Glossary

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Ecosystems

Term Definition French
Aboriginal land Lands within Aboriginal reserves or Aboriginal settlements. Terres autochtones
Acari (Acarian) Order included in the class Arachnida. The members of this order (mites and ticks) are very tiny organisms with an unsegmented abdomen and generally four pairs of unjointed legs. Acarien
Acid precipitation Rain, snow, sleet, hail or fog, usually with acidity below pH 5.6. Acidic precipitation is primarily the result of emissions of gases of sulphur and nitrogen oxides which are transformed into sulphuric acid and nitric acid respectively as they are transported over distances of hundreds to thousands of kilometres from their source. Précipitation acide
Adaptive management A dynamic approach to forest management in which the effects of treatments and decisions are continually monitored and used, along with research results, to modify management on a continuing basis to ensure that objectives are being met. Gestion adaptative
Afforestation The establishment of a tree crop on an area from which it has always, or for very long, been absent. Where such establishment fails and is repeated, the latter may properly be termed reafforestation. Boisement
All-aged Of a forest, crop, or stand that contains trees of all, or almost all, age classes, including those of exploitable age. De tous âges
Allelopathy The negative influence of a plant, other than a microorganism, upon another plant, through chemical exudate during their metabolism. Allélopathie
Area regenerating Includes areas that have been harvested recently (less than 10 years ago), and areas depleted by such natural disturbances as fire, insects and disease. Superficie en régénération
Avifauna Birds, in particular, all the birds of a given site: the avifauna of a marsh, a prairie, etc. Avifaune
Basic forest management Extensive forest management plus artificial regeneration where necessary. cf. extensive forest management Aménagement forestier de base
Basic silviculture All the silvicultural practices required to achieve free-growing (or established) regeneration of desired species at specified densities and stocking. Sylviculture de base
Biodegradable Capable of being decomposed (broken down into simpler forms of matter) under natural conditions—that is, by the action of insects, other animals, and microorganisms. Materials derived from biological sources, as well as artificial materials sufficiently similar to them, are biodegradable. Biodégradable
Biodiversity The collection of life on earth; the natural patterns that form from all the species of life (species diversity), the genes that each of them possess (genetic diversity), as well as the ecosystems which these species form (ecosystem diversity). Biodiversité
Biomass The organic matter (cellulose and lignin) produced by plants. The term forest biomass generally refers to all of the material contained in the trees of a forest, including all their components (roots, branches, leaves, etc.). Biomasse
Biomass The total mass of living organisms of one or more species per unit of area, or all the species in a community. It can be divided into above-ground biomass and below-ground biomass. Biomasse
Biome A major biotic community composed of all the plants and animals in a specific geographical region and smaller biotic communities. The smaller communities in a biome possess similarities in gross external appearances and gross climatic conditions. Biome
Biosphere The portion of the earth comprising the lower atmosphere, the seas, and the land surface (mantle rock) in which living organisms exist. Biosphère
Boreal forest One of three main forest zones in the world (see also tropical forest, temperate forest) located in northern regions and is characterized by the predominance of conifers (such as pine, spruce, larch and fir) and some deciduous (such as poplar and birch). The boreal forest (singular) is a colloquial term often used to refer to the overall forested area within the boreal zone, and sometimes to refer to the boreal zone itself because forests dominate this landscape. Boreal forests (plural) is the preferred term for the forested areas within the boreal zone. Forêt boréale
Buffer zone A strip of land where disturbances are not allowed, or are closely monitored, to preserve aesthetic and other qualities adjacent to roads, trails, waterways and recreation sites. Zone tampon
Carbon budget Comparative evaluation of the amount of carbon stored in natural forests (sinks) and the amount emitted by them (sources), which is undertaken to determine whether the forests are sequestering more carbon than they are emitting to the atmosphere. Carbon budgets can be drawn up on various scales, including global. Bilan de carbone
Carbon footprint The total direct greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions produced by a facility to manufacture a range of products or an individual product. Empreinte carbone
Carbon neutrality When the amount of carbon released into the atmosphere equals the amount sequestered or offset. Neutralité carbonique
