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Forest pests

Term Definition French
Acid precipitation Rain, snow, sleet, hail or fog, usually with acidity below pH 5.6. Acidic precipitation is primarily the result of emissions of gases of sulphur and nitrogen oxides which are transformed into sulphuric acid and nitric acid respectively as they are transported over distances of hundreds to thousands of kilometres from their source. Précipitation acide
Adjuvant An additive used in pesticide spray formulations which enhances adherence to plants. Adjuvant
Advance regeneration Young trees under existing stands capable of becoming the next crop. Regeneration established before logging that has survived the logging operation. Régénération préexistante
Air pruning Limiting extension of a root system beyond a container by exposure to air. Élagage aérien
All-aged Of a forest, crop, or stand that contains trees of all, or almost all, age classes, including those of exploitable age. De tous âges
Anthracnose Foliar disease characterized by reduced growth of some portions of the lobes and by the development of necrotic lesions between the veins and on the leaf margins; these lesions may spread to the entire leaf and then the buds and, in extreme cases, the twigs. Anthracnose
Antibiotic Chemical substance capable of preventing the development of micro-organisms. Antibiotique
Antifungal Capable of killing fungi or impeding their development. Antifongique
Antigen A substance that the organism identifies as foreign, hence triggering the release of antibodies as a defence response. Antigène
Apex Tip or top of an animal or plant structure. Apex
Apothecium Cup-shaped ascomatum found in certain ascomycetes fungi and containing the reproductive structures (asci and ascospores). Apothèce
Apterous Wingless. Aptère
Arboreal Pertaining to the culture of trees. Arboricole
Arboriculture The cultivation, that is, growing and tending, of trees and shrubs, individually or in small groups, generally for ornament, protection, and instruction rather than direct use or profit. Arboriculture
Area regenerating Includes areas that have been harvested recently (less than 10 years ago), and areas depleted by such natural disturbances as fire, insects and disease. Superficie en régénération
Arthropoda Phylum of invertebrate animals that possess an exoskeleton and a segmented body with jointed appendages (legs). Arthropods include crustaceans, spiders and insects. Arthropodes
Artificial regeneration Renewal of a tree crop by direct seeding or by planting seedlings or cuttings. Régénération artificielle
Ascomatum Sexual stage of ascomycetes fungi, either an apothecium, a perithecium or a cleistothecium, which contains the asci and ascospores. Ascome
Ascospore Fungus spore produced within an ascus. Ascospore
Ascus Bag-like structure that develops within an ascomata and is made up of a membrane in which ascospores are produced; the ascospores are discharged from the ascus at maturity. Asque
Auger planting Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole using an auger. Plantation à la tarière
Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) A biological insecticide developed in Canada. This natural bacterium, which occurs in soils, is sprayed on forests to combat damaging insects. Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.)
Bacteria Single-celled organisms that have no nucleus; Plural of bacterium. Bactérie
Ball planting Setting out trees with their roots left undisturbed in a dug-out clod of soil. Note: if trees are bare-rooted, and roots are enclosed in a rough ball of soil, they are properly termed balled. Plantation en mottes
Banding Applying a chemical or other substance to the bole of a tree in the form of a band. Cerclage
Bark The outer covering of trees. Écorce
Basal injection A treatment consisting of forcing a liquid or an encapsulated herbicide into the basal portion of a tree. Injection à la base de la tige
Basic silviculture All the silvicultural practices required to achieve free-growing (or established) regeneration of desired species at specified densities and stocking. Sylviculture de base
Basidiospore Fungus spore produced on a basidium. Basidiospore
Basket planting Setting out young trees, etc., in loosely-woven baskets in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed. Plantation en paniers
Biodiversity The collection of life on earth; the natural patterns that form from all the species of life (species diversity), the genes that each of them possess (genetic diversity), as well as the ecosystems which these species form (ecosystem diversity). Biodiversité
Biological pest control methods The application of whole organisms or portions of organisms as biologically sound alternatives to broad-spectrum chemical pesticides. Méthodes de lutte biologique contre les ravageurs
