age classes, including those of exploitable age. De tous âges
Allelopathy The negative influence of a plant, other than a microorganism, upon another plant, through chemical exudate during their metabolism. Allélopathie
Allowable cut The volume of wood that may be harvested, under management, for a given period. Possibilité de coupe
Apex Tip or top of an animal or plant structure. Apex
Apothecium Cup-shaped ascomatum found in certain ascomycetes fungi and containing the reproductive structures (asci and ascospores). Apothèce
Area regenerating Includes areas that have been harvested recently (less than 10 years ago), and areas depleted by such natural disturbances as fire, insects and disease. Superficie en régénération
Arthropoda Phylum of invertebrate animals that possess an exoskeleton and a segmented body with jointed appendages (legs). Arthropods include crustaceans, spiders and insects. Arthropodes
Artificial regeneration Renewal of a tree crop by direct seeding or by planting seedlings or cuttings. Régénération artificielle
Ascomatum Sexual stage of ascomycetes fungi, either an apothecium, a perithecium or a cleistothecium, which contains the asci and ascospores. Ascome
Ascospore Fungus spore produced within an ascus. Ascospore
Ascus Bag-like structure that develops within an ascomata and is made up of a membrane in which ascospores are produced; the ascospores are discharged from the ascus at maturity. Asque
Asexual reproduction Reproduction without fertilization. New individuals may develop from vegetative parts such as tubers, bulbs, or rooted stems, or from sexual parts such as unfertilized eggs or other cells in the ovule. Propagation asexuée
Asymmetrical Having corresponding parts that are irregularly arranged in relation to one another. Opposite of symmetrical. Asymétrique
Auger planting Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole using an auger. Plantation à la tarière
Autotroph An organism capable of synthesizing the organic nutrients it needs from the mineral compounds present in nature. Plants and many bacteria are autotrophs or producers. Autotrophs do not need to obtain their nutrients from other living organisms. By contrast, heterotrophs cannot make their own food and so they feed on the tissues of other organisms. Organisme autotrophe
Bacteria Single-celled organisms that have no nucleus; Plural of bacterium. Bactérie
Ball planting Setting out trees with their roots left undisturbed in a dug-out clod of soil. Note: if trees are bare-rooted, and roots are enclosed in a rough ball of soil, they are properly termed balled. Plantation en mottes
Basic forest management Extensive forest management plus artificial regeneration where necessary. cf. extensive forest management Aménagement forestier de base
Basic silviculture All the silvicultural practices required to achieve free-growing (or established) regeneration of desired species at specified densities and stocking. Sylviculture de base
Basidiospore Fungus spore produced on a basidium. Basidiospore
Basket planting Setting out young trees, etc., in loosely-woven baskets in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed. Plantation en paniers
Biodiversity The collection of life on earth; the natural patterns that form from all the species of life (species diversity), the genes that each of them possess (genetic diversity), as well as the ecosystems which these species form (ecosystem diversity). Biodiversité
Biological pest control methods The application of whole organisms or portions of organisms as biologically sound alternatives to broad-spectrum chemical pesticides. Méthodes de lutte biologique contre les ravageurs
Biome A major biotic community composed of all the plants and animals in a specific geographical region and smaller biotic communities. The smaller communities in a biome possess similarities in gross external appearances and gross climatic conditions. Biome
Biopesticide A pesticide derived from natural sources such as fungi and bacteria or created to closely resemble or be identical to a chemical produced in nature such as a pheromone. Typically a biopesticide is target-specific and has little or no impact on non-target organisms and the environment. Biopesticide
Bioproduct A consumer or industrial product that is made from biomass. Bioproducts are often made using a bioprocess and include a broad range of commodities intended for markets such as energy, transportation, chemicals, plastics, foods, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. Bioproduit
Biotic Pertaining to life; concerning the living component of the environment. Biotique
Blade Thin, flat part of a leaf. Limbe
Blank area Any forest area in a crop or stand that has remained virtually unstocked, more particularly in plantations. A planting point where the tree has failed or is missing. Manque
Blight Rapid browning or blackening of leaves, which subsequently die, caused by the deterioration of growing tissues. Brûlure
Blister Circular bulge caused by the excessive growth of cells in part of a leaf, often with fungal cells mixed in. Cloque
Block cutting Removal of the crop in blocks in one or more operations, generally for wildlife management purposes, encouraging regeneration, or protecting fragile sites. Considered in Ontario to be a variation of clearcutting. Coupe par blocs
Blowdown Tree or trees felled or broken off by wind, snow, ice or age. Chablis
Boreal forest One of three main forest zones in the world (see also tropical forest, temperate forest) located in northern regions and is characterized by the predominance of conifers (such as pine, spruce, larch and fir) and some deciduous (such as poplar and birch). The boreal forest (singular) is a colloquial term often used to refer to the overall forested area within the boreal zone, and sometimes to refer to the boreal zone itself because forests dominate this landscape. Boreal forests (plural) is the preferred term for the forested areas within the boreal zone. Forêt boréale
Branch Secondary woody stem arising from the trunk of a tree and bearing shoots. Branche
Brush Shrubs and stands of short, scrubby tree species that do not reach merchantable size. Sometimes includes woody and herbaceous plants that impede regeneration or growth of desirable species. Often rated as "brush hazard". Broussailles
Bud Plant organ containing the immature tissues that will become a leaf, branch or flower. Bourgeon
Budding Grafting by inserting a bud, with a small amount of tissue, into a slit or hole made in the bark of a stock plant. After union has formed, the portion of the stock plant above the bud is removed. Écussonnage
Buffer zone A strip of land where disturbances are not allowed, or are closely monitored, to preserve aesthetic and other qualities adjacent to roads, trails, waterways and recreation sites. Zone tampon
Bulb A modified stem, usually underground, consisting of one or more buds surrounded by thick, fleshy, food storage scale leaves. Bulbe
Bullet planting Setting out young trees grown in bullet-shaped rigid plastic tubes, which are injected into the ground by a spring-loaded gun, sometimes into prepared holes. Plantation en cartouches
Canker Lesion of the cambium and the living bark of trees that alters and kills these tissues in a localized area. Chancre
Canopy The more or less continuous cover of branches and foliage formed collectively by the crowns of adjacent trees. Couvert forestier
Canopy class syn. canopy cover class, crown class Any class into which crops or stands may be divided on the basis of the degree of closure. Classe de couvert
Canopy density The amount of foliar cover, combining the extent of canopy closure and crown density. Densité du couvert
Carbon A chemical element highly abundant in nature and easily capable of forming polymers. Its unique properties make carbon the chemical basis of all biological compounds—and therefore, the chemical basis of life. Carbon is incorporated into biological processes and biomass mainly through plant photosynthesis. (See also carbon dioxide.) Carbone
Carbon sink A carbon reservoir that absorbs and stores carbon from another part of the carbon cycle. A sink stores more carbon than it emits to the atmosphere. This store of carbon can also be termed a reservoir or pool. Although a growing forest can be considered a carbon sink, when the forest stops growing and its trees die and start decomposing, it becomes a carbon source, because it emits more carbon than it stores. Puits de carbone
Carpophore Structure bearing the spores of a fungus, often composed of a cap and a stem. Carpophore
Carpophore The fruiting body (spore-producing organ) of a mushroom. Carpophore
Catch crop A short-term, generally agricultural crop introduced into and at the start of a longer-rotation forest crop, mainly to provide early financial returns. Culture dérobée
Catkin A drooping cluster of flowers or fruits on a flexible axis (resembling the tassels on wheat). Chaton
Cell The most basic unit of a living organism capable of independent growth and reproduction. Cellule
Cell (Entomology) A space in an insect wing partly or completely surrounded by veins. (Cytology) The structural and functional unit of most living organisms. Cellule
Cellulose A carbohydrate (sugar-based biopolymer compound) that is the main structural component of green plants. (See also carbon.) Cellulose
Cellulose A polymer of glucose molecules, used by plants as a structural supporting material. Paper is made up of cellulose. Cellulose
Chevron cuts A modification of strip cutting where the strip is angled part way along its length. Coupe par chevrons
Class Taxonomic level between Phyllum and Order. Eg, class Insecta Classe
Claviform Club-shaped. Claviforme
Clearcut n: An area of forest land from which all merchantable trees have recently been harvested. syn. clearcutting v: To harvest all merchantable trees from an area of forest land. Coupe à blanc
Clearcutting A silvicultural method in which most merchantable trees in a stand are harvested simultaneously, producing a fully exposed microclimate for the development of a new age class. Coupe à blanc
Clearcutting method A method of regenerating an even-aged forest stand in which new seedlings become established in fully exposed microenvironments after removal of most or all of the existing trees. Regeneration can originate naturally or artificially. Mode de régénération par coupe à blanc
Cleistothecium Spherical ascomatum (with no opening) found in certain ascomycetes fungi and containing the reproductive structures (asci and ascospores). Cléistothèce
Climate change adaptation An adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli. Adaptation au changement climatique
Clump The aggregate of stems issuing from the same root, rhizome system, or stool. An isolated, generally dense, group of trees. Bouquet
Cluster Group of flowers or fruits borne on a common axis. Grappe
Coarse woody debris The standing and downed dead wood in a forest. Débris ligneux grossier
Commercial forest Forest land that is able to grow commercial timber within an acceptable time frame and is designated for such a purpose. Forêt d'intérêt commercial