Carbon sink A carbon reservoir that absorbs and stores carbon from another part of the carbon cycle. A sink stores more carbon than it emits to the atmosphere. This store of carbon can also be termed a reservoir or pool. Although a growing forest can be considered a carbon sink, when the forest stops growing and its trees die and start decomposing, it becomes a carbon source, because it emits more carbon than it stores. Puits de carbone
Clearing 1. A considerable open space in a forest, which can be natural or artificial. 2. Removal of standing, usually scrubby, vegetation to prepare a site for reforestation. Clairière
Climate change An alteration in measured quantities (for example, precipitation, temperature, radiation, wind and cloudiness) within the climate system that departs significantly from previous average conditions and is seen to endure, bringing about corresponding changes in ecosystems and socio-economic activity. Changement climatique
Climate change adaptation An adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli. Adaptation au changement climatique
Coarse woody debris The standing and downed dead wood in a forest. Débris ligneux grossier
Commercial forest Forest land that is able to grow commercial timber within an acceptable time frame and is designated for such a purpose. Forêt d'intérêt commercial
Compensatory planting Creating plantations in one area in order to replace, in part or whole, a loss of growing stock elsewhere. Reboisement de compensation
Competitive exclusion In ecology, principle (also known as Gause’s principle) that states no two species can occupy exactly the same fundamental niche indefinitely in a habitat where they are competing for the same essential resource, and that one species will crowd out the other. Exclusion compétitive
Contained root A root that does not elongate beyond the confines of the original rooting volume within a container, even when outplanted with the container removed. Racine contenue
Continuous boreal forest Main subarea of the vast boreal zone, which is characterized by relatively dense stands containing primarily boreal coniferous species and shade-intolerant deciduous trees. Forêt boréale continue
Coppice Natural regeneration originating from stump sprouts, stool shoots, or root suckers. Taillis
Coppice method A method of regenerating a forest stand in which the cut trees produce sprouts, suckers, or shoots. Régime du taillis
Coppice selection method A coppice method in which only selected shoots of merchantable size are cut at each felling, giving uneven-aged stands. Taillis fureté
Coppice-of-two-rotations method A coppice method in which some of the coppice shoots are reserved for the whole of the next rotation, the rest being cut. Taillis composé
Crop The harvestable vegetation growing on a forest area, more particularly the major woody growth forming the forest crop. Peuplement forestier
Crown land Public land that is managed by the federal or provincial/territorial government. Terre de la Couronne
Deciduous forest Subarea of the northern temperate zone, which is characterized mainly by sugar maple-dominated deciduous forests. This is the subarea with the greatest floristic richness. Forêt décidue
Decline Disease that is characterized by a progressive decline in a tree’s health and in its growth and that may kill it. While the causes of this phenomenon are not known, it is generally believed that a combination of factors is to blame: pollution, soil acidification, drought, freeze-thaw action, etc. Dépérissement
Desertification The transformation of once-productive arid and semi-arid areas into deserts through prolonged drought or continued mismanagement of land and water resources. Désertification
Digital model Computer-based representation of a mathematical model describing natural phenomena. These models use complex equations to perform essentially mathematical simulations of natural phenomena. They are used to study and test hypotheses about tides, climate change, the changes in an insect population or a forest, and so on. Modèles numériques
Dominance potential The relative ability of a tree or plant species to dominate a forest ecosystem, given an opportunity equal to that of its associates. Potentiel de dominance
Drainage Hydrology/engineering: The process of removal of water from soil, particularly by surface runoff and subsurface percolation and artificially by measures for hastening removal, e.g., by ditching. Drainage
Duff layer A general term referring to the litter and humus layers of the forest floor. Litière
Ecodistrict A part of an ecoregion characterized by distinctive geologic, soil, water, fauna and land use. Écodistrict
Ecoregion A part of an ecozone characterized by distinctive regional ecological factors, including climate, physical geography, vegetation, soil, water, fauna and land use. Écorégion
Ecosystem The sum of the plants, animals, environmental influences, and their interactions within a particular habitat. Écosystème
Ecosystem integrity The quality of a natural unmanaged or managed ecosystem in which the natural ecological processes sustain the function, composition and structure of the system. Intégrité d’un écosystème
