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Genetic diversity

Term Definition French
Advance regeneration Young trees under existing stands capable of becoming the next crop. Regeneration established before logging that has survived the logging operation. Régénération préexistante
Agrobacterium A genus of naturally occurring soil bacteria used to transfer genes into plants. Agrobacterium
Allele One of the possible alternative forms of a gene or of any DNA sequence occupying a specific position along a chromosome. The specific combination of alleles in an individual forms its genotype. Allèle
Amino acids A group of 20 organic compounds, combinations of which are bonded together in long chains to make proteins. Acide aminé
Apothecium Cup-shaped ascomatum found in certain ascomycetes fungi and containing the reproductive structures (asci and ascospores). Apothèce
Arboretum A place where many kinds of trees and shrubs are grown for scientific and educational purposes. Arboretum
Artificial regeneration Renewal of a tree crop by direct seeding or by planting seedlings or cuttings. Régénération artificielle
Ascomatum Sexual stage of ascomycetes fungi, either an apothecium, a perithecium or a cleistothecium, which contains the asci and ascospores. Ascome
Ascospore Fungus spore produced within an ascus. Ascospore
Ascus Bag-like structure that develops within an ascomata and is made up of a membrane in which ascospores are produced; the ascospores are discharged from the ascus at maturity. Asque
Asexual reproduction Reproduction without fertilization. New individuals may develop from vegetative parts such as tubers, bulbs, or rooted stems, or from sexual parts such as unfertilized eggs or other cells in the ovule. Propagation asexuée
Atrophied Describes an organ or part of a body that is reduced in size, rudimentary. Atrophié
Auger planting Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole using an auger. Plantation à la tarière
Ball planting Setting out trees with their roots left undisturbed in a dug-out clod of soil. Note: if trees are bare-rooted, and roots are enclosed in a rough ball of soil, they are properly termed balled. Plantation en mottes
Basic silviculture All the silvicultural practices required to achieve free-growing (or established) regeneration of desired species at specified densities and stocking. Sylviculture de base
Basidiospore Fungus spore produced on a basidium. Basidiospore
Basket planting Setting out young trees, etc., in loosely-woven baskets in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed. Plantation en paniers
Biodiversity The collection of life on earth; the natural patterns that form from all the species of life (species diversity), the genes that each of them possess (genetic diversity), as well as the ecosystems which these species form (ecosystem diversity). Biodiversité
Biolistics A transformation method in which metal particles coated with one organism’s genetic material are propelled into the cells or tissues of another to allow for the uptake of the genetic material. Biolistique
Biopesticide A pesticide derived from natural sources such as fungi and bacteria or created to closely resemble or be identical to a chemical produced in nature such as a pheromone. Typically a biopesticide is target-specific and has little or no impact on non-target organisms and the environment. Biopesticide
Bioproduct A consumer or industrial product that is made from biomass. Bioproducts are often made using a bioprocess and include a broad range of commodities intended for markets such as energy, transportation, chemicals, plastics, foods, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. Bioproduit
Biotechnology As defined in the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, the application of science and engineering in the direct or indirect use of living organisms, or parts or products of living organisms, in their natural or modified forms. It refers to the techniques through which organisms such as plants, fungi, or microorganisms can be used to provide products or services. Biotechnologie
Budding Grafting by inserting a bud, with a small amount of tissue, into a slit or hole made in the bark of a stock plant. After union has formed, the portion of the stock plant above the bud is removed. Écussonnage
Bullet planting Setting out young trees grown in bullet-shaped rigid plastic tubes, which are injected into the ground by a spring-loaded gun, sometimes into prepared holes. Plantation en cartouches
Certification (forest) Forest certification is a market-based instrument aimed at promoting sustainable forest management that takes into account environmental, economic and social issues. It involves the independent assessment of forest management according to internationally (or nationally) accepted standards, and the tracking and monitoring of the supply of forest products to the market place. If the forest management is in compliance with a set of specified standards, and the timber from this forest has been tracked and accounted for through all stages of the production process, then it can be given a label which is recognized in the market place. Certification forestière