Compensatory planting Creating plantations in one area in order to replace, in part or whole, a loss of growing stock elsewhere. Reboisement de compensation
Competition control A treatment designed to reduce the competitive effect of undesirable vegetation threatening the success of the regeneration of desirable tree species. cf. brushing, cleaning Lutte contre la concurrence végétale
Competitive exclusion In ecology, principle (also known as Gause’s principle) that states no two species can occupy exactly the same fundamental niche indefinitely in a habitat where they are competing for the same essential resource, and that one species will crowd out the other. Exclusion compétitive
Composition The proportion of each tree species in a stand expressed as a percentage of the total number, basal area, or volume of all tree species in the stand. Composition
Compound leaf A leaf with two or more leaflets attached to a single leaf stem. Feuille composée
Cone Reproductive structure of conifers consisting of a central axis covered with scales that are tightly pressed together. At maturity, it contains the seeds. Cône
Cone collection Harvesting of cones after seed maturation but before their dispersal. Récolte de cônes
Conidiophore Specialized hypha upon which one or more conidia are borne. Conidiophore
Conidium Thin-walled spore produced asexually by certain fungi. Conidie
Conifer Member of a group of trees commonly called softwoods or gymnosperms. The word gymnosperm, from the Greek gymnos (naked) and sperma (seed), means "naked-seeded." This refers to the fact that conifer seeds are not contained in fruit tissue. The seeds are instead borne on scales, which are grouped together to form cones. Most conifers have persistent foliage consisting of needles or scales. Conifère
Contained root A root that does not elongate beyond the confines of the original rooting volume within a container, even when outplanted with the container removed. Racine contenue
Continuous boreal forest Main subarea of the vast boreal zone, which is characterized by relatively dense stands containing primarily boreal coniferous species and shade-intolerant deciduous trees. Forêt boréale continue
Contour planting Setting out of young trees along a contour line. Plantation en bandes de niveau
Coppice Natural regeneration originating from stump sprouts, stool shoots, or root suckers. Taillis
Coppice method A method of regenerating a forest stand in which the cut trees produce sprouts, suckers, or shoots. Régime du taillis
Coppice selection method A coppice method in which only selected shoots of merchantable size are cut at each felling, giving uneven-aged stands. Taillis fureté
Coppice-of-two-rotations method A coppice method in which some of the coppice shoots are reserved for the whole of the next rotation, the rest being cut. Taillis composé
Coppicing Cutting trees close to ground level with a view to their producing coppice shoots. Coupe de rajeunissement
Copse A small woodlot or forest regularly cut over for regrowth. Bosquet de taillis
Corridor planting Setting trees in parallel rows, generally at regular intervals between and in lines, on land either wholly or partially cleared. Plantation en lignes
Crepuscular Pertaining to organisms that are active during the dim light of dusk or dawn. Crépusculaire
Crop The harvestable vegetation growing on a forest area, more particularly the major woody growth forming the forest crop. Peuplement forestier
Crop tree Any tree selected to become or forming a component of the final crop. Arbre du peuplement final
Cross pollination The fertilization of an egg in one plant by a sperm cell found in a pollen grain of another plant. The resulting seed will have the hereditary characteristics from both parents. Pollinisation croisée
Crown class Trees in a forest with crowns of similar development and occupying a similar position in the canopy; the term applies to groups of trees. Classe de cime
Crown closure class Any interval into which the range of proportions of ground area covered by the vertically projected tree crown areas of a stand is divided for classification and use. Classe de fermeture du couvert
Crown cover The ground area covered by the crowns of trees or woody vegetation as delimited by the vertical projection of crown perimeters and commonly expressed as a percentage of total ground area. Couvert
Cutover An area of forest land from which some or all timber has recently been cut. Coupe totale
Cutting cycle The planned interval between partial harvests in an uneven-aged stand. Rotation
Cutting regime System of cutting treatments applied to a stand at a defined period. Régime d’exploitation
Deadwood Timber produced from dead standing trees. More commonly, timber in dead standing trees. Bois mort
Decay Decomposition of wood caused by micro-organisms, mostly fungi. The wood generally becomes soft and crumbly, loses density and changes colour. Carie
Deciduous forest Subarea of the northern temperate zone, which is characterized mainly by sugar maple-dominated deciduous forests. This is the subarea with the greatest floristic richness. Forêt décidue
Deciduous species Trees that lose their leaves in the fall, such as birch, maple and basswood, are deciduous species. “Deciduous” means falling off or shed seasonally. Espèce arborescente décidue
Decline Disease that is characterized by a progressive decline in a tree’s health and in its growth and that may kill it. While the causes of this phenomenon are not known, it is generally believed that a combination of factors is to blame: pollution, soil acidification, drought, freeze-thaw action, etc. Dépérissement
Decomposers Micro-organisms that break down, digest and metabolize organic wastes, such as dead leaves, dropped fruits, wood and dead animals. Décomposeurs
Decurrent Refers to gills, folds, tubes or teeth that run down the stem of fungi. Décurrent
Deeply notched leaf Leaf that has deep sinuses cut into its outer edge. Feuille fortement découpée
Defoliation The removal of all or most of a plant’s leaves by natural disturbance agents (e.g., insects) or through the actions of humans (e.g., the application of herbicides). Défoliation
Deforestation Permanent removal of forest cover and withdrawal of land from forest use, whether deliberately or circumstantially. Déboisement
Desiccation Process of becoming dried out. Dessiccation
Desirable plant species Species that contribute to management objectives. Espèces privilégiées
Detritivorous Feeding on detritus, decomposing organic matter. Détritivore
Dibble planting Sowing seeds or setting out seedlings in rough holes made with a stick or peg. Also termed dibbling if done with a specially adapted tool such as a dibble. Plantation au bâton
Discoloration Change in the normal colour of wood following infection by a micro-organism. Coloration
Disease Alteration of the normal functions of a whole plant or part of it, caused by a living or dead agent. The main agents involved in the initiation of disease are pollution, animals, fungi and other plants. Maladie
Disease Harmful deviation from normal functioning of physiological processes, generally pathogenic or environmental in origin. Maladie
Dominance potential The relative ability of a tree or plant species to dominate a forest ecosystem, given an opportunity equal to that of its associates. Potentiel de dominance
Drainage Hydrology/engineering: The process of removal of water from soil, particularly by surface runoff and subsurface percolation and artificially by measures for hastening removal, e.g., by ditching. Drainage
Duff layer A general term referring to the litter and humus layers of the forest floor. Litière
Ecodistrict A part of an ecoregion characterized by distinctive geologic, soil, water, fauna and land use. Écodistrict
Ecoregion A part of an ecozone characterized by distinctive regional ecological factors, including climate, physical geography, vegetation, soil, water, fauna and land use. Écorégion
Ecosystem The sum of the plants, animals, environmental influences, and their interactions within a particular habitat. Écosystème
Ecotype A race (provenance) adapted to the selective action of a particular environment. Ecotypes are described in terms of the primary environmental influence, e.g., climatic or edaphic. Écotype
Ecozone An area of the Earth's surface representing large and very generalized ecological units characterized by interacting abiotic (non-living) and biotic (living) factors. Écozone
Edge habitat A loosely defined type of habitat that occurs at the boundary between two different habitat types. Typically, edge habitats share characteristics with both adjacent habitat types and have particular transitional characteristics that are important to wildlife. Habitat de lisière
Elongated leaf Leaf that is a lot longer than it is wide. Feuille allongée
Emergent A tree whose crown at maturity projects well above the level of the highest canopy. Émergent
Environmental assessment A process designed to contribute pertinent environmental information to the decision-making process of forest management or other natural resource projects and programs. Évaluation environnementale
Epicormic shoot syn. sprout A shoot arising from a dormant or adventitious bud on the stem or branch of a woody plant. Pousse adventive
Epidermis Tissue covering the aerial portions of a plant. Épiderme
Establishment The process of developing a crop to the stage at which the young trees may be considered established, i.e., safe from juvenile mortality and no longer in need of special protection or special tending, but only routine cleaning and thinning. Établissement
Establishment period The time elapsing between the initiation of a new crop and its establishment. Période d’implantation
Eugenic Favorable to the genetic quality of a population. cf. dysgenic. Eugénique
Eutrophication The enrichment of water by nutrients, especially compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus, that will accelerate the growth of algae and higher forms of plant life. This enrichment may interfere with the normal ecological balance of the receiving waters. Eutrophisation
Even-aged Of a forest, stand, or forest type in which relatively small age differences exist between individual trees. The differences in age permitted are usually 10 to 20 years. Équienne
Even-aged (forest) A forest stand or type in which relatively small age differences exist between individual trees (usually 10–20 years). Équienne (forêt)
Even-aged system Silvicultural systems in which stands have an even-aged structure, e.g., clearcutting method, coppice method, seed-tree method. Régime équienne
Exotic An introduced, non-native tree species. Exotique
Falldown A situation in which second-growth forests provide less timber than the original forests. Exploitation secondaire
Fauna A general term for all forms of animal life characteristic of a region, period or special environment. Faune
Female flower Part of the plant bearing the female sexual organ (pistil). Fleur femelle