Ecosystem-based management Management systems that attempt to simulate ecological processes with the goal of maintaining a satisfactory level of diversity in natural landscapes and their pattern of distribution in order to ensure the sustainability of forest ecosystem processes. Aménagement écosystémique
Ecotype A race (provenance) adapted to the selective action of a particular environment. Ecotypes are described in terms of the primary environmental influence, e.g., climatic or edaphic. Écotype
Ecozone An area of the Earth's surface representing large and very generalized ecological units characterized by interacting abiotic (non-living) and biotic (living) factors. Écozone
Edge habitat A loosely defined type of habitat that occurs at the boundary between two different habitat types. Typically, edge habitats share characteristics with both adjacent habitat types and have particular transitional characteristics that are important to wildlife. Habitat de lisière
Environmental assessment A process designed to contribute pertinent environmental information to the decision-making process of forest management or other natural resource projects and programs. Évaluation environnementale
Environmental goods and services Benefits humans get directly or indirectly from ecosystem functions. Ecosystem functions are the "…habitat, biological or system properties or processes of ecosystems" (Costanza et al. 1997). They include clean air and water, soil retention, and wildlife habitat, to name a few. Biens et services écologiques [ou environnementaux]
Epicormic shoot syn. sprout A shoot arising from a dormant or adventitious bud on the stem or branch of a woody plant. Pousse adventive
Eutrophication The enrichment of water by nutrients, especially compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus, that will accelerate the growth of algae and higher forms of plant life. This enrichment may interfere with the normal ecological balance of the receiving waters. Eutrophisation
Even-aged Of a forest, stand, or forest type in which relatively small age differences exist between individual trees. The differences in age permitted are usually 10 to 20 years. Équienne
Even-aged (forest) A forest stand or type in which relatively small age differences exist between individual trees (usually 10–20 years). Équienne (forêt)
Fauna A general term for all forms of animal life characteristic of a region, period or special environment. Faune
Featured-species management A type of wildlife management that does not attempt to manage for all species, but selects a few species of particular concern or interest (for example, big game species or endangered species) and aims management programs at them. With respect to habitat, it is generally assumed that providing habitat for these species provides habitat for other species as well. Gestion axée sur les espèces
Flora A general term for all forms of plant life characteristic of a region, period or special environment. Flore
Forest Ecosystem that generally covers a large area and is composed of woody vegetation dominated by trees growing in a relatively dense pattern. Forêt
Forest Ecology: Generally, an ecosystem characterized by a more or less dense and extensive tree cover. More particularly, a plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, growing more or less closely together. Forêt
Forest land Land primarily intended for growing, or currently supporting, forest. It includes land not now forested (for example, clearcut lands and northern lands that are forested but not intended for any commercial forestry use) and plantations. Terres forestières
Forest management That branch of forestry concerned with the overall administrative, economic, legal and social aspects and with the essentially scientific and technical aspects, especially silviculture, protection and forest regulation. Aménagement forestier
Forest model A computer-based simulation that, within definable parameters, forecasts the development of a forest. Modèle de forêt
Forest practices Any activities that enhance or recover forest growth or harvest yield (e.g., site preparation, planting, thinning, fertilizing, harvesting, etc.), and road construction or reconstruction within forest lands. Pratiques forestières
Forest regions classification A process of delineating large geographic areas according to landform and climate, associated with broad variations in overall forest composition. Classification des régions forestières
Forest sector The forest sector includes governments, conservation and environmental groups, woodlot owners, Aboriginals, urban forestry interests, lumber and pulp and paper producers and value-added industries, forest-reliant communities, the recreation and tourism industries, and other sectors of the economy (including the energy, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries) that derive wealth and well-being from forest resources. Secteur forestier
Forest site see forest site type Site forestier
Forest type A group of forested areas or stands of similar composition; forest types are usually separated and identified by species composition and often by height and crown closure classes. Type forestier