Blight Rapid browning or blackening of leaves, which subsequently die, caused by the deterioration of growing tissues. Brûlure
Blowdown Tree or trees felled or broken off by wind, snow, ice or age. Chablis
Boreal forest One of three main forest zones in the world (see also tropical forest, temperate forest) located in northern regions and is characterized by the predominance of conifers (such as pine, spruce, larch and fir) and some deciduous (such as poplar and birch). The boreal forest (singular) is a colloquial term often used to refer to the overall forested area within the boreal zone, and sometimes to refer to the boreal zone itself because forests dominate this landscape. Boreal forests (plural) is the preferred term for the forested areas within the boreal zone. Forêt boréale
Box pruning Lateral root pruning on four sides of nursery stock in situ. Previous undercutting is usually implicit. Élagage latéral (des racines)
Buffer zone A strip of land where disturbances are not allowed, or are closely monitored, to preserve aesthetic and other qualities adjacent to roads, trails, waterways and recreation sites. Zone tampon
Bullet planting Setting out young trees grown in bullet-shaped rigid plastic tubes, which are injected into the ground by a spring-loaded gun, sometimes into prepared holes. Plantation en cartouches
Callus Thickening and hardening of the cambium tissues which occur as part of a plant's response to a wound. Cal
Canker Lesion of the cambium and the living bark of trees that alters and kills these tissues in a localized area. Chancre
Carbon sink A carbon reservoir that absorbs and stores carbon from another part of the carbon cycle. A sink stores more carbon than it emits to the atmosphere. This store of carbon can also be termed a reservoir or pool. Although a growing forest can be considered a carbon sink, when the forest stops growing and its trees die and start decomposing, it becomes a carbon source, because it emits more carbon than it stores. Puits de carbone
Caterpillar Larval form of the immature stage of Lepidopterans. Transforms into a butterfly or moth. Chenille
Chitin Compound secreted by the epidermis in arthropods and making up the bulk of their cuticle (outer layer of the body). Chitine
Cleistothecium Spherical ascomatum (with no opening) found in certain ascomycetes fungi and containing the reproductive structures (asci and ascospores). Cléistothèce
Climate change An alteration in measured quantities (for example, precipitation, temperature, radiation, wind and cloudiness) within the climate system that departs significantly from previous average conditions and is seen to endure, bringing about corresponding changes in ecosystems and socio-economic activity. Changement climatique
Coarse woody debris The standing and downed dead wood in a forest. Débris ligneux grossier
Commercial forest Forest land that is able to grow commercial timber within an acceptable time frame and is designated for such a purpose. Forêt d'intérêt commercial
Conidiophore Specialized hypha upon which one or more conidia are borne. Conidiophore
Conidium Thin-walled spore produced asexually by certain fungi. Conidie
Continuous boreal forest Main subarea of the vast boreal zone, which is characterized by relatively dense stands containing primarily boreal coniferous species and shade-intolerant deciduous trees. Forêt boréale continue
Contour planting Setting out of young trees along a contour line. Plantation en bandes de niveau
Corridor planting Setting trees in parallel rows, generally at regular intervals between and in lines, on land either wholly or partially cleared. Plantation en lignes
Crop The harvestable vegetation growing on a forest area, more particularly the major woody growth forming the forest crop. Peuplement forestier
Crown pruning 1. Natural: Removal or decadence of lateral live crown by wind, abrasion, reduced light, etc. 2. Cultural: Mechanical removal of branch ends to shape crowns for aesthetic appeal, e.g., for Christmas trees, bonsai, etc. Taille en cime
Cuticle (Bionaty) Surface tissue layer of the cap of fungi. (Entomology) Layer of material covering the body of arthropods. This covering is made hard and rigid by the chitin secreted by the epidermis. Cuticule
Decay Decomposition of wood caused by micro-organisms, mostly fungi. The wood generally becomes soft and crumbly, loses density and changes colour. Carie
Deciduous species Trees that lose their leaves in the fall, such as birch, maple and basswood, are deciduous species. “Deciduous” means falling off or shed seasonally. Espèce arborescente décidue
Decurrent Refers to gills, folds, tubes or teeth that run down the stem of fungi. Décurrent
Defoliation The removal of all or most of a plant’s leaves by natural disturbance agents (e.g., insects) or through the actions of humans (e.g., the application of herbicides). Défoliation
Defoliator Organism that feeds on the foliage of plants. Eg, insects that feed on and destroy whole leaves or parts of leaves. Défoliateur