Fertilization The union of the nucleus and other cellular constituents of a male gamete (sperm, pollen grain) with those of the female gamete (ovum, egg cell) to form a zygote from which may develop a new organism. Fécondation
Field germination Generally, measure of the percentage, by number, of seeds in a given sample that germinate and produce a seedling, irrespective of subsequent seedling survival. Germination au champ
Field nursery A nursery, generally not permanent, established in or near the forest rather than near an administrative or executive headquarters. Also referred to as satellite nursery in Ontario and in the Prairies. Pépinière volante
Fill planting The planting of trees in areas of inadequate stocking to achieve the desired level of stocking, either in plantations or areas of natural regeneration. cf. interplanting Regarni
Filler A tree or species of inferior value, retained in thinning or cleaning, in the absence of any better. Remplissage (arbre de)
Final cutting The last of a series of progressive regeneration cuts which removes the last of the original seed trees when the regeneration is considered established. Coupe définitive
Flora A general term for all forms of plant life characteristic of a region, period or special environment. Flore
Flower The reproductive structure of a tree or other plant consisting of the male and/or female parts. Fleur
Foliage All the leaves of a tree. Feuillage
Forest Ecosystem that generally covers a large area and is composed of woody vegetation dominated by trees growing in a relatively dense pattern. Forêt
Forest Ecology: Generally, an ecosystem characterized by a more or less dense and extensive tree cover. More particularly, a plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, growing more or less closely together. Forêt
Forest hygiene Care for the health of the forest, particularly by sanitation cutting. Hygiène sylvicole
Forest land Land primarily intended for growing, or currently supporting, forest. It includes land not now forested (for example, clearcut lands and northern lands that are forested but not intended for any commercial forestry use) and plantations. Terres forestières
Forest management That branch of forestry concerned with the overall administrative, economic, legal and social aspects and with the essentially scientific and technical aspects, especially silviculture, protection and forest regulation. Aménagement forestier
Forest practices Any activities that enhance or recover forest growth or harvest yield (e.g., site preparation, planting, thinning, fertilizing, harvesting, etc.), and road construction or reconstruction within forest lands. Pratiques forestières
Forest site see forest site type Site forestier
Forest site classification Grouping of forest sites using either the composition or the productivity of the vegetation as well as soil and topographic position. Classification de station forestière
Forest tree improvement The control of parentage combined with other silvicultural activities (such as site preparation or fertilizing) to improve the overall yield and quality of products from forest lands. Amélioration générale des arbres forestiers
Forest tree species Group of individuals that possess common characteristics and are capable of producing fertile progeny Essences forestières
Forest type A group of forested areas or stands of similar composition; forest types are usually separated and identified by species composition and often by height and crown closure classes. Type forestier
Forested tundra Subarea of the vast boreal zone characterized by a mosaic of stands of variable density and by tundra consisting mainly of shrubs and lichens. This plant formation is located at the tree line, and marks the division between the boreal zone and the arctic zone. Toundra forestière
Forestry Generally, a profession embracing the science, business, and art of creating, conserving, and managing forests and forest lands for the continuing use of their resources, material or other. Foresterie
Forestry practices Any activity that is carried out on forest land to facilitate the use of forest resources, including, but not limited to, timber harvesting, road construction, silviculture, grazing, recreation, pest control and wildfire suppression. Pratiques forestières
Formation All the operations contributing to the creation of a new forest cover up to the stage where it is considered established. Période d’établissement
Fragmentation The splitting or isolating of patches of similar habitat, typically forest cover, but including other types of habitat. Habitat can be fragmented naturally or from forest management activities, such as clearcut logging. Fragmentation
Fruit Reproductive organ of plants that results from fertilization of the flower and contains the seeds. Fruit
Fruit body A reproductive structure on or in which spores of a fungus are produced. Fructification
Fuel plantation syn. fuelwood plantation Setting out young trees to be hogged for burning. Plantation énergétique
Full seed Seed showing apparently complete embryo and endosperm or megagametophyte structures, irrespective of actual viability. Graine pleine
Full-sibs Trees with both parents in common. Defined in Manitoba as trees where both parents are known. Pleins germains
Fungivorous Feeding on fungi. Fongivore
Fusiform Spindle-shaped. Fusiforme
Gap dynamics The change in space and time in the pattern, frequency, size, and successional processes of forest canopy gaps caused by the fall or death of one or more canopy trees. Dynamique des trouées
Gene flow The movement of alleles among interbreeding individuals belonging to different populations, by means of seed or pollen dispersal or the migration of individuals. Flux génique
Genotype An individual hereditary constitution derived from its parents and forming a unique combination of genes; sometimes referring to trees having similar genetic constitutions with regard to certain common, identifiable genetic characteristics. Génotype
Geophilous Living in or on the ground. Géophile
Germination test A test made to determine the viability of seeds, spores, or pollen grains in a given sample. Essai de germination
Germinative capacity The percentage of seeds, spores, or pollen grains in a given sample that actually germinate, irrespective of time. In any batch of seeds, the percentage that is pure (of the species required) multiplied by the germinative capacity. Faculté germinative
Germinative energy The percentage of seeds, spores, or pollen grains in a given sample germinating within a given period e.g., 7 or 14 days, under optimum or stated conditions. Vigueur germinative
Gill Plate-shaped membrane located under the cap of a fungus; all of the gills together form the hymenium. Lamelle
Girdling Destruction of tissue (water conducting system) in a ring around a tree. Anneler
Glabrous Lacking hairs or down. Glabre
Global warming The rise in temperature of the Earth's atmosphere due to the greenhouse effect. Réchauffement climatique
Graft n: A plant that has been grafted. v: To place a detached cutting or branch tip (scion) in close cambial contact with a rooted plant (understock) in such a manner that scion and rootstock unite. Greffe
Granite bedrock Geological formation that dates back more than 450 million years and is characterized by vast expanses of granite of volcanic origin. The Canadian Shield is made up largely of granite bedrock. Since granite has little capacity to neutralize acid rain, the forest ecosystems in these regions are fairly vulnerable to the effects of acid deposition. Assise granitique
Granivorous Feeding on seeds. Granivore
Green tree cut Harvesting that retains live trees of a specific species and size on the area to be cut to achieve a site-specific objective. Coupe avec réserves
Group method A shelterwood system in which the canopy is opened, by group cutting, so as to create fairly evenly distributed gaps which are enlarged by subsequent cuttings. Système des coupes progressives par trouées
Group planting Setting out young trees in groups. Plantation par bouquets
Group-selection method A method of regenerating and maintaining uneven-aged stands in which trees are removed in small groups. Jardinage par bouquets
Growing stock All the trees growing in a forest or in a specified part of it, generally expressed in terms of number or volume. Matériel sur pied
Growth promoter Any agent present or provided as a supplement to the plant or its environment to activate growth. Déclencheur de croissance
Guild management A method of management by which species are assembled into groups based on similarities in their habitat requirements. One species is selected to indicate the group; conserving the habitat of that particular species ensures the conservation of other members of the guild. Gestion par association
Gymnosperm See conifer. Gymnosperme
Habitat The environment in which a population or individual lives; includes not only the place where a species is found, but also the particular characteristics of the place (for example, climate or the availability of suitable food and shelter) that make it especially well suited to meet the life cycle needs of that species. Habitat
Hard seed Seed having coats that resist cracking or breaking and may be more or less impermeable to water. Graine dure
Hard snag A snag composed primarily of sound wood, generally merchantable. Chicot dur
Hardening off Preparing seedlings or rooted cuttings for planting by gradually reducing water, nutrients, or day length, or by increasing light intensity and thus inducing changes in shoots that make them more resistant to exposure to full sunlight. Endurcissement
Hardwood(s) (broad-leaved trees) Trees whose leaves are not persistent and fall off at the end of a defined growing season or during a period of temperature or moisture stress. This is the predominant tree type in deciduous forests. Also refers to the wood produced by these trees. Feuillus (arbres à feuilles caduques)
Heeling in Temporary storage of seedlings by burial of root systems in a trench. Mise en jauge
Herbicide tolerant Capable of surviving and recovering from the application of herbicides. Tolérant aux herbicides
Heritability That portion of the character variance due to hereditary factors as distinct from factors of environment. Heritability is described in one of two ways, depending on the type of investigation. Héritabilité
Heritage forest A forest managed to harvest forest products and to sustain the natural system, including its bioproductivity, biotic and abiotic diversity. Modern technology, equipment and methods may be used to harvest, restock and tend the forest, with an emphasis on natural restocking, supplemented with artificial restocking of appropriate endemic species. Forêt patrimoniale
High forest Crops and stands of trees, generally of seedling origin, that normally develop a high closed canopy. A term originally used to differentiate the natural, essentially seedling forest of long rotation from the artificial. Futaie
High grading A partial harvest removing only the most valuable species, or trees of desirable size and quality, without regard for the condition of the residual stand. Écrémage