Forested tundra Subarea of the vast boreal zone characterized by a mosaic of stands of variable density and by tundra consisting mainly of shrubs and lichens. This plant formation is located at the tree line, and marks the division between the boreal zone and the arctic zone. Toundra forestière
Forestry Generally, a profession embracing the science, business, and art of creating, conserving, and managing forests and forest lands for the continuing use of their resources, material or other. Foresterie
Forestry practices Any activity that is carried out on forest land to facilitate the use of forest resources, including, but not limited to, timber harvesting, road construction, silviculture, grazing, recreation, pest control and wildfire suppression. Pratiques forestières
Fragmentation The splitting or isolating of patches of similar habitat, typically forest cover, but including other types of habitat. Habitat can be fragmented naturally or from forest management activities, such as clearcut logging. Fragmentation
Gap dynamics The change in space and time in the pattern, frequency, size, and successional processes of forest canopy gaps caused by the fall or death of one or more canopy trees. Dynamique des trouées
Geographic Information System (GIS) An organized collection of computer hardware, software and geographic data designed for capturing, storing, updating, manipulating, analyzing and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information. Système d'information géographique (SIG)
Global Positioning System (GPS) A system of satellites and receiving devices used to compute positions on the Earth. Système de positionnement global (GPS)
Global warming The rise in temperature of the Earth's atmosphere due to the greenhouse effect. Réchauffement climatique
Granite bedrock Geological formation that dates back more than 450 million years and is characterized by vast expanses of granite of volcanic origin. The Canadian Shield is made up largely of granite bedrock. Since granite has little capacity to neutralize acid rain, the forest ecosystems in these regions are fairly vulnerable to the effects of acid deposition. Assise granitique
Green manuring Increasing the fertility of soil by raising suitable herbaceous crops on it, particularly Fabaceae, but also Cruciferae and Gramineae, and digging or ploughing them while succulent, with or without supplementary fertilizers. Engrais vert
Greenhouse gas (GHG) A gas—such as water vapour, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, and ozone—that is transparent to incoming solar radiation but less so to the infrared radiation reflected back by the Earth’s surface, hence trapping part of the solar energy and warming the planet’s surface enough to sustain life. The build-up of greenhouse gases from industrial activities enhances the natural “greenhouse effect” and is partly responsible for global warming. Gaz à effet de serre (GES)
Greenhouse gas source Any process or activity (for example, forest fires or conversion of forest land to agricultural or urban uses) that releases greenhouse gases or precursors of those gases into the atmosphere. As trees and forest products decompose or burn, they release carbon in the form of carbon dioxide. Source de gaz à effet de serre
Group-selection method A method of regenerating and maintaining uneven-aged stands in which trees are removed in small groups. Jardinage par bouquets
Guild management A method of management by which species are assembled into groups based on similarities in their habitat requirements. One species is selected to indicate the group; conserving the habitat of that particular species ensures the conservation of other members of the guild. Gestion par association
Habitat The environment in which a population or individual lives; includes not only the place where a species is found, but also the particular characteristics of the place (for example, climate or the availability of suitable food and shelter) that make it especially well suited to meet the life cycle needs of that species. Habitat
Hardwood(s) (broad-leaved trees) Trees whose leaves are not persistent and fall off at the end of a defined growing season or during a period of temperature or moisture stress. This is the predominant tree type in deciduous forests. Also refers to the wood produced by these trees. Feuillus (arbres à feuilles caduques)
Heritage forest A forest managed to harvest forest products and to sustain the natural system, including its bioproductivity, biotic and abiotic diversity. Modern technology, equipment and methods may be used to harvest, restock and tend the forest, with an emphasis on natural restocking, supplemented with artificial restocking of appropriate endemic species. Forêt patrimoniale
High-forest systems Silvicultural systems in which the crops are normally of seedling origin, natural and/or artificial, and the rotation is, traditionally at least, long. Régime de la futaie
Home range The area in which an animal lives, hunts, and mates throughout its life. Domaine vital
Humus A general term for the more or less decomposed (plant and animal) residues in the soil, litter therefore being excluded. Humus