Desiccation Process of becoming dried out. Dessiccation
Detritivorous Feeding on detritus, decomposing organic matter. Détritivore
Dibble planting Sowing seeds or setting out seedlings in rough holes made with a stick or peg. Also termed dibbling if done with a specially adapted tool such as a dibble. Plantation au bâton
Digital model Computer-based representation of a mathematical model describing natural phenomena. These models use complex equations to perform essentially mathematical simulations of natural phenomena. They are used to study and test hypotheses about tides, climate change, the changes in an insect population or a forest, and so on. Modèles numériques
Diurnal Pertaining to organisms that are active during the day. Diurne
Dry packing In tree injection, a method of banding that uses a tight waterproof bandage packed with a chemical, either dry or in paste form. Injection à sec
Edge habitat A loosely defined type of habitat that occurs at the boundary between two different habitat types. Typically, edge habitats share characteristics with both adjacent habitat types and have particular transitional characteristics that are important to wildlife. Habitat de lisière
Elytron A scleotized fore wing that covers the hind wing like a sheath. Found in Coleoptera. Élytre
Endoparasitoid Organism that lives inside and feeds on a single host, which dies after the parasitoid has completed its larval development. Endoparasitoïde
Even-aged Of a forest, stand, or forest type in which relatively small age differences exist between individual trees. The differences in age permitted are usually 10 to 20 years. Équienne
Even-aged (forest) A forest stand or type in which relatively small age differences exist between individual trees (usually 10–20 years). Équienne (forêt)
Exotic An introduced, non-native tree species. Exotique
Fauna A general term for all forms of animal life characteristic of a region, period or special environment. Faune
Field nursery A nursery, generally not permanent, established in or near the forest rather than near an administrative or executive headquarters. Also referred to as satellite nursery in Ontario and in the Prairies. Pépinière volante
Flora A general term for all forms of plant life characteristic of a region, period or special environment. Flore
Flower The reproductive structure of a tree or other plant consisting of the male and/or female parts. Fleur
Foliage All the leaves of a tree. Feuillage
Forest Ecosystem that generally covers a large area and is composed of woody vegetation dominated by trees growing in a relatively dense pattern. Forêt
Forest Ecology: Generally, an ecosystem characterized by a more or less dense and extensive tree cover. More particularly, a plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, growing more or less closely together. Forêt
Forest hygiene Care for the health of the forest, particularly by sanitation cutting. Hygiène sylvicole
Forest land Land primarily intended for growing, or currently supporting, forest. It includes land not now forested (for example, clearcut lands and northern lands that are forested but not intended for any commercial forestry use) and plantations. Terres forestières
Forest practices Any activities that enhance or recover forest growth or harvest yield (e.g., site preparation, planting, thinning, fertilizing, harvesting, etc.), and road construction or reconstruction within forest lands. Pratiques forestières
Forestry Generally, a profession embracing the science, business, and art of creating, conserving, and managing forests and forest lands for the continuing use of their resources, material or other. Foresterie
Forestry practices Any activity that is carried out on forest land to facilitate the use of forest resources, including, but not limited to, timber harvesting, road construction, silviculture, grazing, recreation, pest control and wildfire suppression. Pratiques forestières
Fragmentation The splitting or isolating of patches of similar habitat, typically forest cover, but including other types of habitat. Habitat can be fragmented naturally or from forest management activities, such as clearcut logging. Fragmentation
Fruit body A reproductive structure on or in which spores of a fungus are produced. Fructification
Fuel plantation syn. fuelwood plantation Setting out young trees to be hogged for burning. Plantation énergétique
Fungicide Any agent used to kill or inhibit the growth of fungi and their spores. Fongicide
Fungicide Substance used to kill fungi. Fongicide
Fungicides Products that can inhibit the growth of fungi or kill them. Fungicides are used in agriculture and industrial plantation forestry to protect plants and trees from certain fungal diseases. Fongicides
Gene stacking Combining desired traits, for example, pest resistance and herbicide tolerance, in a genetically modified organism. Empilement de gènes