High-forest systems Silvicultural systems in which the crops are normally of seedling origin, natural and/or artificial, and the rotation is, traditionally at least, long. Régime de la futaie
High-forest-with-reserves system An accessory system in which selected trees of the old crop, scattered or in groups, are retained after regeneration is completed, for the whole or a part of the next rotation. Futaie avec sur-réserves
Hole planting Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole or pit. Roots separated on either side of a wedge or saddle of earth left in situ when the hole was dug is termed saddle planting. Plantation sur potets
Host Organism harbouring a parasite. Hôte
Humicolous Living in or on humus or leaf litter. Humicole
Humus A general term for the more or less decomposed (plant and animal) residues in the soil, litter therefore being excluded. Humus
Hybrid Plant obtained by crossing two genetically dissimilar parent plants. Hybride
Hybrid The offspring of genetically different parents (usually refers to crosses between two species). Hybride
Hybridization Sexual reproduction using genetically distinct parents, that is, belonging to different populations, varieties, or species. Hybridation
Hyperparasite Parasitic organism that lives off of another parasite. Hyperparasite
Hyperparasitoid Organism that attacks and lives on another parasitoid. Hyperparasitoïde
Hypha One of many filaments that make up the mycelium or body of a fungus. Hyphe
Immature In even-aged management, those trees or stands that have grown past the regeneration stage but are not yet mature. In uneven-aged management, established trees too young for commercial harvest. Jeune
Impeder An individual of any value actually impeding the development of another individual of higher grade. Inhibiteur
Improvement cutting A cutting made in a stand past the sapling stage, primarily to improve composition and quality through the removal of less desirable trees of any species. Coupe d’amélioration
Increment The increase in diameter, basal area, height, volume, quality, or value of individual trees or stands during a given period. (5) Accroissement
Industrial plantation forestry Tree cultivation using methods of intensive silviculture: plantations made up of genetically improved stock, fertilization, drainage, phytosanitary treatments, release of higher quality stems, etc. Ligniculture
Integrated pest management The use of a mix of techniques and/or strategies to control pests, as opposed to the application of a single method. Lutte intégrée contre les ravageurs
Integrated resource management A holistic approach to resource management that entails the management of two or more resources (for example, water, soil, timber, pasture, wildlife, and recreation) and that integrates the values of the community into the design of policies or projects to use and sustain these resources in perpetuity. Gestion intégrée des ressources
Intensive silviculture Application of cultural measures which, in addition to simply maintaining the forest cover, will allow an increase in the value or volume of the cut. Sylviculture intensive
Intermediate treatments Any treatment in a stand during that portion of the rotation not included in the final harvest or regeneration period. cf. tending Traitement intermédiaire
Interplanting Planting young trees among existing natural regeneration or previously planted trees of similar age. Plantation intercalaire
Inventory (forest) A survey of a forest area to determine data such as area, condition, timber, volume and species for a specific purpose, such as planning, purchasing, evaluating, managing or harvesting. Inventaire forestier
Irregular shelterwood system see shelterwood cutting Système des coupes progressives irrégulières
Irregular stocking see stocking: partially stocked Matériel relatif irrégulier
J-root A root, especially a seedling tap root, having a sharp bend greater than 90, shaped like a J. Frequently introduced by inappropriate planting. Racine en J
Juvenile wood An inner layer of xylem surrounding the pith, in which the cells are smaller and/or less structurally developed than those of the outer xylem. The period during which it is formed is termed the juvenile period; it varies between individuals Bois de jeunesse
L-notch planting Special form of slit planting involving two slits at right angles with the seedling placed at the apex of the L. plantation avec fentes en L
Lammas shoots Extra leader growth extension late in the growing season. Pousse d’été
Landscape Areas of land that are distinguished by differences in landforms, vegetation, land use, and aesthetic characteristics. Paysage
Layering The rooting of an undetached branch, lying on or partially buried in the soil, or surrounded by moist fiber sealed in a plastic wrap (air layering), termed a layer, which is capable of independent growth after separation from the parent plan. Marcottage
Layering method Regeneration of a forest stand using layerings. Méthode du marcottage
Leaching Process in which soluble substances in the soil are removed by the movement of water. Lessivage
Leaf Organ in plants that has various forms (needles, scales, etc.) and that carries on photosynthesis, producing energy for life. Feuille
Leaf-fall Normal shedding of leaves in the fall. Défeuillaison
Leave tree A tree (marked to be) left standing in an area where other trees are felled. Arbre marqué en réserve
Lichen An algae and a fungus growing in symbiotic association on solid surfaces such as rocks or tree bark. Lichen
Lichen Organism consisting of a fungus (mycellium) and an alga (green alga cells) living in association. Lichens have a high tolerance for cold, drought and heat. They should not be confused with mosses, which are chlorophyll-containing plants. Lichens
Litter Uppermost layer of organic debris on a forest floor. Litière
Live-crown ratio A rough but convenient index of the ability of a tree's crown to nourish the remaining part of the tree; it is the percentage of length of stem having living branches. L-notch planting [plantation avec fentes en L. Taux de cime vivante
Lobe Large division of a leaf. Lobe
Lop and top The branches and tops cut from a tree, generally once felled or fallen. Résidus d’ébranchage-façonnage
Lower Arctic Subarea of the arctic zone characterized by the absence of trees, continuous permafrost and tundra vegetation consisting of shrubs, herbaceous plants (mainly grasses), mosses and lichens. Bas-Arctique
Main crop In regular crops or stands, that portion of the growing stock retained after an intermediate cutting. Peuplement principal
Male flower Part of the plant bearing the male sexual organ (stamen). Fleur mâle
Mammal Four-legged vertebrate of the class Mammalia, characterized by females that produce milk with which to feed their young. Mammifère
Management plan A predetermined course of action and direction to achieve a set of results, usually specified as goals, objectives and policies. Plan d'aménagement
Manure Commonly the dung of farm animals. Also natural or artificial food material for plants and trees, supplying nitrogen, phosphates, and potash and other essential nutrients. Fumier
Mature In even-aged management, those trees or stands that are sufficiently developed to be harvestable and that are at or near rotation age (includes overmature trees and stands for which an overmature class has not been recognized. Mûr
Maturity class Trees or stands grouped according to their stage of development, from establishment to suitability for harvest. A maturity class may comprise one or more age classes. Classe de maturité
Mechanical planting Setting out young trees by means of a machine specially designed for this operation. Plantation mécanique
Merchantable snag A snag that is of sufficient quality and/or volume to make it suitable for harvesting. Chicot marchand
Micro-organism A microscopic one or multi-celled organism, such as a bacterium, virus, yeast, alga, fungus and protozoan. Micro-organisme
Micro-organisms Living organisms (bacteria, microbes, yeasts) that can be seen only with a microscope. Micro-organisms that are likely to cause disease in other living organisms are called pathogens. Micro-organismes
Microbe See microorganism. Microbe
Microfauna Soil-dwelling micro-organisms (animals) that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Synonym: soil fauna. Microfaune
Microorganism A general term for a unicellular or multicellular microscopic organism. Classifications of microorganisms include algae, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. Microorganisme
Microsite The ultimate unit of the habitat, i.e., the specific spot occupied by an individual organism. By extension, the more or less specialized relationships existing between an organism and its environment. Niche (écologique)
Mist forest A forest of high elevation that occurs along the foggy windward shores of continents and islands. Forêt de brouillard
Mite Acarian that feeds on plant or animal matter. Mite
Mixed forest Subarea of the northern temperate zone, which is dominated by mixed forests encompassing both coniferous boreal species and more southerly deciduous species. Forêt mélangée
Mixed stand A stand composed of two or more species in which less than 80% of trees in the main crown canopy are of a single species. The threshold in Manitoba and New Brunswick is 75%. cf. pure stand Mélangé
Mixedwoods Trees belonging to either of the botanical groups Gymnospermae or Angiospermae that are substantially intermingled in stands. Peuplement mixte
Monoculture 1. General: Cultivation of a single crop or product without using the land for other purposes. 2. Biology: Extensive areas of land occupied or dominated by plant species that are closely related genetically. Monoculture
Monophagous Organism that feeds on a single host, whether plant or animal. Monophage
Morphology Form and structure of living organisms. Morphologie
Mortality Death or destruction of forest trees as result of competition, disease, insect damage, drought, wind, fire, old age, and other factors, excluding harvesting. Mortalité
Mound planting Setting out young trees on raised microsites. Plantation sur butte
Mycelium Vegetative part of a fungus, which is composed of a mass of hyphae and distinct from the fruiting body. Mycélium
Mycetophagous Feeding on fungi Mycétophage
Mycophagous Feeding on fungi. Mycophage
National forest strategy An overarching national vision and framework for Canada’s forests developed by the Council of Canadian Forest Ministers. The first strategy appeared in 1981. Stratégie nationale sur la forêt
Native (indigenous) A species that occurs naturally in an area. Indigène
Natural regeneration Renewal of a tree crop by natural seeding, sprouting, suckering, or layering. Régénération naturelle
Necrosis Alteration of tissues caused by the death of cells. Nécrose
Needle Long, narrow reduced leaf found in conifers. Aiguille
Needle cast Reddening or browning of needles, sometimes leading to premature shedding of foliage. Rouge