Industrial plantation forestry Tree cultivation using methods of intensive silviculture: plantations made up of genetically improved stock, fertilization, drainage, phytosanitary treatments, release of higher quality stems, etc. Ligniculture
Integrated landscape management (ILM) The integrated planning and assessment of land uses and human activities over whole landscapes to ensure the long-term economic, social and environmental sustainability of ecosystems and their resources. It is applied at appropriate temporal and spatial scales necessary to achieve multiple management objectives. Aménagement intégré du paysage (AIP)
Integrated pest management The use of a mix of techniques and/or strategies to control pests, as opposed to the application of a single method. Lutte intégrée contre les ravageurs
Integrated resource management A holistic approach to resource management that entails the management of two or more resources (for example, water, soil, timber, pasture, wildlife, and recreation) and that integrates the values of the community into the design of policies or projects to use and sustain these resources in perpetuity. Gestion intégrée des ressources
Intensive silviculture Application of cultural measures which, in addition to simply maintaining the forest cover, will allow an increase in the value or volume of the cut. Sylviculture intensive
Inventory (forest) A survey of a forest area to determine data such as area, condition, timber, volume and species for a specific purpose, such as planning, purchasing, evaluating, managing or harvesting. Inventaire forestier
J-root A root, especially a seedling tap root, having a sharp bend greater than 90, shaped like a J. Frequently introduced by inappropriate planting. Racine en J
Landscape Areas of land that are distinguished by differences in landforms, vegetation, land use, and aesthetic characteristics. Paysage
Leaching Process in which soluble substances in the soil are removed by the movement of water. Lessivage
Litter Upper layer of organic debris on a forest floor, essentially the freshly fallen or only slightly decomposed material (leaves, branches, bark fragments, twigs, etc). Litière
Litter Uppermost layer of organic debris on a forest floor. Litière
Lower Arctic Subarea of the arctic zone characterized by the absence of trees, continuous permafrost and tundra vegetation consisting of shrubs, herbaceous plants (mainly grasses), mosses and lichens. Bas-Arctique
Main crop In regular crops or stands, that portion of the growing stock retained after an intermediate cutting. Peuplement principal
Management plan A predetermined course of action and direction to achieve a set of results, usually specified as goals, objectives and policies. Plan d'aménagement
Microfauna Soil-dwelling micro-organisms (animals) that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Synonym: soil fauna. Microfaune
Microsite The ultimate unit of the habitat, i.e., the specific spot occupied by an individual organism. By extension, the more or less specialized relationships existing between an organism and its environment. Niche (écologique)
Mist forest A forest of high elevation that occurs along the foggy windward shores of continents and islands. Forêt de brouillard
Mixed forest Subarea of the northern temperate zone, which is dominated by mixed forests encompassing both coniferous boreal species and more southerly deciduous species. Forêt mélangée
Mixed stand A stand composed of two or more species in which less than 80% of trees in the main crown canopy are of a single species. The threshold in Manitoba and New Brunswick is 75%. cf. pure stand Mélangé
Mixedwoods Trees belonging to either of the botanical groups Gymnospermae or Angiospermae that are substantially intermingled in stands. Peuplement mixte
Montréal Criteria and Indicators Process This global initiative was so named because the first meeting sponsored by the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe was held in Montreal. Currently, 12 countries representing 90% of the world's boreal and temperate forests have agreed to collaborate to develop national C&I for the conservation and sustainable management of all boreal and temperate forests. Processus de Montréal sur les critères et les indicateurs
Multiple forest use A system of resource use where the forest resources in a given land unit serve more than one user. Utilisation intégrée de la forêt
National forest strategy An overarching national vision and framework for Canada’s forests developed by the Council of Canadian Forest Ministers. The first strategy appeared in 1981. Stratégie nationale sur la forêt
Niche environment The unique environment used to sustain the existence of an organism or species. Niche écologique
Non-timber forest products Any commodity obtained from the forest that does not necessitate harvesting trees. It includes game animals, fur-bearers, nuts and seeds, berries, mushrooms, oils, foliage, medicinal plants, peat, fuelwood, forage, etc. Produit forestier non ligneux (PFNL)
