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Biotechnology

Term Definition French
Agrobacterium A genus of naturally occurring soil bacteria used to transfer genes into plants. Agrobacterium
Allele One of the possible alternative forms of a gene or of any DNA sequence occupying a specific position along a chromosome. The specific combination of alleles in an individual forms its genotype. Allèle
Amino acids A group of 20 organic compounds, combinations of which are bonded together in long chains to make proteins. Acide aminé
Antibiotic Chemical substance capable of preventing the development of micro-organisms. Antibiotique
Antifungal Capable of killing fungi or impeding their development. Antifongique
Antigen A substance that the organism identifies as foreign, hence triggering the release of antibodies as a defence response. Antigène
Bioassay A technique for determining the effectiveness of a substance by measuring its effects on animals, tissues or organisms and comparing them to the effects of a standard preparation. Bioessai
Biochemical Chemical product derived from renewable biomass. Produit biochimique
Biolistics A transformation method in which metal particles coated with one organism’s genetic material are propelled into the cells or tissues of another to allow for the uptake of the genetic material. Biolistique
Biopesticide A pesticide derived from natural sources such as fungi and bacteria or created to closely resemble or be identical to a chemical produced in nature such as a pheromone. Typically a biopesticide is target-specific and has little or no impact on non-target organisms and the environment. Biopesticide
Biopolymer Any polymer that is produced by a living organism or synthesized from renewable biomass. Naturally occurring biopolymers include proteins and starch (which are composed of amino acid and sugar monomer units, respectively); synthetic biopolymers include bioplastics, biotextiles, and some nanofibres. Biopolymère
Bioprocess A process that uses the processing capability of living cells (for example, yeasts) or their components (for example, enzymes) to create a commercially useful product. Bioprocédé
Bioproduct A consumer or industrial product that is made from biomass. Bioproducts are often made using a bioprocess and include a broad range of commodities intended for markets such as energy, transportation, chemicals, plastics, foods, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. Bioproduit
Bioprospecting The search for compounds within plants and other organisms that, due to their effects on living cells, could lead to new pharmaceuticals and other bioproducts. Bioprospection
Biorational pesticide See biopesticide. Pesticide bio-rationnel
Biorefinery The refining or separating of raw materials, such as biomass into their molecular components—mainly cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin—then further refining or transforming these intermediates into further manufactured products such as energy, fuels, chemicals and material. Bioraffinage
Biotechnology As defined in the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, the application of science and engineering in the direct or indirect use of living organisms, or parts or products of living organisms, in their natural or modified forms. It refers to the techniques through which organisms such as plants, fungi, or microorganisms can be used to provide products or services. Biotechnologie
Budding Grafting by inserting a bud, with a small amount of tissue, into a slit or hole made in the bark of a stock plant. After union has formed, the portion of the stock plant above the bud is removed. Écussonnage
Cell (Entomology) A space in an insect wing partly or completely surrounded by veins. (Cytology) The structural and functional unit of most living organisms. Cellule
Cell The most basic unit of a living organism capable of independent growth and reproduction. Cellule
Cellulose A carbohydrate (sugar-based biopolymer compound) that is the main structural component of green plants. (See also carbon.) Cellulose
Cellulose A polymer of glucose molecules, used by plants as a structural supporting material. Paper is made up of cellulose. Cellulose
Chromosome A single DNA molecule encoding a portion or all of a living organism’s genetic information; threadlike and located in the cell’s nucleus in higher organisms, circular in bacteria. Each species has a characteristic number of chromosomes. Chromosome
Clonal test Evaluation of genotypes by comparing clones in a plantation. Test clonal
Clone All plants reproduced asexually from a common ancestor and having identical genotypes. Named clones are given non-Latin names preceded by the abbreviation "cl". Clone
Cloning In biotechnology, obtaining a group of genetically identical cells from a single cell; making identical copies of a gene. Clonage
Container Portable receptacle (pot, bag, or linked spaces) to hold rooting medium for growing planting stock. Récipient
Cross pollination The fertilization of an egg in one plant by a sperm cell found in a pollen grain of another plant. The resulting seed will have the hereditary characteristics from both parents. Pollinisation croisée
Cryopreservation The preservation of living materials at very low temperatures, often within liquid nitrogen, to protect them against damage. Cryopréservation
Disease Alteration of the normal functions of a whole plant or part of it, caused by a living or dead agent. The main agents involved in the initiation of disease are pollution, animals, fungi and other plants. Maladie