Needles borne in clusters (or bundles) Group of needles joined together at the base Aiguille en faisceau
Nest planting Setting out a number of seedlings or seeds close together in a prepared hole, pit, or spot. Plantation en nids
New forestry A forest management philosophy that attempts to retain characteristics of old-growth stands in managed stands. Nouvelle foresterie
Niche environment The unique environment used to sustain the existence of an organism or species. Niche écologique
Nodule Globulose or elongated mass formed by certain fungi or a mixture of plant and fungal tissues. Nodule
Non-timber forest products Any commodity obtained from the forest that does not necessitate harvesting trees. It includes game animals, fur-bearers, nuts and seeds, berries, mushrooms, oils, foliage, medicinal plants, peat, fuelwood, forage, etc. Produit forestier non ligneux (PFNL)
Non-timber value A value within the forest other than timber that includes, but is not limited to, biological diversity, fisheries, wildlife, minerals, water quality and quantity, recreation and tourism, cultural heritage values, and wilderness and aesthetic values. Valeurs non ligneuses
Nurse log A dead or downed log that fosters tree seedlings by protecting them from such environmental factors as wind, insolation, or frost, or by providing appropriate soil and microclimate. Grume-abri
Nursery An area set aside for the raising of young trees mainly for planting out. Temporary nurseries, particularly those formed beneath a high canopy of large trees, may be termed bush nurseries. cf. field nursery Pépinière
Nursery bed One of the specially prepared plots in a nursery where seed is sown or into which transplants or cuttings are put. Planche
Nutlet Fruit, small nut. Nucule
Nutrients Mineral or organic substances (elements or chemical compounds) that plants and animals require for normal growth and activity. Plants and trees obtain nutrients primarily from the soil by absorbing them through their roots. Nutriments
Old growth A stand of mature or overmature trees relatively uninfluenced by human activity. Première venue, de
Old-growth forest An old growth forest differs significantly from younger stands in structure, ecological function and species composition with respect to canopy closure, age class structure, accumulation of woody debris and the presence of species and functional processes that are representative of the potential natural community. Forêt anciennne / vieille forêt
Ombrophilous Able to thrive in areas of abundant rainfall. Ombrophile
Open forest Proposed name for the natural forest commonly found in northern Canada. This forest is a mixture of wetlands and small trees, occasionally interspersed with highly productive forests. Forêts claires
Opening up Considerable reduction of canopy density, e.g., by lopping, felling, or herbicidal treatment of selected trees, or naturally through pests, disease, or drought mortality. Ouverture du couvert
Order Taxonomic level between Class and Family. In insects, for example, classification in orders is based primarily on wing shape. Ordre
Organ Group of tissues organized to perform a distinct function. Organe
Overmature In even-aged management, those trees or stands past the mature stage. Suranné
Overstorey The uppermost continuous layer of a vegetation cover, for example the tree canopy in a forest ecosystem or the uppermost layer of a shrub stand. Étage dominant
Overstory removal A final harvest in which the cutting releases advance regeneration. Suppression de l’étage dominant
Ovoid Egg shaped. Ovoïde
Parasite Organism that lives on or in and feeds on a living plant or animal (host). The parasite gradually weakens the host and may or may not kill it. Parasite
Parasitoid An organism that lives at the expense of another (its host); impedes its growth and eventually kills it. Insect parasitoids, which are often very tiny, attack a single organism (plant or animal); from which they derive everything they need for their own growth and reproduction. One way a parasitoid does this is by laying its eggs in the body of the host insect. Parasitoids are being used more and more for biological control of insect pests, thus reducing the need for chemical insecticides. Predators, unlike parasitoids, prey on more than one organism and kill and consume their tissues. Parasitoïde
Partial cutting Removal of only part of a stand for purposes other than regenerating a new age class. Coupe partielle
Partial harvest Any cutting in which only part of the stand is harvested. Coupe partielle
Particle gun transformation See biolistics. Transformation par canon à particules
Patch cutting A silvicultural system that creates openings less than one hectare in size and is designed to manage each opening as a distinct even-aged opening. Coupe par trouées
Patch logging A modification of the clearcutting system developed in the Pacific Coast region of North America, whereby patches of about 5 to 200 ha are logged as single units, separated for as long as practicable. Exploitation par blocs
Pathogen Living or dead agent that alters the normal functions of a whole plant or part of a plant. Agent pathogène
Pathogen A microscopic organism or virus directly capable of causing disease. see thinning: precommercial. Pathogène
Pathogenic A parasitic organism directly capable of causing disease. Pathogène
Pedology Scientific discipline that is concerned with all aspects of soils. Pédologie
Pelleting Incorporating seed in a matrix of fungicide, insecticide, repellent, coloring material or inert carrier, or any combination of these, so as to form a small ball termed a seed pellet. Enrobage
Perithecium Flask-shaped ascomatum found in certain ascomycetes fungi and containing the reproductive structures (ascus and ascospores). Périthèce
Permafrost A perennially frozen soil horizon. Pergélisol
Permafrost Permanently frozen ground comprised of an active layer of soil overlying a layer of ice that varies in thickness. Permafrost is completely impervious to water because it does not thaw, although the active layer does thaw seasonally. Pergélisol
Persistent foliage Characteristic of evergreen trees, that is, trees that do not shed their leaves in the fall. Feuillage persistant
Pest Organism that causes serious damage to plants or foodstuffs. Ravageur
Pesticide Any preparation used to control populations of injurious organisms, plant or animal. Pesticide
Phenology The study of timing of periodic phenomena, such as flowering, growth initiation, growth cessation, etc., especially as related to seasonal changes in temperature, photoperiod, etc. Phénologie
Phenotype An organism as observed, i.e., as judged by its visually perceptible characters resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment. Identical phenotypes do not necessarily breed alike. Phénotype
Phloem The part of the tree that is produced through the growth of cambium cells in an outward direction. It may also be called secondary phloem. The sap produced by the leaves travels through the phloem tissue downwards in the tree. Compared with the xylem (wood) the phloem occupies a very small part of the tree. Phloème
Photosynthesis Formation of carbohydrates in the chlorophyll-containing tissues of plants exposed to light. Photosynthèse
Phyllophagous Feeding on the leaves of plants. Phyllophage
Phytophagous Refers to organisms that feed on plants. Phytophage
Pioneer species Species that are the first to colonize a new site or a new ecosystem. They are generally shade intolerant and need a lot of sunlight in order to grow. Poplars and birches are pioneer species. Espèce pionnière
Pioneer species A species adapted to early stages of natural forest succession or growth on newly available sites. Essences transitoires
Pit One of many cavities or depressions on the fruiting body of morels. Alvéole
Pit planting Setting out young trees in small depressions, natural or excavated, with a view to collecting and conserving moisture. Plantation sur trous
Plantation forest Forest stands established by planting and/or seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestation which are either of introduced species (all planted stands) or intensively managed stands of indigenous species, which meet all the following criteria: one or two species at plantation, even age class, regular spacing. Plantation forestière
Plantation forestry Application of forestry principles to an artificial crop or stand. Foresterie de plantation
Planting Establishing a forest by setting out seedlings, transplants, or cuttings in an area. Plantation
Plus stand A stand containing a preponderance of good phenotypes, but not necessarily plus trees. Peuplement plus
Plus tree A phenotype judged (but not proved by testing) to be unusually superior in some quality or qualities. Arbre plus
Pocket of infection Area in a stand or plantation where a disease originated. Foyers d'infection
Pole A tree between a sapling and small sawtimber size. Size varies by region, e.g., for boreal and eastern forests 12-20 cm dbh. Perche
Pollard system The systematic harvest cutting of pollard shoots, with due provision for replacing exhausted or defective pollards. Taillis sur têtards
Pollination Transfer of pollen from the anther of a flower to the stigma of a flower of the same species, resulting in fertilization. Pollinisation
Polyculture The simultaneous cultivation of a number of crops as opposed to stands composed of a single species. Polyculture
Polyphagous Feeding on several plant or animal species. Organism that develops on more than one host, eg, the gypsy moth, a polyphagous caterpillar feeds on both deciduous and coniferous trees. Polyphage
Population A group that includes all possible members of a species in a territory at a given time. Population
Pot planting Setting out young trees in pot-shaped receptacles having a closed or only perforated end and made of various materials, in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed. Plantation en pot
Pre-commercial thinning Cutting in an immature crop or stand to improve crop spacing and to accelerate the diameter increment of favoured trees, and/or improve the average form of the trees that remain. Does not yield trees of commercial value. Éclaircie précommerciale
Precommercial thinning Silvicultural treatment that consists in freeing trees that have good growth potential from competition by cutting the lower quality stems that are competing with them. Éclaircie précommerciale
Predominant A tree whose crown has grown above the general level of the upper canopy. Prédominant
Pregermination The germination of seed, generally to the stage when the radicle is just emerging, before sowing in the field or nursery. Germination physiologique
Preparatory cutting Removing trees near the end of a rotation so as to permanently open the canopy and enlarge the crowns of seed bearers, with a view to improving conditions for seed production and natural regeneration, as typically in shelterwood systems. Coupe préparatoire
Principal species The species to which the silviculture of a mixed forest is primarily directed, either for its (or their) economic or protective value. Essences principales