Non-timber value A value within the forest other than timber that includes, but is not limited to, biological diversity, fisheries, wildlife, minerals, water quality and quantity, recreation and tourism, cultural heritage values, and wilderness and aesthetic values. Valeurs non ligneuses
Nutrients Mineral or organic substances (elements or chemical compounds) that plants and animals require for normal growth and activity. Plants and trees obtain nutrients primarily from the soil by absorbing them through their roots. Nutriments
Old field An area of cleared open land no longer used for cultivation or pasture which may be in the process of reverting to forest. Champ abandonné
Old-growth forest An old growth forest differs significantly from younger stands in structure, ecological function and species composition with respect to canopy closure, age class structure, accumulation of woody debris and the presence of species and functional processes that are representative of the potential natural community. Forêt anciennne / vieille forêt
Ombrophilous Able to thrive in areas of abundant rainfall. Ombrophile
Open forest Proposed name for the natural forest commonly found in northern Canada. This forest is a mixture of wetlands and small trees, occasionally interspersed with highly productive forests. Forêts claires
Overstorey The uppermost continuous layer of a vegetation cover, for example the tree canopy in a forest ecosystem or the uppermost layer of a shrub stand. Étage dominant
Pathogen A microscopic organism or virus directly capable of causing disease. see thinning: precommercial. Pathogène
Pathogenic A parasitic organism directly capable of causing disease. Pathogène
Pedology Scientific discipline that is concerned with all aspects of soils. Pédologie
Periodic block The part(s) of forest allocated for regeneration (the regeneration block) or other treatment during a specified period. (3) Affectation de régénération
Permafrost A perennially frozen soil horizon. Pergélisol
Permafrost Permanently frozen ground comprised of an active layer of soil overlying a layer of ice that varies in thickness. Permafrost is completely impervious to water because it does not thaw, although the active layer does thaw seasonally. Pergélisol
Piedmont The area of foothills at the edge of a range of mountains, which represents the transition between mountain and plain. The Foothills of Alberta are an example of a piedmont. Piedmont (ou piémont)
Pioneer species Species that are the first to colonize a new site or a new ecosystem. They are generally shade intolerant and need a lot of sunlight in order to grow. Poplars and birches are pioneer species. Espèce pionnière
Planetary wave A wave in the atmospheric circulation, in one of the principal zones of the westerly winds, characterized by a great length and a significant amplitude. Onde planétaire
Plantation forestry Application of forestry principles to an artificial crop or stand. Foresterie de plantation
Plus stand A stand containing a preponderance of good phenotypes, but not necessarily plus trees. Peuplement plus
Pollard system The systematic harvest cutting of pollard shoots, with due provision for replacing exhausted or defective pollards. Taillis sur têtards
Population A group that includes all possible members of a species in a territory at a given time. Population
Productivity The rate of production of wood of given specifications, by volume or weight, for a given area. cf. site capability Productivité
Protected area A geographically defined area which is designated or regulated and managed to achieve specific conservation objectives. Zone / aire protégée
Protection forest All forest land managed primarily to exert beneficial influence on soil, water, landscape, or for any other purpose when production of merchantable timber, if any, is incidental. Forêt de protection
Protozoa Single-celled animal-like microorganisms whose cells have a nucleus. Protozoa play an important role in the ecology of aquatic and soil environments, where they are omnipresent. Protozoaire
Rainforest Forest that occurs in an area of high rainfall. Rainforests are usually found near the sea or in mountainous regions that receive a great deal of rain. Tropical forests are generally rainforests. Forêt pluviale
Reforestation syn. reafforestation Successful renewal of a forest crop by planting or direct seeding. Création de forêt
Research and development (R&D) Set of activities directed toward improving and innovating products and processes from a technological point of view and not from a commercial point of view. Encompasses basic research, applied research and development. Recherche et développement (R-D)
Resilience The capacity of a community or ecosystem to maintain or regain normal function and development following disturbance. Résilience
Riparian forest At a large scale, it is the band of forest that has a significant influence on a stream ecosystem or is significantly affected by the stream. At a smaller scale, it is the forest at the immediate water’s edge, where some specialized plants and animals form a distinct community. Forêt riveraine