Chromosome A single DNA molecule encoding a portion or all of a living organism’s genetic information; threadlike and located in the cell’s nucleus in higher organisms, circular in bacteria. Each species has a characteristic number of chromosomes. Chromosome
Cleistothecium Spherical ascomatum (with no opening) found in certain ascomycetes fungi and containing the reproductive structures (asci and ascospores). Cléistothèce
Clonal test Evaluation of genotypes by comparing clones in a plantation. Test clonal
Clone All plants reproduced asexually from a common ancestor and having identical genotypes. Named clones are given non-Latin names preceded by the abbreviation "cl". Clone
Cloning In biotechnology, obtaining a group of genetically identical cells from a single cell; making identical copies of a gene. Clonage
Cone collection Harvesting of cones after seed maturation but before their dispersal. Récolte de cônes
Cone rake A device for collecting cones from a standing tree; it is lowered from a helicopter, over the crown of a tree. Cones or cone-bearing branches are removed and retrieved by the device. Cueilleur de cônes
Conidiophore Specialized hypha upon which one or more conidia are borne. Conidiophore
Conidium Thin-walled spore produced asexually by certain fungi. Conidie
Container Portable receptacle (pot, bag, or linked spaces) to hold rooting medium for growing planting stock. Récipient
Contour planting Setting out of young trees along a contour line. Plantation en bandes de niveau
Corridor planting Setting trees in parallel rows, generally at regular intervals between and in lines, on land either wholly or partially cleared. Plantation en lignes
Cross pollination The fertilization of an egg in one plant by a sperm cell found in a pollen grain of another plant. The resulting seed will have the hereditary characteristics from both parents. Pollinisation croisée
Cryopreservation The preservation of living materials at very low temperatures, often within liquid nitrogen, to protect them against damage. Cryopréservation
Cultivar A variety of plant cultivated on account of its favourable characteristics for horticulture, forestry or agriculture. Cultivars
Dibble planting Sowing seeds or setting out seedlings in rough holes made with a stick or peg. Also termed dibbling if done with a specially adapted tool such as a dibble. Plantation au bâton
Disease Alteration of the normal functions of a whole plant or part of it, caused by a living or dead agent. The main agents involved in the initiation of disease are pollution, animals, fungi and other plants. Maladie
Disease Harmful deviation from normal functioning of physiological processes, generally pathogenic or environmental in origin. Maladie
DNA - Deoxyribonucleic acid The molecule that encodes genetic information. It is made up of units called nucleotides, each including one of four bases—adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), or thymine (T). The molecule comprises two strands held together by bonds between A and T and between G and C, resulting in a structure often referred to as a double helix. It is found in the nucleus of cells, within bacteria and some viruses, as well as in organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts. ADN - Acide désoxyribonucléique
DNA fingerprinting A method to isolate and create images of DNA sequences. The image created is an identification aid for organisms, similar to that of taking human fingerprints. Analyse des empreintes génétiques
DNA sequence The linear order of the nucleotides along the DNA strand. This sequence determines the unique genetic composition of an organism. Séquence d’ADN
DNA sequencing The process of determining the exact order of the bases in a DNA segment. Séquençage de l'ADN
Dysgenic Detrimental to the genetic quality of a population and future generations. cf. eugenic. Dysgénique
Ecosystem The sum of the plants, animals, environmental influences, and their interactions within a particular habitat. Écosystème
Effective seedling Any seedling, whether natural or planted, that has survived in reasonable vigor for some arbitrary time and is so sited that it should make an effective contribution to the crop. Semis établi
Electrophoresis A laboratory procedure that separates large molecules, such as DNA fragments or proteins, on the basis of their electric charge by running them through a gel placed in an electric field. This is one of the steps in DNA fingerprinting. Électrophorèse
Electroporation A transformation method in which a weak electric current induces the formation of transient pores in the membrane of a cell, hence allowing new genes to enter the cell. Électroporation
Endangered species Species that are threatened with imminent extinction; includes species whose numbers or habitats have been reduced to critical levels. Espèce en voie de disparition