Disease Harmful deviation from normal functioning of physiological processes, generally pathogenic or environmental in origin. Maladie
DNA - Deoxyribonucleic acid The molecule that encodes genetic information. It is made up of units called nucleotides, each including one of four bases—adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), or thymine (T). The molecule comprises two strands held together by bonds between A and T and between G and C, resulting in a structure often referred to as a double helix. It is found in the nucleus of cells, within bacteria and some viruses, as well as in organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts. ADN - Acide désoxyribonucléique
DNA fingerprinting A method to isolate and create images of DNA sequences. The image created is an identification aid for organisms, similar to that of taking human fingerprints. Analyse des empreintes génétiques
DNA sequence The linear order of the nucleotides along the DNA strand. This sequence determines the unique genetic composition of an organism. Séquence d’ADN
DNA sequencing The process of determining the exact order of the bases in a DNA segment. Séquençage de l'ADN
Effective seedling Any seedling, whether natural or planted, that has survived in reasonable vigor for some arbitrary time and is so sited that it should make an effective contribution to the crop. Semis établi
Electrophoresis A laboratory procedure that separates large molecules, such as DNA fragments or proteins, on the basis of their electric charge by running them through a gel placed in an electric field. This is one of the steps in DNA fingerprinting. Électrophorèse
Electroporation A transformation method in which a weak electric current induces the formation of transient pores in the membrane of a cell, hence allowing new genes to enter the cell. Électroporation
Engineered wood products A composite wood product made from glued fibre, lumber and/or veneer to meet specific design criteria. Produits du bois de haute technologie
Enzyme A protein produced by a living organism and that speeds up a specific biochemical reaction. Enzymes are necessary to make almost all processes occurring in cells fast enough to sustain life. Enzyme
Eugenic Favorable to the genetic quality of a population. cf. dysgenic. Eugénique
Ex situ conservation The preservation of a plant or plant part outside of the species normal or original habitat, for example, within a gene bank. Conservation ex situ
Fermentation Transformation of organic substrates, especially carbohydrates, into chemical intermediates with micro-organisms such as bacteria, yeasts, molds and fungus for the production of energy, fuels, chemicals and materials. Fermentation
Fibre (wood) A material in which the wood is reduced to predominantly individual fibres by mechanical or chemical means, or a combination of the two. Virgin fibre is derived from trees not previously processed into paper; recycled fibre has been reclaimed from a previous product such as old newsprint and reprocessed and incorporated into a new product. Fibre (ligneuse)
Forest Ecosystem that generally covers a large area and is composed of woody vegetation dominated by trees growing in a relatively dense pattern. Forêt
Forest Ecology: Generally, an ecosystem characterized by a more or less dense and extensive tree cover. More particularly, a plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, growing more or less closely together. Forêt
Forest biomaterial Any novel material derived from forest biomass (particularly wood fibre and cellulosic residues) for industrial use. Forest biomaterials can be blends of natural fibres and polymers (for example, biocomposite building materials) or biopolymers (for example, bioplastics, biotextiles, and nanofibres). Biomatériau forestier
Forest biorefinery A plant that uses renewable forest feedstocks (for example, harvest residues, effluent extracts, and black liquors) to integrate the production of conventional forest products with that of value-added bioproducts and bioenergy. A forest biorefinery aims at maximizing the feedstocks’ value by recovering all of the intermediate and end products, hence yielding minimum waste and pollution. Bioraffinerie forestière
Forest genetics The study of heredity in forest trees. Génétique forestière
Forest sector The forest sector includes governments, conservation and environmental groups, woodlot owners, Aboriginals, urban forestry interests, lumber and pulp and paper producers and value-added industries, forest-reliant communities, the recreation and tourism industries, and other sectors of the economy (including the energy, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries) that derive wealth and well-being from forest resources. Secteur forestier
Forestry Generally, a profession embracing the science, business, and art of creating, conserving, and managing forests and forest lands for the continuing use of their resources, material or other. Foresterie
Fruit body A reproductive structure on or in which spores of a fungus are produced. Fructification
Full seed Seed showing apparently complete embryo and endosperm or megagametophyte structures, irrespective of actual viability. Graine pleine
Full-sibs Trees with both parents in common. Defined in Manitoba as trees where both parents are known. Pleins germains