Productivity The rate of production of wood of given specifications, by volume or weight, for a given area. cf. site capability Productivité
Progeny The offspring of a particular tree or a combination of one female and one male tree. Descendance
Protected area A geographically defined area which is designated or regulated and managed to achieve specific conservation objectives. Zone / aire protégée
Protection forest All forest land managed primarily to exert beneficial influence on soil, water, landscape, or for any other purpose when production of merchantable timber, if any, is incidental. Forêt de protection
Protozoa Single-celled animal-like microorganisms whose cells have a nucleus. Protozoa play an important role in the ecology of aquatic and soil environments, where they are omnipresent. Protozoaire
Provenance 1. The geographical area and environment to which the parent trees, etc., are native and within which their genetic constitution has been developed through natural selection. 2. The geographical source, i.e., place of origin. Provenance
Pycnidium Spherical or flask-shaped structure (resembles a perithecium, but is asexual) within which conidia are formed. Pycnide
Quadrat A small, clearly demarcated sample area of known size on which observations are made. Quadrat
Quincunx planting Setting out four young trees to form the corners of a square with a fifth tree at its center. Plantation en quinconces
Race A population that exists within a species and exhibits genetic characteristics distinct from those of the other populations. It is usually an interbreeding unit. Race
Rainforest Forest that occurs in an area of high rainfall. Rainforests are usually found near the sea or in mountainous regions that receive a great deal of rain. Tropical forests are generally rainforests. Forêt pluviale
Reforestation syn. reafforestation Successful renewal of a forest crop by planting or direct seeding. Création de forêt
Regeneration Renewal of a forest crop by natural, artificial, or vegetative (regrowth) means. Also the new crop so obtained. The new crop is generally less than 1.3 m high. Régénération
Regeneration area The area selected, normally in a working plan or working scheme, for regeneration generally with a specified period of time in view. Quartier de régénération
Regeneration class The area, and the young trees in the area, being managed during the regeneration interval in the shelterwood silvicultural system. In this interval, old and young trees occupy the same area, the young being protected by the old. Classe de régénération
Regeneration cut Any removal of trees intended to assist regeneration already present or to make regeneration possible. Coupe de régénération
Regeneration initiation The year in which the new crop is deemed to be started at an acceptable stocking level, whether by planting, natural or artificial seeding, or by vegetative means. Début de la régénération
Regeneration interval The period between the seed cutting and the final cutting on a particular area under one of the shelterwood systems. Durée de régénération
Regeneration period The time between the initial regeneration cut and the successful reestablishment of a stand by natural or artificial means. Période de régénération
Regeneration survey An inventory of the quantity and quality of regeneration over a given area. Relevé de la régénération
Regrowth A term used in reference to coppice, as well as recovery of vegetation from treatment designed to impede or control its growth. Recrû
Reserve cutting See seed-tree method. Coupe à blanc avec réserves
Resilience The capacity of a community or ecosystem to maintain or regain normal function and development following disturbance. Résilience
Resin blister Swelling containing resin, a sticky gum-like substance. Vésicule de résine
Resinous See conifer. Résineux
Retention harvesting A silvicultural system designed to retain individual trees or groups of trees to maintain structural diversity over the area of the cutblock. Coupe à rétention variable
Ridge planting Setting out young trees on a long, narrow crest of excavated soil, generally on a slice thrown up by a plough. Plantation sur bourrelet
Ring Ring structure around the base of some fungi. Anneau
Riparian forest At a large scale, it is the band of forest that has a significant influence on a stream ecosystem or is significantly affected by the stream. At a smaller scale, it is the forest at the immediate water’s edge, where some specialized plants and animals form a distinct community. Forêt riveraine
Riparian zone A strip of land of variable width adjacent to and influenced by a body of fresh water. Zone riveraine
Root Part of the tree that anchors it and absorbs nutrients from the soil. Racine
Root collar Transition point between the roots and the trunk. Collet
Root rot Decomposition of the woody tissue in roots causing the death of the cambium or bark of the roots, thus girdling the trees at the root collar and causing their death. Pourridié
Root sucker See sucker Drageon racinaire
Root wad The mass of roots, soil and rocks that remains intact when a tree, shrub, or stump is uprooted. Motte racinaire
Root-to-shoot ratio The total mass or volume of the plant root system divided by the total mass or volume of the shoot system, usually on an oven-dry basis. Rapport système racinaire/système foliacé
rootwood The secondary xylem of roots. bois de racine
Rotation The planned number of years between the formation or regeneration of a crop or stand and its final cutting at a specified stage or maturity. Révolution
Round leaf Leaf of variable shape whose length is nearly the same as its width. Feuille ronde
Rust Disease caused by a fungus that is parasitic on higher plants and may go through five different developmental stages, usually involving hosts. Following infection, orange pustules appear, possibly followed by premature shedding of foliage, witches' brooms or cankers. Rouille
Salvage cutting The exploitation of trees that are dead, dying, or deteriorating (e.g., because overmature or materially damaged by fire, wind, insects, fungi, or other injurious agencies) before their timber becomes economically worthless. Coupe de récupération
Salvage harvesting The removal—after the main logging—of the rest of the timber, with a view to supplying a different class of product. Coupe de récupération
Samara A winged, one-seeded fruit. Samare
Sanitation cutting The removal of dead, damaged, or susceptible trees, essentially to prevent the spread of pests or pathogens and so promote forest hygiene. Coupe d’assainissement
Sapling A general term for a young tree no longer a seedling but not yet a pole, about 1-2 m high and 2-4 cm in dbh, typically growing vigorously and without dead bark or more than an occasional dead branch. Gaule
Saprophagous Refers to organisms that feed on decaying or decayed plant or animal matter. Saprophage
Saproxylophagous Refers to an organism that develops in partially decomposed woody debris. Saproxylophage
Saproxylophilous Living on rotting wood. Saproxylophile
Scatophagous Feeding on dung or excrement. Scatophage
Scatophilous Living in association with dung or excrement. Scatophile
Science (forest) The study of the material universe or physical reality in order to understand it. This is done by making observations and collecting data about natural events and conditions, then organizing and explaining them with hypotheses, theories, models, laws and principles. Science forestière
Scion An aerial plant part, often a branchlet, that is grafted onto another root-bearing plant (stock, rootstock). Greffon
Second growth The forest growth that has developed (naturally or artificially) following the removal of the original forest. Seconde venue, de
Second growth forest The forest growth that has developed (naturally or artificially) following the removal of the original forest. Forêt de seconde venue
Secondary species A species of inferior quality and/or size, and of lesser silvicultural value, associated with the principal species. cf. accessory species Essences secondaires
Secondary succession Process whereby one stand or plant community supplants another; it is triggered by a major disturbance in a forest ecosystem. Successions secondaires
Seed Fertilized ovule that contains an embryo and has the capacity to produce a new individual. Graine
Seed bank A place in which seeds of rare plant or obsolete varieties are stored, usually vacuum-packed and under cold conditions, to prolong their viability. Banque de semences
Seed bearer 1. Any tree producing seed. 2. Any tree retained to provide seed for natural regeneration, e.g., during seed cuttings. Porte-graines
Seed collection area A forest stand that exhibits good characteristics of growth, form, and vigor and that is not managed for cone production, but from which seed is collected, usually at the time of harvest. Zone de récolte de semences
Seed cutting Removing trees in a mature stand so as to effect permanent opening of its canopy (if there was no preparatory cutting to do this) and so provide conditions for securing regeneration from the seed of trees retained for that purpose. Coupe d’ensemencement
Seed orchard A plantation of trees, assumed or proven genetically to be superior, that has been isolated so as to reduce pollination from genetically inferior outside sources, and intensively managed to improve the genotype and produce frequent, abundant, etc. Verger à graines
Seed source The locality where a seed lot was collected usually defined on an eco-geographic basis by distance, elevation, precipitation, latitude, etc. Origine des graines
Seed trap A device for catching the seeds falling on a small area of ground, from trees or shrubs. Used for determining the amount of seedfall and the time, period, rate, and distance of dissemination. Piège à semences
Seed tree A tree selected, and often reserved, for seed collection or provision of seed for natural regeneration. Semencier
Seed year The year in which a tree species produces, either as an individual or a crop, an adequate amount of seed; applies to any species but particularly to those with irregular or infrequent seed production. Année semencière
Seed-tree method A method of regenerating a forest stand in which all trees are removed from the area except for a small number of seed-bearing trees that are left singly or in small groups. Mode de régénération par coupe avec réserve de semenciers
Seedbed In natural regeneration, the soil or forest floor on which seed falls. In nursery practice, and also in the field, a prepared area over which seed is sown. Lit de germination
Seeding aerial [ensemencement aérien]: Broadcast seeding of seeds or seed pellets from aircraft. broadcast [ensemencement à la volée]: The sowing of seeds more or less evenly over a whole area. Ensemencement
Selection Choosing individuals with desired qualities to serve as parents for the next generation. Sélection
Selection cutting Annual or periodic cutting of trees chosen individually or by groups, in an uneven-aged stand, in order to recover the yield and develop a balanced uneven-aged stand structure, while providing the cultural measures required for tree growth. Coupe de jardinage