Eugenic Favorable to the genetic quality of a population. cf. dysgenic. Eugénique
Ex situ conservation The preservation of a plant or plant part outside of the species normal or original habitat, for example, within a gene bank. Conservation ex situ
Exotic An introduced, non-native tree species. Exotique
Extirpated species Refers to the local extinction of a species that is no longer found in a locality or country, but exists elsewhere in the world. Espèce disparue
Female flower Part of the plant bearing the female sexual organ (pistil). Fleur femelle
Fertilization The union of the nucleus and other cellular constituents of a male gamete (sperm, pollen grain) with those of the female gamete (ovum, egg cell) to form a zygote from which may develop a new organism. Fécondation
Field germination Generally, measure of the percentage, by number, of seeds in a given sample that germinate and produce a seedling, irrespective of subsequent seedling survival. Germination au champ
Field nursery A nursery, generally not permanent, established in or near the forest rather than near an administrative or executive headquarters. Also referred to as satellite nursery in Ontario and in the Prairies. Pépinière volante
Flora A general term for all forms of plant life characteristic of a region, period or special environment. Flore
Flower The reproductive structure of a tree or other plant consisting of the male and/or female parts. Fleur
Forest Ecosystem that generally covers a large area and is composed of woody vegetation dominated by trees growing in a relatively dense pattern. Forêt
Forest Ecology: Generally, an ecosystem characterized by a more or less dense and extensive tree cover. More particularly, a plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, growing more or less closely together. Forêt
Forest genetics The study of heredity in forest trees. Génétique forestière
Forest tree breeding The genetic manipulation of trees, usually involving selection, testing, and controlled mating, to solve some specific problem or to produce a specially desired product. Amélioration génétique des arbres forestiers
Forestry Generally, a profession embracing the science, business, and art of creating, conserving, and managing forests and forest lands for the continuing use of their resources, material or other. Foresterie
Fruit body A reproductive structure on or in which spores of a fungus are produced. Fructification
Fuel plantation syn. fuelwood plantation Setting out young trees to be hogged for burning. Plantation énergétique
Full seed Seed showing apparently complete embryo and endosperm or megagametophyte structures, irrespective of actual viability. Graine pleine
Full-sibs Trees with both parents in common. Defined in Manitoba as trees where both parents are known. Pleins germains
Gene A functional portion of a chromosome in which inheritable characteristics are determined by the sequence of nucleotides along the DNA. Gène
Gene bank An ex situ conservation facility that stores plant germplasm of various species in the form of pollen, seeds, or tissue culture. Also refers to a database of publicly available DNA sequences. Banque de gènes
Gene expression The multi-step process in which the coded information in a gene is converted into functional products. Expression génétique
Gene flow The movement of alleles among interbreeding individuals belonging to different populations, by means of seed or pollen dispersal or the migration of individuals. Flux génique
Gene stacking Combining desired traits, for example, pest resistance and herbicide tolerance, in a genetically modified organism. Empilement de gènes
Genetic code A universal correspondence rule between a three-nucleotide DNA sequence and a specific amino acid that is used when genes are translated into proteins. Code génétique
Genetic diversity The genetic variation present in a population or species. Diversité génétique
Genetic engineering A method used to directly transfer DNA from one organism into another that results in a genetically engineered organism, one form of genetically modified organism. Génie génétique
Genetic map A representation of the relative locations of genes along a chromosome marked with probes and/or genetic markers. Carte génétique
Genetic marker A DNA fragment of known location on the genome that is used to mark specific genes or traits. Marqueur génétique
Genetically modified organism (GMO) An organism that has had its DNA sequence altered through genetic engineering, a natural process, or the action of mutagens. Organisme génétiquement modifié (OGM)
Genome The complete genetic material in a particular organism. In animals, this includes the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA; in plants, this includes the nuclear, mitochondrial, and chloroplast's DNA. Génome