Geophilous Living in or on the ground. Géophile
Gill Plate-shaped membrane located under the cap of a fungus; all of the gills together form the hymenium. Lamelle
Girdling Destruction of tissue (water conducting system) in a ring around a tree. Anneler
Global warming The rise in temperature of the Earth's atmosphere due to the greenhouse effect. Réchauffement climatique
Granivorous Feeding on seeds. Granivore
Greenhouse gas source Any process or activity (for example, forest fires or conversion of forest land to agricultural or urban uses) that releases greenhouse gases or precursors of those gases into the atmosphere. As trees and forest products decompose or burn, they release carbon in the form of carbon dioxide. Source de gaz à effet de serre
Group planting Setting out young trees in groups. Plantation par bouquets
Habitat The environment in which a population or individual lives; includes not only the place where a species is found, but also the particular characteristics of the place (for example, climate or the availability of suitable food and shelter) that make it especially well suited to meet the life cycle needs of that species. Habitat
Hardwood(s) (broad-leaved trees) Trees whose leaves are not persistent and fall off at the end of a defined growing season or during a period of temperature or moisture stress. This is the predominant tree type in deciduous forests. Also refers to the wood produced by these trees. Feuillus (arbres à feuilles caduques)
Hematophagous Feeding on blood. Hématophage
Heritage forest A forest managed to harvest forest products and to sustain the natural system, including its bioproductivity, biotic and abiotic diversity. Modern technology, equipment and methods may be used to harvest, restock and tend the forest, with an emphasis on natural restocking, supplemented with artificial restocking of appropriate endemic species. Forêt patrimoniale
Heteroconophagous Feeding occasionally on seeds and cones, but usually lives and feeds on stems and needles. Hétéroconophage
Hibernation Sleeplike stage in which an organism's metabolism is reduced to its lowest level. Hibernation
Hole planting Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole or pit. Roots separated on either side of a wedge or saddle of earth left in situ when the hole was dug is termed saddle planting. Plantation sur potets
Home range The area in which an animal lives, hunts, and mates throughout its life. Domaine vital
Host Organism harbouring a parasite. Hôte
Humicolous Living in or on humus or leaf litter. Humicole
Hyperparasite Parasitic organism that lives off of another parasite. Hyperparasite
Hyperparasitoid Organism that attacks and lives on another parasitoid. Hyperparasitoïde
Hypha One of many filaments that make up the mycelium or body of a fungus. Hyphe
Hypovirulence Reduced virulence in a micro-organism caused by genetic mutation or the presence of a virus. Hypovirulence
Industrial plantation forestry Tree cultivation using methods of intensive silviculture: plantations made up of genetically improved stock, fertilization, drainage, phytosanitary treatments, release of higher quality stems, etc. Ligniculture
Insecticide Any chemical or biological preparation used to kill or disrupt the development of insects. Insecticide
Integrated pest management The use of a mix of techniques and/or strategies to control pests, as opposed to the application of a single method. Lutte intégrée contre les ravageurs
Intensive silviculture Application of cultural measures which, in addition to simply maintaining the forest cover, will allow an increase in the value or volume of the cut. Sylviculture intensive
Intermediate treatments Any treatment in a stand during that portion of the rotation not included in the final harvest or regeneration period. cf. tending Traitement intermédiaire
Interplanting Planting young trees among existing natural regeneration or previously planted trees of similar age. Plantation intercalaire
Inventory (forest) A survey of a forest area to determine data such as area, condition, timber, volume and species for a specific purpose, such as planning, purchasing, evaluating, managing or harvesting. Inventaire forestier
Lammas shoots Extra leader growth extension late in the growing season. Pousse d’été
Landscape Areas of land that are distinguished by differences in landforms, vegetation, land use, and aesthetic characteristics. Paysage
Leaf Organ in plants that has various forms (needles, scales, etc.) and that carries on photosynthesis, producing energy for life. Feuille
Leafroller Organism that hides and feeds inside a leaf or the tip of a leaf that it has rolled-up into a cigar-shaped tube. Enrouleuse
Lifting the canopy Removing the lower constituents of a canopy, e.g., the lowest undergrowth, shrubs, and small trees in a multistoried forest, mainly to assist the main crop, particularly for regeneration, but also for readier access. Élagage de dégagement