Selection forest Forest treated and managed under the selection system. Forêt jardinée
Selection method A method of regenerating a forest stand and maintaining an uneven-aged structure by removing some trees in all size classes either singly or in small groups or strips. Jardinage
Sexual reproduction Reproduction that involves the fusion of genetic material from two distinct entities. Reproduction sexuée
Shade system An agroforestry system involving the planting of trees or shrubs whose canopy provides the appropriate level of shade to grow shade-requiring (perennial) crops. Système de production sous couvert forestier
Shelterwood cutting Any regeneration cutting in a more or less regular and mature crop, designed to establish a new crop under the protection (overhead or side) of the old, or where the resultant crop will be more or less regular. Coupes progressives
Shield Large area of Crystalline Precambrian rock that forms the core of continents. Bouclier
Shortwood harvesting Felling and cross-cutting on the spot, i.e. transporting the logs from the cutting, not the whole bole or tree. Exploitation en bois courts
Shrub A perennial plant differing from a perennial herb in its persistent and woody stem(s), and less definitely from a tree in its lower stature and the general absence of a well-defined main stem. Arbrisseau
Silvics The study of the life history and general characteristics of forest trees and stands, with particular reference to locality factors as a basis of silviculture. Écologie forestière
Silvicultural efficacity The capacity of a herbicide indirectly to promote positive growth responses in crop trees. Efficacité sylvicole
Silvicultural regime A series of stand tending (thinning, pruning, etc.) treatments applied after regeneration to achieve a specific stand management objective. Traitement sylvicole
Silvicultural system A process that applies silvicultural practices, including tending (thinning, pruning, etc.), harvesting, and replacement, to a stand in order to produce a crop of timber and other forest products. Note: the system is named by the cutting Régime sylvicole
Silviculture Practices aimed at ensuring wise harvesting of forest resources : conservation, regeneration, reforestation, cutting, etc. Sylviculture
Silviculture The theory and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, growth, and quality of forest stands to achieve the objectives of management. Sylviculture
Simple coppice system A coppice system in which the crop is clearcut and regenerated by stool shoots, stump sprouts, or root suckers, giving even-aged stands; rotation is relatively short. Taillis simple
Single tree selection A method of regenerating uneven-aged stands in which individual trees are removed more or less uniformly throughout the stand. Jardinage par arbre
Site A land area based on its climatic, physiographic, edaphic, and biotic factors that determine its suitability and productivity for particular species and silvicultural alternatives. Site
Site capability The mean annual increment in merchantable volume which can be expected for a forest area, assuming it is fully stocked by one or more species best adapted to the site, at or near rotation age. Expressed in cubic metres per he Potentiel de station
Site class Any interval into which the site index range is divided for purposes of classification and use. Classe de station
Site classification Application of analytical techniques based on macroclimate, soil, land form, and vegetation, to predict yield. Classification de station
Site factor An ecological term referring to a physical or biological parameter used to describe and distinguish sites. Facteur de station
Site index An expression of forest site quality based on the height, at a specified age, of dominant and codominant trees in a stand. May be grouped into site classes. Expressed in metres. Usually refers to a particular species. Indice de station
Site quality The productive capacity of a site; usually expressed as volume production of a given species per unit area (cubic metres per hectare) or per unit of time (cubic metres per year). Qualité de station
Size classes Ranges in tree sizes representing stages in the development of a tree or stand. Classe de dimension
Slit planting Prying open a cut made by a spade, mattock, or planting bar (termed bar planting), inserting a young tree, then closing the cut on the latter by pressure. Plantation en fente
Snag A standing dead tree from which the leaves and most of the branches have fallen. Chicot
Snagging Removing or cutting away snags, on land or in water. Arasement des chicots
Soft snag A snag composed primarily of wood in advanced stages of decay and deterioration, particularly in the sapwood portion. Chicot pourri
Sowing brick A prepared, sometimes fertilized, block or ball of loam, peat, plastic foam, etc., into which one or more seeds are pressed, so that, on planting out, the emergent seedling can have a better start in an unfavorable environment. Motte à semis
Spacing The distance between trees in a plantation, a thinned stand, or a natural stand. v: see thinning: spacing Espacement
Spore Cell or group of cells capable of producing a new organism. Spore
Spore print Deposit of spores released into the air or onto a surface when a fungus cap is placed gills downwards. Sporée
Spot Circular or nearly circular lesions that appear on a leaf blade. They have a central zone of necrotic (dead, brown) tissue colonized by a pathogen; this zone is surrounded by healthy, coloured tissue. Tache
Spot planting Setting out young trees in small, prepared patches. Plantation sur placeaux
Sprout Generally, any shoot arising from a plant. More particularly, a shoot arising from the base of a plant, from the stool (stool shoot) or from the root (sucker). Rejet de taillis
Stagnant Describes condition of stands whose growth and development have all but ceased due to poor site and/or excessive stocking. Bloqué
Stand A community of trees possessing sufficient uniformity in composition, age, arrangement, or condition to be distinguishable from the forest or other growth on adjoining areas, thus forming a silvicultural or management entity. Peuplement
Stand condition The descriptive measurement of a stand by the criteria of composition, health, age, size, volume, or spatial arrangement. État d’un peuplement
Stand density A quantitative measurement of tree stocking, expressed in terms of number of trees, total basal area, or volume, per unit of area. More precisely, a measure of the degree of crowding of trees within a stand. Densité de peuplement
Stand model A mathematical model that forecasts the development of a forest stand, usually in terms of mean stand attributes, e.g., mean diameter, height. Modèle de peuplement
Stand table A summary table showing the number of trees per unit area by species and diameter classes, for a stand or type. The data may also be presented in the form of a frequency distribution of diameter classes. Table de peuplement
Standard A tree selected to remain standing, after the rest of the stand has been felled over a younger or a new crop, for some special purpose, e.g., shelter, seeding, production of a special quality or size of timber. Réserve
Stock table A summary table showing the volume of trees per unit area by species and diameter classes, for a stand or type. Table de stock
Stocked forest land Land supporting tree growth. In this context, tree growth includes seedlings and saplings. Terrain forestier boisé
Stocked quadrat In regeneration surveys, a quadrat having at least one live tree seedling or regrowth. The criteria for what constitutes a "stocked" area vary with species, site, country, etc. Parcelle régénérée
Stocking A qualitative expression of the adequacy of tree cover on an area, in terms of crown closure, number of trees, basal area, or volume, in relation to a preestablished norm. Densité relative
Stocking guide Reference level for the optimum proportion of an area actually occupied by trees, expressed in terms of stocked quadrats or percentage of canopy closure. Guide de stocking
Stoma Microscopic opening, many of which are found on the underside of plant leaves, permitting transpiration and gaseous exchanges (pl. stomata). Stomate
Stool 1. Silviculture: A living stump capable of producing sprouts or shoots. 2. Propagation: A living stump maintained to produce cuttings, layers, etc. Souche-mère
Storied high forest A crop of trees in which the canopy can be differentiated into one or more layers, the dominant species in natural forest generally differing in each layer. Futaie pluriétagée
Story A horizontal stratum or layer in a plant community; in forests, appearing as one or more canopies. A forest having more than two stories is called multistoried. A forest having one story (the main story) is called single-storied. Étage
Stratification The storage of seeds under defined conditions of environment (temperature, moisture, gas exchange, medium, etc.) for specified periods in order to overcome passive or active inhibition of germination. Stratification
Strip cropping Crop planting in which strips of heavy-rooted plants are alternated with loose-rooted plants which serve as barriers to wind and water erosion. Plantation en lisières
Strip cutting Removal of the crop in strips in more than one operations, generally for encouraging natural regeneration or protecting fragile sites. Considered to be a variation of clearcutting. Coupe par bandes
Strip planting Setting trees, generally in two or more parallel lines, in a long narrow area of land that has been wholly or partially cleared. Plantation en bandes
Structure The distribution of trees in a stand or group by age, size, or crown classes (e.g., all-aged, even-aged, uneven-aged, regular, and irregular structures). Structure
Stub The broken or cut base of a branch projecting from a tree stem. Chicot
Stump Part of trunk with roots remaining after a tree has been cut down. Souche
Stunted Characteristic of a plant that has not developed normally and resembles a bonsai. Rabougris
Succession The gradual supplanting of one community of plants by another, the sequence of communities being termed a sere and each stage seral. Succession
Sucker A shoot or tree originating from adventitious buds on roots. Drageon
Sun system An agroforestry system involving the planting of trees or shrubs with agricultural crops or forest-derived crops that require full sun. As the trees/shrubs grow, the canopy closes, and the level of shade increases, a sun system may become a shade system or another agroforestry system. (See also intercropping.) Système de production à découvert
Sustainability The capacity of forests, ranging from stands to ecoregions, to maintain their health, productivity, diversity, and overall integrity, in the long run, in the context of human activity and use. The concept of producing a biological resource under management practices that ensure replacement of the part harvested, by regrowth or reproduction, before another harvest occurs. Durabilité