Genomics The study of an organism’s DNA sequence and the location of genes on its chromosomes (structural genomics) and of the function of an organism’s genes in relation to their products under particular environmental conditions (functional genomics). Génomique
Genotype An individual hereditary constitution derived from its parents and forming a unique combination of genes; sometimes referring to trees having similar genetic constitutions with regard to certain common, identifiable genetic characteristics. Génotype
Germination test A test made to determine the viability of seeds, spores, or pollen grains in a given sample. Essai de germination
Germinative capacity The percentage of seeds, spores, or pollen grains in a given sample that actually germinate, irrespective of time. In any batch of seeds, the percentage that is pure (of the species required) multiplied by the germinative capacity. Faculté germinative
Germinative energy The percentage of seeds, spores, or pollen grains in a given sample germinating within a given period e.g., 7 or 14 days, under optimum or stated conditions. Vigueur germinative
Germplasm The total set of genes of an individual representing a variety or species that may be used for conservation purposes. Matériel génétique
Gill Plate-shaped membrane located under the cap of a fungus; all of the gills together form the hymenium. Lamelle
Graft n: A plant that has been grafted. v: To place a detached cutting or branch tip (scion) in close cambial contact with a rooted plant (understock) in such a manner that scion and rootstock unite. Greffe
Group planting Setting out young trees in groups. Plantation par bouquets
Growing stock All the trees growing in a forest or in a specified part of it, generally expressed in terms of number or volume. Matériel sur pied
Hard seed Seed having coats that resist cracking or breaking and may be more or less impermeable to water. Graine dure
Hardwood(s) (broad-leaved trees) Trees whose leaves are not persistent and fall off at the end of a defined growing season or during a period of temperature or moisture stress. This is the predominant tree type in deciduous forests. Also refers to the wood produced by these trees. Feuillus (arbres à feuilles caduques)
Herbicide tolerant Capable of surviving and recovering from the application of herbicides. Tolérant aux herbicides
Heritability That portion of the character variance due to hereditary factors as distinct from factors of environment. Heritability is described in one of two ways, depending on the type of investigation. Héritabilité
Heritage forest A forest managed to harvest forest products and to sustain the natural system, including its bioproductivity, biotic and abiotic diversity. Modern technology, equipment and methods may be used to harvest, restock and tend the forest, with an emphasis on natural restocking, supplemented with artificial restocking of appropriate endemic species. Forêt patrimoniale
High-forest-with-reserves system An accessory system in which selected trees of the old crop, scattered or in groups, are retained after regeneration is completed, for the whole or a part of the next rotation. Futaie avec sur-réserves
Hole planting Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole or pit. Roots separated on either side of a wedge or saddle of earth left in situ when the hole was dug is termed saddle planting. Plantation sur potets
Hybrid Plant obtained by crossing two genetically dissimilar parent plants. Hybride
Hybrid The offspring of genetically different parents (usually refers to crosses between two species). Hybride
Hybridization Sexual reproduction using genetically distinct parents, that is, belonging to different populations, varieties, or species. Hybridation
Hypha One of many filaments that make up the mycelium or body of a fungus. Hyphe
Hypovirulence Reduced virulence in a micro-organism caused by genetic mutation or the presence of a virus. Hypovirulence
In vitro Within an artificial environment, such as a test tube, as opposed to in vivo. In vitro
Innovation The use of a new idea, material or technology to produce new goods or services or to change the way in which goods or services are produced or distributed. Innovation can include improved managerial systems, new production techniques, new technology, the results of research and development, or the application of information technologies. Innovation
Intensive silviculture Application of cultural measures which, in addition to simply maintaining the forest cover, will allow an increase in the value or volume of the cut. Sylviculture intensive
Interplanting Planting young trees among existing natural regeneration or previously planted trees of similar age. Plantation intercalaire
Inventory (forest) A survey of a forest area to determine data such as area, condition, timber, volume and species for a specific purpose, such as planning, purchasing, evaluating, managing or harvesting. Inventaire forestier
L-notch planting Special form of slit planting involving two slits at right angles with the seedling placed at the apex of the L. plantation avec fentes en L