Lignicolous Growing in or on wood. Lignicole
Lignin A complex and relatively hydrophobic biopolymer present in the secondary cell walls of vascular plants—and particularly abundant in wood—that gives rigidity to plant stems and allows them to conduct water efficiently. Lignine
Lignin Main component of wood. Lignine
Live-crown ratio A rough but convenient index of the ability of a tree's crown to nourish the remaining part of the tree; it is the percentage of length of stem having living branches. L-notch planting [plantation avec fentes en L. Taux de cime vivante
Lop and top The branches and tops cut from a tree, generally once felled or fallen. Résidus d’ébranchage-façonnage
Maggot Whitish larva that resembles a worm and has no legs (example : fly larva). Asticot
Main crop In regular crops or stands, that portion of the growing stock retained after an intermediate cutting. Peuplement principal
Mechanical planting Setting out young trees by means of a machine specially designed for this operation. Plantation mécanique
Mine Gallery excavated by a larva in plant tissues, such as a leaf or bark. Mine
Miner Organism that feeds inside the blade of a leaf, between the epidermal layers, or beneath the bark of plants, by first excavating a mine into these tissues. Mineuse
Mite Acarian that feeds on plant or animal matter. Mite
Mixed stand A stand composed of two or more species in which less than 80% of trees in the main crown canopy are of a single species. The threshold in Manitoba and New Brunswick is 75%. cf. pure stand Mélangé
Mixedwoods Trees belonging to either of the botanical groups Gymnospermae or Angiospermae that are substantially intermingled in stands. Peuplement mixte
Model forest A forest or designated area including forests and woodlands for which an integrated management plan is created and implemented to achieve multiple objectives on a sustainable basis. Forêt modèle
Morphology Form and structure of living organisms. Morphologie
Mortality Death or destruction of forest trees as result of competition, disease, insect damage, drought, wind, fire, old age, and other factors, excluding harvesting. Mortalité
Mound planting Setting out young trees on raised microsites. Plantation sur butte
Mycelium Vegetative part of a fungus, which is composed of a mass of hyphae and distinct from the fruiting body. Mycélium
National forest strategy An overarching national vision and framework for Canada’s forests developed by the Council of Canadian Forest Ministers. The first strategy appeared in 1981. Stratégie nationale sur la forêt
Native (indigenous) A species that occurs naturally in an area. Indigène
Natural regeneration Renewal of a tree crop by natural seeding, sprouting, suckering, or layering. Régénération naturelle
Necrophagous Feeding on dead or decomposing animal matter. Nécrophage
Necrosis Alteration of tissues caused by the death of cells. Nécrose
Needle-feeding Living in and feeding on needles. Acicole
Nest planting Setting out a number of seedlings or seeds close together in a prepared hole, pit, or spot. Plantation en nids
New forestry A forest management philosophy that attempts to retain characteristics of old-growth stands in managed stands. Nouvelle foresterie
Nursery An area set aside for the raising of young trees mainly for planting out. Temporary nurseries, particularly those formed beneath a high canopy of large trees, may be termed bush nurseries. cf. field nursery Pépinière
Nursery bed One of the specially prepared plots in a nursery where seed is sown or into which transplants or cuttings are put. Planche
Nutrients Mineral or organic substances (elements or chemical compounds) that plants and animals require for normal growth and activity. Plants and trees obtain nutrients primarily from the soil by absorbing them through their roots. Nutriments
Occlusion The process of healing of cut branch stubs by the cambium of the surrounding stem surface. Occlusion
Old-growth forest An old growth forest differs significantly from younger stands in structure, ecological function and species composition with respect to canopy closure, age class structure, accumulation of woody debris and the presence of species and functional processes that are representative of the potential natural community. Forêt anciennne / vieille forêt
Open forest Proposed name for the natural forest commonly found in northern Canada. This forest is a mixture of wetlands and small trees, occasionally interspersed with highly productive forests. Forêts claires
Overmature In even-aged management, those trees or stands past the mature stage. Suranné
Parthenogenesis Form of reproduction in which an organism develops from an unfertilized egg. Parthénogenèse
Pathogen Living or dead agent that alters the normal functions of a whole plant or part of a plant. Agent pathogène