Riparian forest buffer A strip of forested land of variable width adjacent to a flowing body of fresh water, which it influences and is affected by. Prone to flooding, a riparian forest buffer can be integrated into an agroforestry system and help counter stream bank erosion, protect water quality, and regularize water flow. Bande riveraine
Riparian zone A strip of land of variable width adjacent to and influenced by a body of fresh water. Zone riveraine
Risk assessment A quantitative and qualitative approach to determining the hazardous capacity of a new product. This involves the identification and characterization of hazards, an assessment of exposure to the product, and a final risk characterization of the product. Évaluation des risques
Root Part of the tree that anchors it and absorbs nutrients from the soil. Racine
Root-to-shoot ratio The total mass or volume of the plant root system divided by the total mass or volume of the shoot system, usually on an oven-dry basis. Rapport système racinaire/système foliacé
Science (forest) The study of the material universe or physical reality in order to understand it. This is done by making observations and collecting data about natural events and conditions, then organizing and explaining them with hypotheses, theories, models, laws and principles. Science forestière
Second growth forest The forest growth that has developed (naturally or artificially) following the removal of the original forest. Forêt de seconde venue
Secondary succession Process whereby one stand or plant community supplants another; it is triggered by a major disturbance in a forest ecosystem. Successions secondaires
Sedge Herbaceous plants that have narrow leaves with sharp edges, flowers that are grouped into spikes and fruit (achenes) enclosed in small sacs. Sedges grow in tufts at the water’s edge and in wetlands. Carex
Selection method A method of regenerating a forest stand and maintaining an uneven-aged structure by removing some trees in all size classes either singly or in small groups or strips. Jardinage
Shade system An agroforestry system involving the planting of trees or shrubs whose canopy provides the appropriate level of shade to grow shade-requiring (perennial) crops. Système de production sous couvert forestier
Silvics The study of the life history and general characteristics of forest trees and stands, with particular reference to locality factors as a basis of silviculture. Écologie forestière
Silviculture Practices aimed at ensuring wise harvesting of forest resources : conservation, regeneration, reforestation, cutting, etc. Sylviculture
Silviculture The theory and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, growth, and quality of forest stands to achieve the objectives of management. Sylviculture
Simple coppice system A coppice system in which the crop is clearcut and regenerated by stool shoots, stump sprouts, or root suckers, giving even-aged stands; rotation is relatively short. Taillis simple
Single tree selection A method of regenerating uneven-aged stands in which individual trees are removed more or less uniformly throughout the stand. Jardinage par arbre
Site A land area based on its climatic, physiographic, edaphic, and biotic factors that determine its suitability and productivity for particular species and silvicultural alternatives. Site
Site capability The mean annual increment in merchantable volume which can be expected for a forest area, assuming it is fully stocked by one or more species best adapted to the site, at or near rotation age. Expressed in cubic metres per he Potentiel de station
Site improvement Modifications to a given site in order to improve growing conditions for a specific species or mixture of species. Amélioration de la station
Site index An expression of forest site quality based on the height, at a specified age, of dominant and codominant trees in a stand. May be grouped into site classes. Expressed in metres. Usually refers to a particular species. Indice de station
Site quality The productive capacity of a site; usually expressed as volume production of a given species per unit area (cubic metres per hectare) or per unit of time (cubic metres per year). Qualité de station
Smog Mixture of polluting particles and water drops in the atmosphere that forms a thick fog in industrial regions. Smog
Stand A community of trees possessing sufficient uniformity in composition, age, arrangement, or condition to be distinguishable from the forest or other growth on adjoining areas, thus forming a silvicultural or management entity. Peuplement
Stand model A mathematical model that forecasts the development of a forest stand, usually in terms of mean stand attributes, e.g., mean diameter, height. Modèle de peuplement
Stand table A summary table showing the number of trees per unit area by species and diameter classes, for a stand or type. The data may also be presented in the form of a frequency distribution of diameter classes. Table de peuplement
Stewardship The science, art and skill of responsible and accountable management of resources. Intendance
Stock table A summary table showing the volume of trees per unit area by species and diameter classes, for a stand or type. Table de stock