Leave tree A tree (marked to be) left standing in an area where other trees are felled. Arbre marqué en réserve
Living modified organism (LMO) As defined in the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, a living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology. Organisme vivant modifié (OVM)
Lop and top The branches and tops cut from a tree, generally once felled or fallen. Résidus d’ébranchage-façonnage
Male flower Part of the plant bearing the male sexual organ (stamen). Fleur mâle
Mechanical planting Setting out young trees by means of a machine specially designed for this operation. Plantation mécanique
Metabolite Starting, intermediate, or product compound in a chemical reaction that involves the breaking down of a molecule or the joining of molecules by an enzyme. Métabolite
Microinjection A genetic engineering technique that uses a fine-tipped glass needle to inject DNA into a cell. Microinjection
Micropropagation In vitro asexual reproduction of a plant from a fragment of plant tissue. This technique creates multiple copies of progeny that are genetically identical to the parent (clones). Micropropagation
Modern biotechnology In vitro techniques that are rapid, efficient, and precise in obtaining novel gene combinations in living organisms. Most modern biotechnologies focus on organisms at the genetic level. (See also traditional biotechnology.) Biotechnologie moderne
Molecular marker See genetic marker. Marqueur moléculaire
Monoculture 1. General: Cultivation of a single crop or product without using the land for other purposes. 2. Biology: Extensive areas of land occupied or dominated by plant species that are closely related genetically. Monoculture
Morphology Form and structure of living organisms. Morphologie
Mortality Death or destruction of forest trees as result of competition, disease, insect damage, drought, wind, fire, old age, and other factors, excluding harvesting. Mortalité
Mound planting Setting out young trees on raised microsites. Plantation sur butte
Mutagens Agents that cause a change in the DNA sequence of a cell. These include chemicals, X-rays, and ultraviolet light. Mutagènes
Mutation A change to the DNA sequence of a gene or chromosome; may be expressed or unexpressed by the cell. If a mutation occurs in a gene, it changes the structure, function, or expression of the protein produced. Mutation
Mycelium Vegetative part of a fungus, which is composed of a mass of hyphae and distinct from the fruiting body. Mycélium
Natural regeneration Renewal of a tree crop by natural seeding, sprouting, suckering, or layering. Régénération naturelle
Nest planting Setting out a number of seedlings or seeds close together in a prepared hole, pit, or spot. Plantation en nids
Nucleotides The building blocks of DNA (and RNA), each containing one nitrogenous base—adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine (uracil in RNA)— a phosphate molecule, and a sugar molecule (deoxyribose in DNA or ribose in RNA). Nucléotides
Nucleus A complex spherical body found in most plant, animal, and fungal cells; it is enclosed by a membrane and contains chromosomes. Noyau
Nursery An area set aside for the raising of young trees mainly for planting out. Temporary nurseries, particularly those formed beneath a high canopy of large trees, may be termed bush nurseries. cf. field nursery Pépinière
Nursery bed One of the specially prepared plots in a nursery where seed is sown or into which transplants or cuttings are put. Planche
Organ Group of tissues organized to perform a distinct function. Organe
Outplant A seedling, transplant, or cutting ready to be established on an area. Plant sur le terrain
Parthenogenesis Form of reproduction in which an organism develops from an unfertilized egg. Parthénogenèse
Particle gun transformation See biolistics. Transformation par canon à particules
Pathogen Living or dead agent that alters the normal functions of a whole plant or part of a plant. Agent pathogène
Pathogen A microscopic organism or virus directly capable of causing disease. see thinning: precommercial. Pathogène
Pathogenic A parasitic organism directly capable of causing disease. Pathogène
Pathology Study of diseases and the effects they have on plants. Pathologie
Pathology The study of disease. Pathologie
Perithecium Flask-shaped ascomatum found in certain ascomycetes fungi and containing the reproductive structures (ascus and ascospores). Périthèce
Pest resistance A heritable trait that enables an organism (e.g., a tree) to be less damaged by pests compared to its non-resistant relatives. Résistance aux ravageurs
Pesticide Any preparation used to control populations of injurious organisms, plant or animal. Pesticide
Phenology The study of timing of periodic phenomena, such as flowering, growth initiation, growth cessation, etc., especially as related to seasonal changes in temperature, photoperiod, etc. Phénologie