Pedology Scientific discipline that is concerned with all aspects of soils. Pédologie
Pelleting Incorporating seed in a matrix of fungicide, insecticide, repellent, coloring material or inert carrier, or any combination of these, so as to form a small ball termed a seed pellet. Enrobage
Perithecium Flask-shaped ascomatum found in certain ascomycetes fungi and containing the reproductive structures (ascus and ascospores). Périthèce
Pest Organism that causes serious damage to plants or foodstuffs. Ravageur
Pest resistance A heritable trait that enables an organism (e.g., a tree) to be less damaged by pests compared to its non-resistant relatives. Résistance aux ravageurs
Phloem The part of the tree that is produced through the growth of cambium cells in an outward direction. It may also be called secondary phloem. The sap produced by the leaves travels through the phloem tissue downwards in the tree. Compared with the xylem (wood) the phloem occupies a very small part of the tree. Phloème
Pioneer species Species that are the first to colonize a new site or a new ecosystem. They are generally shade intolerant and need a lot of sunlight in order to grow. Poplars and birches are pioneer species. Espèce pionnière
Pit planting Setting out young trees in small depressions, natural or excavated, with a view to collecting and conserving moisture. Plantation sur trous
Plantation forest Forest stands established by planting and/or seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestation which are either of introduced species (all planted stands) or intensively managed stands of indigenous species, which meet all the following criteria: one or two species at plantation, even age class, regular spacing. Plantation forestière
Plantation forestry Application of forestry principles to an artificial crop or stand. Foresterie de plantation
Planting Establishing a forest by setting out seedlings, transplants, or cuttings in an area. Plantation
Plus stand A stand containing a preponderance of good phenotypes, but not necessarily plus trees. Peuplement plus
Pollarding Cutting back the crown of a tree (removal of dead, diseased or unwanted branches). Émondage
Population A group that includes all possible members of a species in a territory at a given time. Population
Pot planting Setting out young trees in pot-shaped receptacles having a closed or only perforated end and made of various materials, in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed. Plantation en pot
Predator Organism that hunts, captures and kills several types of prey (insects and acarians) over the course of its development. Prédateur
Protected area A geographically defined area which is designated or regulated and managed to achieve specific conservation objectives. Zone / aire protégée
Protection forest All forest land managed primarily to exert beneficial influence on soil, water, landscape, or for any other purpose when production of merchantable timber, if any, is incidental. Forêt de protection
Protozoa Single-celled animal-like microorganisms whose cells have a nucleus. Protozoa play an important role in the ecology of aquatic and soil environments, where they are omnipresent. Protozoaire
Pruning Removal of branches from a tree, particularly beneath the crown. Élagage
Pruning 1. The removal of live branches from standing trees, termed green pruning; or of dead branches, dry pruning. 2. Removal of live or dead branches from ground level to as high as a person's reach (2.0-2.5 m) in a young stand. Élagage
Pycnidium Spherical or flask-shaped structure (resembles a perithecium, but is asexual) within which conidia are formed. Pycnide
Quincunx planting Setting out four young trees to form the corners of a square with a fifth tree at its center. Plantation en quinconces
Race A population that exists within a species and exhibits genetic characteristics distinct from those of the other populations. It is usually an interbreeding unit. Race
Radicicolous Living on or in roots. A parasite of roots. Radicicole
Regeneration Renewal of a forest crop by natural, artificial, or vegetative (regrowth) means. Also the new crop so obtained. The new crop is generally less than 1.3 m high. Régénération
Resilience The capacity of a community or ecosystem to maintain or regain normal function and development following disturbance. Résilience
Ridge planting Setting out young trees on a long, narrow crest of excavated soil, generally on a slice thrown up by a plough. Plantation sur bourrelet
Ring Ring structure around the base of some fungi. Anneau
Riparian zone A strip of land of variable width adjacent to and influenced by a body of fresh water. Zone riveraine
Root pruning The act of reducing one or more roots considered to be superfluous, usually at some stage before outplanting, in order to improve the shape and size of a root system. Élagage des racines