Gene A functional portion of a chromosome in which inheritable characteristics are determined by the sequence of nucleotides along the DNA. Gène
Gene bank An ex situ conservation facility that stores plant germplasm of various species in the form of pollen, seeds, or tissue culture. Also refers to a database of publicly available DNA sequences. Banque de gènes
Gene expression The multi-step process in which the coded information in a gene is converted into functional products. Expression génétique
Gene flow The movement of alleles among interbreeding individuals belonging to different populations, by means of seed or pollen dispersal or the migration of individuals. Flux génique
Gene stacking Combining desired traits, for example, pest resistance and herbicide tolerance, in a genetically modified organism. Empilement de gènes
Genetic code A universal correspondence rule between a three-nucleotide DNA sequence and a specific amino acid that is used when genes are translated into proteins. Code génétique
Genetic diversity The genetic variation present in a population or species. Diversité génétique
Genetic engineering A method used to directly transfer DNA from one organism into another that results in a genetically engineered organism, one form of genetically modified organism. Génie génétique
Genetic map A representation of the relative locations of genes along a chromosome marked with probes and/or genetic markers. Carte génétique
Genetic marker A DNA fragment of known location on the genome that is used to mark specific genes or traits. Marqueur génétique
Genetically modified organism (GMO) An organism that has had its DNA sequence altered through genetic engineering, a natural process, or the action of mutagens. Organisme génétiquement modifié (OGM)
Genome The complete genetic material in a particular organism. In animals, this includes the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA; in plants, this includes the nuclear, mitochondrial, and chloroplast's DNA. Génome
Genomics The study of an organism’s DNA sequence and the location of genes on its chromosomes (structural genomics) and of the function of an organism’s genes in relation to their products under particular environmental conditions (functional genomics). Génomique
Germinative energy The percentage of seeds, spores, or pollen grains in a given sample germinating within a given period e.g., 7 or 14 days, under optimum or stated conditions. Vigueur germinative
Germplasm The total set of genes of an individual representing a variety or species that may be used for conservation purposes. Matériel génétique
Green chemistry Chemical processes, products, and technologies that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of substances hazardous to human health and the environment and that incorporate energy efficient methods, the use of renewable feedstocks, and other such considerations in their design. Chimie verte
Growth promoter Any agent present or provided as a supplement to the plant or its environment to activate growth. Déclencheur de croissance
Hard seed Seed having coats that resist cracking or breaking and may be more or less impermeable to water. Graine dure
Herbicide tolerant Capable of surviving and recovering from the application of herbicides. Tolérant aux herbicides
Hybrid Plant obtained by crossing two genetically dissimilar parent plants. Hybride
Hybrid The offspring of genetically different parents (usually refers to crosses between two species). Hybride
Hybridization Sexual reproduction using genetically distinct parents, that is, belonging to different populations, varieties, or species. Hybridation
Hypovirulence Reduced virulence in a micro-organism caused by genetic mutation or the presence of a virus. Hypovirulence
In vitro Within an artificial environment, such as a test tube, as opposed to in vivo. In vitro
In vivo Within a natural environment, such as a living organism, as opposed to in vitro. In vivo
Innovation The use of a new idea, material or technology to produce new goods or services or to change the way in which goods or services are produced or distributed. Innovation can include improved managerial systems, new production techniques, new technology, the results of research and development, or the application of information technologies. Innovation
Lignin A complex and relatively hydrophobic biopolymer present in the secondary cell walls of vascular plants—and particularly abundant in wood—that gives rigidity to plant stems and allows them to conduct water efficiently. Lignine
Lignin Main component of wood. Lignine
Living modified organism (LMO) As defined in the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, a living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology. Organisme vivant modifié (OVM)
Metabolite Starting, intermediate, or product compound in a chemical reaction that involves the breaking down of a molecule or the joining of molecules by an enzyme. Métabolite
Micro-organism A microscopic one or multi-celled organism, such as a bacterium, virus, yeast, alga, fungus and protozoan. Micro-organisme
Micro-organisms Living organisms (bacteria, microbes, yeasts) that can be seen only with a microscope. Micro-organisms that are likely to cause disease in other living organisms are called pathogens. Micro-organismes
Microbe See microorganism. Microbe
Microinjection A genetic engineering technique that uses a fine-tipped glass needle to inject DNA into a cell. Microinjection