Stocked forest land Land supporting tree growth. In this context, tree growth includes seedlings and saplings. Terrain forestier boisé
Story A horizontal stratum or layer in a plant community; in forests, appearing as one or more canopies. A forest having more than two stories is called multistoried. A forest having one story (the main story) is called single-storied. Étage
Structure The distribution of trees in a stand or group by age, size, or crown classes (e.g., all-aged, even-aged, uneven-aged, regular, and irregular structures). Structure
Succession The gradual supplanting of one community of plants by another, the sequence of communities being termed a sere and each stage seral. Succession
Sun system An agroforestry system involving the planting of trees or shrubs with agricultural crops or forest-derived crops that require full sun. As the trees/shrubs grow, the canopy closes, and the level of shade increases, a sun system may become a shade system or another agroforestry system. (See also intercropping.) Système de production à découvert
Sustainability The capacity of forests, ranging from stands to ecoregions, to maintain their health, productivity, diversity, and overall integrity, in the long run, in the context of human activity and use. The concept of producing a biological resource under management practices that ensure replacement of the part harvested, by regrowth or reproduction, before another harvest occurs. Durabilité
Sustainable development Sustainable development in forestry expands the principle of sustained timber yield by including wildlife and fish habitats, watersheds and hydrological cycles, as well as gene pools and species diversity. Développement durable
Sustainable forest development The development of forests to meet current needs without prejudice to their future productivity, ecological diversity or capacity for regeneration. Développement durable des forêts
Sustainable forest management Management that maintains and enhances the long-term health of forest ecosystems for the benefit of all living things while providing environmental, economic, social and cultural opportunities for present and future generations. Aménagement forestier durable
Sustainable Forestry Initiative A forest certification program run by a multi-stakeholder (environment, industry, government, academic groups, etc.) board of directors. The SFI standard is a comprehensive system of principles, objectives and performance measures that combines the perpetual growing and harvesting of trees with the long-term protection of wildlife, plants, and soil and water quality. Sustainable Forestry Initiative
Taiga Subarea of the extensive boreal zone characterized by open coniferous forest with lichens. Taïga
Temperate forest One of three main forest zones in the world (see also boreal forest, tropical forest). The woodland of rather mild climatic areas; composed mainly of deciduous trees. Forêt tempérée
Tropical forest One of three main forest zones in the world (see also boreal forest, temperate forest). A tropical woodland with an annual rainfall of a least 250 cm; marked by broad-leaved evergreen trees forming a continuous canopy. Forêt tropicale
Understorey The lower level of vegetation in a forest. Usually formed by ground vegetation (mosses, herbs and lichens), herbs and shrubs. Sous-étage
Uneven-aged Of a forest, stand, or forest type in which intermingling trees differ markedly in age. The differences in age permitted in an uneven-aged stand are usually greater than 10-20 years. Inéquienne
Urban forest The trees, forests, and associated organisms that grow near buildings and in gardens, green spaces, parks, and golf courses located in village, town, suburban, and urban areas. Forêt urbaine
Variable-retention A silvicultural system that follows nature’s model by always retaining part of the forest after harvesting. Standing trees are left in a dispersed or aggregated form to meet objectives such as retaining old-growth structure, habitat protection and visual quality. Variable retention retains structural features (snags, large woody debris, live trees of varying sizes, canopy levels) as wildlife habitat. Rétention variable
Vertical diversity The diversity in a stand that results from the complexity of the above-ground structure of the vegetation. Diversité verticale
Vertical structure The structure formed by different layers of vegetation in a forest. Structure verticale
veteran A tree that has escaped logging, windthrow, or fire, and occupies a dominant position in the stand. vétéran
Watershed The area drained by an underground or surface stream, or by a system of streams. Bassin hydrographique
Wildland-urban interface The wildland-urban interface broadly refers to the area where forests meet houses and infrastructure that is part of communities. Surface limite entre les terres non défrichées et les zones urbaines
Woody debris Dead and decomposing wood of various sizes. Débris ligneux
Yield table Tables and graphs illustrating volumes per hectare of stands at a specific age. normal yield table [table de rendement normal]: Estimated stand volume per age class at normal stocking. Table de rendement
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