Root trimming The trimming of roots by a cutting tool after lifting and prior to outplanting. Taille des racines
Root-feeding Feeding on the roots of plants. Radicivore
Sanitation measures The removal of dead, damaged, or susceptible trees or their parts, or of vegetation that serves as an alternative host for crop-tree pathogens, to prevent or control the spread of pests or pathogens. Mesures sanitaires
Saprophagous Refers to organisms that feed on decaying or decayed plant or animal matter. Saprophage
Saproxylophagous Refers to an organism that develops in partially decomposed woody debris. Saproxylophage
Saproxylophilous Living on rotting wood. Saproxylophile
Scatophagous Feeding on dung or excrement. Scatophage
Scatophilous Living in association with dung or excrement. Scatophile
Sclerotin Cuticular protein that has been hardened and darkened. Sclérotine
Sclerotized Part of integument hardened through the excretion of calcium (crustaceans) or the deposition of sclerotin. Sclérifié
Second growth forest The forest growth that has developed (naturally or artificially) following the removal of the original forest. Forêt de seconde venue
Secondary succession Process whereby one stand or plant community supplants another; it is triggered by a major disturbance in a forest ecosystem. Successions secondaires
Seed orchard A plantation of trees, assumed or proven genetically to be superior, that has been isolated so as to reduce pollination from genetically inferior outside sources, and intensively managed to improve the genotype and produce frequent, abundant, etc. Verger à graines
Selection forest Forest treated and managed under the selection system. Forêt jardinée
Seminivorous Feeding on grain or seeds. Séminivore
Sexual reproduction Reproduction that involves the fusion of genetic material from two distinct entities. Reproduction sexuée
Shoot pruning Cutting away undesirable shoots to favor survival and growth of selected shoots. Élagage des rejets
Silvicultural regime A series of stand tending (thinning, pruning, etc.) treatments applied after regeneration to achieve a specific stand management objective. Traitement sylvicole
Silviculture Practices aimed at ensuring wise harvesting of forest resources : conservation, regeneration, reforestation, cutting, etc. Sylviculture
Silviculture The theory and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, growth, and quality of forest stands to achieve the objectives of management. Sylviculture
Slit planting Prying open a cut made by a spade, mattock, or planting bar (termed bar planting), inserting a young tree, then closing the cut on the latter by pressure. Plantation en fente
Snail-feeding Pertaining to an organism that feeds on snails. Héliciphage
Spot Circular or nearly circular lesions that appear on a leaf blade. They have a central zone of necrotic (dead, brown) tissue colonized by a pathogen; this zone is surrounded by healthy, coloured tissue. Tache
Spot planting Setting out young trees in small, prepared patches. Plantation sur placeaux
Spreader Any substance, solid or liquid, that, when added to a pesticide, herbicide, liquid fertilizer, or fire retardant, enables it to spread better over the surfaces on which it is deposited. Dispersant
Stand A community of trees possessing sufficient uniformity in composition, age, arrangement, or condition to be distinguishable from the forest or other growth on adjoining areas, thus forming a silvicultural or management entity. Peuplement
Stool 1. Silviculture: A living stump capable of producing sprouts or shoots. 2. Propagation: A living stump maintained to produce cuttings, layers, etc. Souche-mère
Strip cropping Crop planting in which strips of heavy-rooted plants are alternated with loose-rooted plants which serve as barriers to wind and water erosion. Plantation en lisières
Strip planting Setting trees, generally in two or more parallel lines, in a long narrow area of land that has been wholly or partially cleared. Plantation en bandes
Structure The distribution of trees in a stand or group by age, size, or crown classes (e.g., all-aged, even-aged, uneven-aged, regular, and irregular structures). Structure
Stump Part of trunk with roots remaining after a tree has been cut down. Souche
Succession The gradual supplanting of one community of plants by another, the sequence of communities being termed a sere and each stage seral. Succession
Sucking (lapping) Pertains to an organism that has mouth parts designed for collecting flower nectar. Lécheur
Sustainable Forestry Initiative A forest certification program run by a multi-stakeholder (environment, industry, government, academic groups, etc.) board of directors. The SFI standard is a comprehensive system of principles, objectives and performance measures that combines the perpetual growing and harvesting of trees with the long-term protection of wildlife, plants, and soil and water quality. Sustainable Forestry Initiative