Microorganism A general term for a unicellular or multicellular microscopic organism. Classifications of microorganisms include algae, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. Microorganisme
Micropropagation In vitro asexual reproduction of a plant from a fragment of plant tissue. This technique creates multiple copies of progeny that are genetically identical to the parent (clones). Micropropagation
Modern biotechnology In vitro techniques that are rapid, efficient, and precise in obtaining novel gene combinations in living organisms. Most modern biotechnologies focus on organisms at the genetic level. (See also traditional biotechnology.) Biotechnologie moderne
Molecular marker See genetic marker. Marqueur moléculaire
Mutagens Agents that cause a change in the DNA sequence of a cell. These include chemicals, X-rays, and ultraviolet light. Mutagènes
Mutation A change to the DNA sequence of a gene or chromosome; may be expressed or unexpressed by the cell. If a mutation occurs in a gene, it changes the structure, function, or expression of the protein produced. Mutation
Nanocrystalline cellulose Nano structures made from pure cellulose used in coating, papermaking, drug delivery, biocide dispersion, composite products, etc. Cellulose nanocristalline
Nanotechnology The manufacture of materials and structures with dimensions that measure up to 100 nanometers (billionths of a metre). Nanotechnologie
Non-wood forest product (NWFP) According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), a product of biological origin other than wood derived from forests, other wooded land, and trees outside forests. Produit forestier non ligneux (PFNL)
Nucleotides The building blocks of DNA (and RNA), each containing one nitrogenous base—adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine (uracil in RNA)— a phosphate molecule, and a sugar molecule (deoxyribose in DNA or ribose in RNA). Nucléotides
Nucleus A complex spherical body found in most plant, animal, and fungal cells; it is enclosed by a membrane and contains chromosomes. Noyau
Organ Group of tissues organized to perform a distinct function. Organe
Parthenogenesis Form of reproduction in which an organism develops from an unfertilized egg. Parthénogenèse
Particle gun transformation See biolistics. Transformation par canon à particules
Pathogen A microscopic organism or virus directly capable of causing disease. see thinning: precommercial. Pathogène
Pathogenic A parasitic organism directly capable of causing disease. Pathogène
Pathology Study of diseases and the effects they have on plants. Pathologie
Pathology The study of disease. Pathologie
Pest resistance A heritable trait that enables an organism (e.g., a tree) to be less damaged by pests compared to its non-resistant relatives. Résistance aux ravageurs
Pesticide Any preparation used to control populations of injurious organisms, plant or animal. Pesticide
Petri dish In bacteriology, a shallow, flat-bottomed, transparent vessel that consists of two round rimmed plates one overlapping the other as a cover, for micro-organisms and tissue cells culture. Boîte de Pétri
Phenolic compound A highly complex organic compound that exists in every plant in various mixes, ratios and concentrations. Phenols include, for example, many plant pigments. Composés phénoliques
Plant with novel traits (PNT) In accordance with the Seeds Regulations, Part V related to the Seeds Act administered by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, a plant variety possessing a characteristic that is intentionally selected or created through a specific genetic change and is either not previously associated with a distinct and stable population of the plant species in Canada or expressed outside the normal range of a similar existing characteristic in the plant species. Végétal à caractères nouveaux (VCN)
Plantation forestry Application of forestry principles to an artificial crop or stand. Foresterie de plantation
Planting spot The exact spot where a young tree has been set out. Emplacement des semis
Planting stock Seedlings, transplants, cuttings, and occasionally wildlings, for use in planting. Matériel de reproduction
Plasmid A small circle of bacterial DNA that is used as a vector to transfer genes from one organism to another. Plasmids have the ability to replicate independently within a host. Plasmide
Platform chemical An intermediate chemical product of feedstock conversion that forms the basis for synthesizing a vast array of downstream chemicals and materials used in high-value industrial products. Produit chimique de plateforme
Plug transplant A small container seedling which is to be planted and raised as a bare-root seedling. Plant fiche
Plurinucleate Containing several nuclei. Plurinucléé
Pollination Transfer of pollen from the anther of a flower to the stigma of a flower of the same species, resulting in fertilization. Pollinisation
Polymer Any natural or synthetic compound of high molecular weight composed of numerous repeated simple subunits (monomers) sharing pairs of electrons. Examples include plastics and high-strength fibres. (See also biopolymer.) Polymère
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) A laboratory procedure that provides the conditions for rapid replication of a specific DNA segment, resulting in a very high number of copies of that segment. PCR makes a DNA segment easier to analyze for genetic research, forensics, the diagnosis of diseases, or other applications. Réaction en chaîne de la polymérase (PCR)