Sustainable forest management Management that maintains and enhances the long-term health of forest ecosystems for the benefit of all living things while providing environmental, economic, social and cultural opportunities for present and future generations. Aménagement forestier durable
Sustainable forestry Management of forested area in order to provide wood products in perpetuity, soil and watershed integrity, persistence of most native species and maintenance of highly sensitive species or suitable conditions. Foresterie durable
Sustainable Forestry Initiative A forest certification program run by a multi-stakeholder (environment, industry, government, academic groups, etc.) board of directors. The SFI standard is a comprehensive system of principles, objectives and performance measures that combines the perpetual growing and harvesting of trees with the long-term protection of wildlife, plants, and soil and water quality. Sustainable Forestry Initiative
Sustained yield The yield of defined forest products of specific quality and in projected quantity that a forest can provide continuously at a given intensity of management. Rendement soutenu
Sustained-yield forestry The yield of defined forest products of specific quality and in projected quantity that a forest can provide continuously at a given intensity of management. Foresterie à rendement soutenu
Symbiotic association The living together in intimate association of two dissimilar organisms, so that the cohabitation is mutually beneficial. Association symbiotique
T-notching see slit planting Bêchage en T
Taiga Subarea of the extensive boreal zone characterized by open coniferous forest with lichens. Taïga
Taungya plantation The raising of a forest crop in conjunction with a temporary agricultural crop. Plantation en taungya
Taxonomy Set of rules governing the classification and naming of species. Taxinomie
Temperate forest One of three main forest zones in the world (see also boreal forest, tropical forest). The woodland of rather mild climatic areas; composed mainly of deciduous trees. Forêt tempérée
Tending Generally, any operation carried out for the benefit of a forest crop or an individual thereof, at any stage of its life; covers operations both on the crop itself, e.g., thinnings and improvement cuttings, and on competing vegetation. Soins culturaux
Tending felling An operation comprising cleanings and thinnings. Coupe d’entretien
Thallus Vegetative plant body that is not differentiated into root, stem and leaves, although some analogous structures may be present. Thalle
Thicket A dense growth of small trees or bushes. Fourré
Thinning A partial cutting or spacing operation made in an immature forest stand to accelerate the growth of the remaining trees. Éclaircie
Thinning out Removal of seedling or sapling in excess in a young stand in order to favor residual tree development. Dépressage
Thinning regime A term comprising the type, degree, and frequency of thinning for a given area, generally along with the year of commencement and sometimes termination. Système d’éclaircie
Thinning series Two or more adjacent forest plots that are thinned differently (e.g., to different thinning grades), essentially so as to compare the increment of individual stems. Groupe d’éclaircies comparées
Timber A general term for forest crops and stands, and sometimes for any lesser aggregation of such trees. Bois
Timberbelt Multiple rows of trees planted to provide environmental benefits (including wind protection, soil conservation, and wildlife corridors) and the opportunity for woody biomass production for conversion into bioenergy and other bioproducts. It can also act as an agroforestry system for the production of agricultural or forest-derived crops. Haie brise-vent
Tissue culture A general term for the cultivation of plant or animal tissues in a controlled artificial environment on defined media under aseptic conditions. Culture de tissus
Tolerance The ability of an organism or biological process to subsist under a given set of environmental conditions. The range of these under which it can subsist, representing its limits of tolerance, is termed its ecological amplitude. Tolérance
Trainer A tree beneath the main canopy which by its shading and/or abrasive action hastens the natural pruning or improves the form of some other tree. Dominé élagueur
Trait A distinguishable characteristic of an organism. Caractère
Transformation Transfer of foreign DNA into the cell of an organism to change its genetic makeup. This is a natural process for many bacteria. Transformation
Tree class Any class into which the trees forming a crop or stand may be divided for a variety of purposes. Classe d’arbre
Trench planting Setting out young trees in a shallow trench or a continuous slit. Plantation en sillon
Tropical forest One of three main forest zones in the world (see also boreal forest, temperate forest). A tropical woodland with an annual rainfall of a least 250 cm; marked by broad-leaved evergreen trees forming a continuous canopy. Forêt tropicale
Trunk Part of the tree that is generally straight and vertical, located between the root collar and the branches (crown). Tronc
Tube planting Setting out young trees in narrow, open-ended cylinders of various materials, in which they have been raised from seed or into which they have been transplanted. Plantation de semis en tube
Tubes Cylindrical structures beneath the fungus cap constituting the hymenium in certain fungi. A tubular opening made by a worm or another animal. Tubes
Tubular Tube-shaped. Tubulaire
Twig The smallest division of a branch which bears the annual shoot. Rameau
Underplant Young trees used for underplanting. Plant de sous-étage
Underplanting Planting young trees under the canopy of an existing stand. Plantation en sous-étage
Understorey The lower level of vegetation in a forest. Usually formed by ground vegetation (mosses, herbs and lichens), herbs and shrubs. Sous-étage
Understory protection Removal of mature trees while damage to the understory is kept to a minimum. Protection du sous-étage
Undesirable species Species that conflict with or do not contribute to the management objectives. Essences indésirables
Uneven-aged Of a forest, stand, or forest type in which intermingling trees differ markedly in age. The differences in age permitted in an uneven-aged stand are usually greater than 10-20 years. Inéquienne
Uneven-aged system A silvicultural system in which stands have an uneven-aged structure. Régime inéquienne
Urban forest The trees, forests, and associated organisms that grow near buildings and in gardens, green spaces, parks, and golf courses located in village, town, suburban, and urban areas. Forêt urbaine
Variable-retention A silvicultural system that follows nature’s model by always retaining part of the forest after harvesting. Standing trees are left in a dispersed or aggregated form to meet objectives such as retaining old-growth structure, habitat protection and visual quality. Variable retention retains structural features (snags, large woody debris, live trees of varying sizes, canopy levels) as wildlife habitat. Rétention variable
Vegetative propagation Reproduction by other than sexually produced seed. Includes grafting, budding, rooting of cuttings, and tissue and cell culture, including embryogenesis. Multiplication végétative
Venation Distribution of veins on the wings of an insect or on a leaf. Nervation
Vertical diversity The diversity in a stand that results from the complexity of the above-ground structure of the vegetation. Diversité verticale
Vertical structure The structure formed by different layers of vegetation in a forest. Structure verticale
Vesicle Small, bladder-like structure. Vésicule
veteran A tree that has escaped logging, windthrow, or fire, and occupies a dominant position in the stand. vétéran
Viability Of a seed, spore, or pollen grain, its capacity to germinate and develop, under given conditions. Viabilité
Vigor class Assumption of the health of a tree based on observation of the foliage. Classe de vigueur
Virgin forest Natural forest, the development of which has been virtually uninfluenced by modern human activity. Forêt vierge
Virulence Measure of a pathogen's ability to multiply in a living organism and harm it. Virulence
Viruses Primitive microorganisms that must infect the living cells of animals, plants, or bacteria in order to replicate. When outside the host cells, viruses adopt a form consisting, most of the time, of a RNA or DNA molecule surrounded by a protein matrix. Virus
Viviparous Bringing forth living, fully formed individuals that are capable of feeding. Said of producing bulbils on young plants, instead of and in place of flowers. Vivipare
Volunteer growth Natural regeneration following site preparation and seeding or planting that could either supplement or completely obscure the trees being planted or seeded on the area. Régénération subséquente
Volva Cup-like sheath surrounding the stem base in some fungi, eg, Amanita; it is a remnant of the universal veil. Volve
Wedge system A modification of the strip shelterwood system in which cuttings begin as narrow, interior, wedge-shaped strips with the apex into the prevailing wind, and are then successively enlarged and advanced; regeneration is mainly natural. Mode de régénération par coupes progressives en coin
Weed tree Any tree of a species having little or no economic value on the site in question. Indésirable
Whip 1. A bare-root hardwood planting stock. 2. Any slender tree that the wind causes to lacerate the crowns of its neighbors. Fouet
Wildland-urban interface The wildland-urban interface broadly refers to the area where forests meet houses and infrastructure that is part of communities. Surface limite entre les terres non défrichées et les zones urbaines
Wilt Drying out, loss of colour and shape of leaves, then twigs and branches, caused by a lack of water or the presence of toxins. Flétrissement
Windfall 1. A tree or trees thrown down or with their stems broken off or other parts blown down by the wind. 2. Any area on which the trees have been thrown down or broken by the wind. Chablis
Windrow planting Planting between the two lanes created in windrowing. Plantation sur entrandain
Wolf tree A tree, generally overtopping and of poor form, that occupies more growing space than its commercial value warrants. Arbre loup
Wood A plant tissue composed essentially of lignified fibers of cellulose and hemicellulose. Wood is present in the stems of trees and shrubs where it ensures support and conducts water. (See also cellulose and lignin.) Bois
Woody debris Dead and decomposing wood of various sizes. Débris ligneux
Xylophagous Feeding on woody tissues (wood). Xylophage
Xylophilous Growing in or living on wood. Xylophile
Yield table Tables and graphs illustrating volumes per hectare of stands at a specific age. normal yield table [table de rendement normal]: Estimated stand volume per age class at normal stocking. Table de rendement
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