Phenotype An organism as observed, i.e., as judged by its visually perceptible characters resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment. Identical phenotypes do not necessarily breed alike. Phénotype
Pit planting Setting out young trees in small depressions, natural or excavated, with a view to collecting and conserving moisture. Plantation sur trous
Plant with novel traits (PNT) In accordance with the Seeds Regulations, Part V related to the Seeds Act administered by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, a plant variety possessing a characteristic that is intentionally selected or created through a specific genetic change and is either not previously associated with a distinct and stable population of the plant species in Canada or expressed outside the normal range of a similar existing characteristic in the plant species. Végétal à caractères nouveaux (VCN)
Plantation forest Forest stands established by planting and/or seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestation which are either of introduced species (all planted stands) or intensively managed stands of indigenous species, which meet all the following criteria: one or two species at plantation, even age class, regular spacing. Plantation forestière
Plantation forestry Application of forestry principles to an artificial crop or stand. Foresterie de plantation
Planting Establishing a forest by setting out seedlings, transplants, or cuttings in an area. Plantation
Planting spot The exact spot where a young tree has been set out. Emplacement des semis
Planting stock Seedlings, transplants, cuttings, and occasionally wildlings, for use in planting. Matériel de reproduction
Plasmid A small circle of bacterial DNA that is used as a vector to transfer genes from one organism to another. Plasmids have the ability to replicate independently within a host. Plasmide
Plug transplant A small container seedling which is to be planted and raised as a bare-root seedling. Plant fiche
Plurinucleate Containing several nuclei. Plurinucléé
Plus stand A stand containing a preponderance of good phenotypes, but not necessarily plus trees. Peuplement plus
Plus tree A phenotype judged (but not proved by testing) to be unusually superior in some quality or qualities. Arbre plus
Pollination Transfer of pollen from the anther of a flower to the stigma of a flower of the same species, resulting in fertilization. Pollinisation
Polyculture The simultaneous cultivation of a number of crops as opposed to stands composed of a single species. Polyculture
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) A laboratory procedure that provides the conditions for rapid replication of a specific DNA segment, resulting in a very high number of copies of that segment. PCR makes a DNA segment easier to analyze for genetic research, forensics, the diagnosis of diseases, or other applications. Réaction en chaîne de la polymérase (PCR)
Pot planting Setting out young trees in pot-shaped receptacles having a closed or only perforated end and made of various materials, in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed. Plantation en pot
Pregermination The germination of seed, generally to the stage when the radicle is just emerging, before sowing in the field or nursery. Germination physiologique
Probe A short DNA fragment, radioactively or otherwise labeled, used to locate a specific complementary sequence of DNA or RNA. Sonde
Progeny The offspring of a particular tree or a combination of one female and one male tree. Descendance
Progeny test A test in which the genetic constitution of an individual is evaluated from the performance of its progeny produced by some specific mating system. Test de descendance
Provenance 1. The geographical area and environment to which the parent trees, etc., are native and within which their genetic constitution has been developed through natural selection. 2. The geographical source, i.e., place of origin. Provenance
Provenance test An experiment, usually replicated, comparing trees grown from seed or cuttings collected from many parts of a species, natural range. Test de provenance
Pycnidium Spherical or flask-shaped structure (resembles a perithecium, but is asexual) within which conidia are formed. Pycnide
Quincunx planting Setting out four young trees to form the corners of a square with a fifth tree at its center. Plantation en quinconces
Race A population that exists within a species and exhibits genetic characteristics distinct from those of the other populations. It is usually an interbreeding unit. Race
Recombinant DNA DNA constructed by joining DNA segments from two or more organisms. (See genetic engineering.) ADN recombinant
Regeneration Renewal of a forest crop by natural, artificial, or vegetative (regrowth) means. Also the new crop so obtained. The new crop is generally less than 1.3 m high. Régénération
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) Molecule found in the cells of living organisms, where it plays an important role in protein synthesis; in some viruses it is the carrier of genetic information. Acide ribonucléique (ARN)