Symbiotic association The living together in intimate association of two dissimilar organisms, so that the cohabitation is mutually beneficial. Association symbiotique
T-notching see slit planting Bêchage en T
Taungya plantation The raising of a forest crop in conjunction with a temporary agricultural crop. Plantation en taungya
Temperate forest One of three main forest zones in the world (see also boreal forest, tropical forest). The woodland of rather mild climatic areas; composed mainly of deciduous trees. Forêt tempérée
Tending Generally, any operation carried out for the benefit of a forest crop or an individual thereof, at any stage of its life; covers operations both on the crop itself, e.g., thinnings and improvement cuttings, and on competing vegetation. Soins culturaux
Terricolous Living in the soil or litter. Terricole
Thrips Any of numerous insects in the order Thysanoptera that are of minute size, have fringed wings (if winged) and feed mostly on plant juices. Thrips
Transgenic Genetically engineered to contain DNA from an external source, such as another species or a different variety. Many transgenic plants are more herbicide tolerant, are resistant to insect or viral pests, or produce modified versions of fruit or flowers. Transgénique
Tree farm Privately owned woodland in which the production of wood fibre is a primary management goal, as distinct from a tree nursery, fruit orchard, or landscape business. Propriété forestière de production
Tree injection The deliberate introduction, by pressure or simple absorption of a chemical -- generally a water-soluble salt in solution -- into the sapstream of a living tree. Injection d’arbres
Tree injector A specially designed tool used to inject a solution into a living tree. Injecteur
Trench planting Setting out young trees in a shallow trench or a continuous slit. Plantation en sillon
Trunk Part of the tree that is generally straight and vertical, located between the root collar and the branches (crown). Tronc
Tube planting Setting out young trees in narrow, open-ended cylinders of various materials, in which they have been raised from seed or into which they have been transplanted. Plantation de semis en tube
Tubes Cylindrical structures beneath the fungus cap constituting the hymenium in certain fungi. A tubular opening made by a worm or another animal. Tubes
Underplanting Planting young trees under the canopy of an existing stand. Plantation en sous-étage
Understorey The lower level of vegetation in a forest. Usually formed by ground vegetation (mosses, herbs and lichens), herbs and shrubs. Sous-étage
Uneven-aged Of a forest, stand, or forest type in which intermingling trees differ markedly in age. The differences in age permitted in an uneven-aged stand are usually greater than 10-20 years. Inéquienne
Urban forest The trees, forests, and associated organisms that grow near buildings and in gardens, green spaces, parks, and golf courses located in village, town, suburban, and urban areas. Forêt urbaine
Vertical structure The structure formed by different layers of vegetation in a forest. Structure verticale
Vestigial Organ that is diminished in size and often nonfunctional. Vestigial
Vigor class Assumption of the health of a tree based on observation of the foliage. Classe de vigueur
Virulence Measure of a pathogen's ability to multiply in a living organism and harm it. Virulence
Viruses Primitive microorganisms that must infect the living cells of animals, plants, or bacteria in order to replicate. When outside the host cells, viruses adopt a form consisting, most of the time, of a RNA or DNA molecule surrounded by a protein matrix. Virus
Viviparous Bringing forth living, fully formed individuals that are capable of feeding. Said of producing bulbils on young plants, instead of and in place of flowers. Vivipare
Volunteer growth Natural regeneration following site preparation and seeding or planting that could either supplement or completely obscure the trees being planted or seeded on the area. Régénération subséquente
Volva Cup-like sheath surrounding the stem base in some fungi, eg, Amanita; it is a remnant of the universal veil. Volve
Wilt Drying out, loss of colour and shape of leaves, then twigs and branches, caused by a lack of water or the presence of toxins. Flétrissement
Windfall 1. A tree or trees thrown down or with their stems broken off or other parts blown down by the wind. 2. Any area on which the trees have been thrown down or broken by the wind. Chablis
Windrow planting Planting between the two lanes created in windrowing. Plantation sur entrandain
Woody debris Dead and decomposing wood of various sizes. Débris ligneux
Xylophagous Feeding on woody tissues (wood). Xylophage
Xylophagous That feeds on wood. Lignivore
Xylophilous Growing in or living on wood. Xylophile
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