Probe A short DNA fragment, radioactively or otherwise labeled, used to locate a specific complementary sequence of DNA or RNA. Sonde
Progeny test A test in which the genetic constitution of an individual is evaluated from the performance of its progeny produced by some specific mating system. Test de descendance
Protein A functional organic macromolecule assembled from amino acids linked with peptide bonds; a product of gene expression. Protéine
Provenance test An experiment, usually replicated, comparing trees grown from seed or cuttings collected from many parts of a species, natural range. Test de provenance
Recombinant DNA DNA constructed by joining DNA segments from two or more organisms. (See genetic engineering.) ADN recombinant
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) Molecule found in the cells of living organisms, where it plays an important role in protein synthesis; in some viruses it is the carrier of genetic information. Acide ribonucléique (ARN)
Risk assessment A quantitative and qualitative approach to determining the hazardous capacity of a new product. This involves the identification and characterization of hazards, an assessment of exposure to the product, and a final risk characterization of the product. Évaluation des risques
Rust Disease caused by a fungus that is parasitic on higher plants and may go through five different developmental stages, usually involving hosts. Following infection, orange pustules appear, possibly followed by premature shedding of foliage, witches' brooms or cankers. Rouille
Science and technology (S&T) Systematic activities that are closely concerned with the generation, advancement, dissemination and application of scientific and technical knowledge in all fields of science and technology, including such activities as research and development (R&D), scientific and technical education and training, and scientific and technological services. Sciences et technologie (S et T)
Seed Fertilized ovule that contains an embryo and has the capacity to produce a new individual. Graine
Seedling Young plant that has grown from a seed. Semis
Sexual reproduction Reproduction that involves the fusion of genetic material from two distinct entities. Reproduction sexuée
Somatic embryogenesis A process by which clones are produced by cell growth from a seed embryo. Embryogenèse somatique
Spore Cell or group of cells capable of producing a new organism. Spore
Spore print Deposit of spores released into the air or onto a surface when a fungus cap is placed gills downwards. Sporée
Sterile tree Tree incapable of reproducing sexually. Arbre stérile
Substantial equivalence A principle for safety assessment that compares a genetically modified product to a traditional non-modified product of the same species with a long history of safe use. A genetically modified product is substantially equivalent to the non-modified one if it is as safe to the environment and human health. Équivalence en substance
Tall oil An oily liquid by-product of the so-called “kraft” pulping process (particularly of pine wood), composed of a mixture of rosins, fatty acids, and other substances. Soaps, emulsifiers, adhesives, and lubricants are only a few of the many value-added bioproducts that can be made from recovered tall oil. Résine liquide
Thermochemical conversion Thermal and chemical processes by which carbon-rich substances are converted to intermediate chemicals for the production of energy, fuels, chemicals and materials. Conversion thermochimique
Tissue culture A general term for the cultivation of plant or animal tissues in a controlled artificial environment on defined media under aseptic conditions. Culture de tissus
Traditional biotechnology Specifically within forestry, this involves the selection of trees with desirable traits and breeding them to produce improved offspring. (See also modern biotechnology.) Biotechnologie traditionnelle
Transformation Transfer of foreign DNA into the cell of an organism to change its genetic makeup. This is a natural process for many bacteria. Transformation
Transgenic Genetically engineered to contain DNA from an external source, such as another species or a different variety. Many transgenic plants are more herbicide tolerant, are resistant to insect or viral pests, or produce modified versions of fruit or flowers. Transgénique
Transplanting plough A plough used in the nursery to open trench for the roots of plants being lined out, while simultaneously backfilling it. Charrue planteuse
Vector Any DNA-containing structure that is used to transfer DNA into an organism. The most commonly used vectors are plasmid DNA and bacteriophages or other viruses. Vecteur
Viability Of a seed, spore, or pollen grain, its capacity to germinate and develop, under given conditions. Viabilité
Virulence Measure of a pathogen's ability to multiply in a living organism and harm it. Virulence
Viruses Primitive microorganisms that must infect the living cells of animals, plants, or bacteria in order to replicate. When outside the host cells, viruses adopt a form consisting, most of the time, of a RNA or DNA molecule surrounded by a protein matrix. Virus
Wildling syn.: wilding, wild seedling A naturally grown, in contrast to a nursery-raised, seedling, sometimes used in forest planting when nursery stock is scarce. Semis naturel
Woody tissue Plant tissue containing lignin, the main component of wood. Ligneux
Yearling A one-year-old seedling. Semis de l’année
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