Ridge planting Setting out young trees on a long, narrow crest of excavated soil, generally on a slice thrown up by a plough. Plantation sur bourrelet
Risk assessment A quantitative and qualitative approach to determining the hazardous capacity of a new product. This involves the identification and characterization of hazards, an assessment of exposure to the product, and a final risk characterization of the product. Évaluation des risques
Scion An aerial plant part, often a branchlet, that is grafted onto another root-bearing plant (stock, rootstock). Greffon
Seed Fertilized ovule that contains an embryo and has the capacity to produce a new individual. Graine
Seed bank A place in which seeds of rare plant or obsolete varieties are stored, usually vacuum-packed and under cold conditions, to prolong their viability. Banque de semences
Seed bearer 1. Any tree producing seed. 2. Any tree retained to provide seed for natural regeneration, e.g., during seed cuttings. Porte-graines
Seed collection area A forest stand that exhibits good characteristics of growth, form, and vigor and that is not managed for cone production, but from which seed is collected, usually at the time of harvest. Zone de récolte de semences
Seed orchard A plantation of trees, assumed or proven genetically to be superior, that has been isolated so as to reduce pollination from genetically inferior outside sources, and intensively managed to improve the genotype and produce frequent, abundant, etc. Verger à graines
Seed source The locality where a seed lot was collected usually defined on an eco-geographic basis by distance, elevation, precipitation, latitude, etc. Origine des graines
Seed trap A device for catching the seeds falling on a small area of ground, from trees or shrubs. Used for determining the amount of seedfall and the time, period, rate, and distance of dissemination. Piège à semences
Seed tree A tree selected, and often reserved, for seed collection or provision of seed for natural regeneration. Semencier
Seed year The year in which a tree species produces, either as an individual or a crop, an adequate amount of seed; applies to any species but particularly to those with irregular or infrequent seed production. Année semencière
Seedling Young plant that has grown from a seed. Semis
Selection Choosing individuals with desired qualities to serve as parents for the next generation. Sélection
Selection differential The average phenotypic value of the selected individuals, expressed as a deviation from the population mean. Différentiel de sélection
Selection pressure Environmental influences on an organism that determine its likelihood of being preferentially selected among its co-habitants, that is, having a better survival and/or reproduction. Pression sélective
Sexual reproduction Reproduction that involves the fusion of genetic material from two distinct entities. Reproduction sexuée
Silviculture Practices aimed at ensuring wise harvesting of forest resources : conservation, regeneration, reforestation, cutting, etc. Sylviculture
Silviculture The theory and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, growth, and quality of forest stands to achieve the objectives of management. Sylviculture
Slit planting Prying open a cut made by a spade, mattock, or planting bar (termed bar planting), inserting a young tree, then closing the cut on the latter by pressure. Plantation en fente
Somatic embryogenesis A process by which clones are produced by cell growth from a seed embryo. Embryogenèse somatique
Species Group of individuals that possess common characteristics and are capable of producing fertile progeny Espèce
Spore Cell or group of cells capable of producing a new organism. Spore
Spore print Deposit of spores released into the air or onto a surface when a fungus cap is placed gills downwards. Sporée
Spot planting Setting out young trees in small, prepared patches. Plantation sur placeaux
Sterile tree Tree incapable of reproducing sexually. Arbre stérile
Stratification The storage of seeds under defined conditions of environment (temperature, moisture, gas exchange, medium, etc.) for specified periods in order to overcome passive or active inhibition of germination. Stratification
Strip cropping Crop planting in which strips of heavy-rooted plants are alternated with loose-rooted plants which serve as barriers to wind and water erosion. Plantation en lisières
Strip planting Setting trees, generally in two or more parallel lines, in a long narrow area of land that has been wholly or partially cleared. Plantation en bandes
Substantial equivalence A principle for safety assessment that compares a genetically modified product to a traditional non-modified product of the same species with a long history of safe use. A genetically modified product is substantially equivalent to the non-modified one if it is as safe to the environment and human health. Équivalence en substance
Sustainability The capacity of forests, ranging from stands to ecoregions, to maintain their health, productivity, diversity, and overall integrity, in the long run, in the context of human activity and use. The concept of producing a biological resource under management practices that ensure replacement of the part harvested, by regrowth or reproduction, before another harvest occurs. Durabilité
Sustainable Forestry Initiative A forest certification program run by a multi-stakeholder (environment, industry, government, academic groups, etc.) board of directors. The SFI standard is a comprehensive system of principles, objectives and performance measures that combines the perpetual growing and harvesting of trees with the long-term protection of wildlife, plants, and soil and water quality. Sustainable Forestry Initiative
T-notching see slit planting Bêchage en T
Taungya plantation The raising of a forest crop in conjunction with a temporary agricultural crop. Plantation en taungya
Threatened species A species that is likely to become endangered in Canada if the factors affecting its vulnerability are not reversed. Espèce menacée
Tissue culture A general term for the cultivation of plant or animal tissues in a controlled artificial environment on defined media under aseptic conditions. Culture de tissus
Traditional biotechnology Specifically within forestry, this involves the selection of trees with desirable traits and breeding them to produce improved offspring. (See also modern biotechnology.) Biotechnologie traditionnelle
Trait A distinguishable characteristic of an organism. Caractère
Transformation Transfer of foreign DNA into the cell of an organism to change its genetic makeup. This is a natural process for many bacteria. Transformation
Transgenic Genetically engineered to contain DNA from an external source, such as another species or a different variety. Many transgenic plants are more herbicide tolerant, are resistant to insect or viral pests, or produce modified versions of fruit or flowers. Transgénique
Transplant A seedling that has been replanted one or more times in a nursery to improve its size and growth potential characteristics. Also a tree that is moved from one place to another. Plant repiqué
Transplanting plough A plough used in the nursery to open trench for the roots of plants being lined out, while simultaneously backfilling it. Charrue planteuse
Trench planting Setting out young trees in a shallow trench or a continuous slit. Plantation en sillon
Tube planting Setting out young trees in narrow, open-ended cylinders of various materials, in which they have been raised from seed or into which they have been transplanted. Plantation de semis en tube
Underplanting Planting young trees under the canopy of an existing stand. Plantation en sous-étage
Variable-retention A silvicultural system that follows nature’s model by always retaining part of the forest after harvesting. Standing trees are left in a dispersed or aggregated form to meet objectives such as retaining old-growth structure, habitat protection and visual quality. Variable retention retains structural features (snags, large woody debris, live trees of varying sizes, canopy levels) as wildlife habitat. Rétention variable
Variety Specifically within forestry, any clone or product of breeding given a separate name. Variété
Variety Subdivision of species, a group of individuals that have common characteristics (example : The different varieties of apples). Variété
Vector Any DNA-containing structure that is used to transfer DNA into an organism. The most commonly used vectors are plasmid DNA and bacteriophages or other viruses. Vecteur
Vegetative propagation Reproduction by other than sexually produced seed. Includes grafting, budding, rooting of cuttings, and tissue and cell culture, including embryogenesis. Multiplication végétative
veteran A tree that has escaped logging, windthrow, or fire, and occupies a dominant position in the stand. vétéran
Viability Of a seed, spore, or pollen grain, its capacity to germinate and develop, under given conditions. Viabilité
Virulence Measure of a pathogen's ability to multiply in a living organism and harm it. Virulence
Volunteer growth Natural regeneration following site preparation and seeding or planting that could either supplement or completely obscure the trees being planted or seeded on the area. Régénération subséquente
Vulnerable species A species that is considered at risk because it exists in low numbers or in restricted ranges, due to loss of habitat or other factors. Espèce vulnérable
Wildling syn.: wilding, wild seedling A naturally grown, in contrast to a nursery-raised, seedling, sometimes used in forest planting when nursery stock is scarce. Semis naturel
Windrow planting Planting between the two lanes created in windrowing. Plantation sur entrandain
Yearling A one-year-old seedling. Semis de l’année
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