Forestry glossary

Exotic pests

Term Definition French
Adjuvant An additive used in pesticide spray formulations which enhances adherence to plants. Adjuvant
Anthophagous Feeding on flowers. Anthophage
Anthophilous Fond of flowers. Organism that has a close relationship with flowers, normally including the collection of pollen or nectar as a food source. Anthophile
Apterous Wingless. Aptère
Arboriculture The cultivation, that is, growing and tending, of trees and shrubs, individually or in small groups, generally for ornament, protection, and instruction rather than direct use or profit. Arboriculture
Banding Applying a chemical or other substance to the bole of a tree in the form of a band. Cerclage
Bioassay A technique for determining the effectiveness of a substance by measuring its effects on animals, tissues or organisms and comparing them to the effects of a standard preparation. Bioessai
Biodiversity The collection of life on earth; the natural patterns that form from all the species of life (species diversity), the genes that each of them possess (genetic diversity), as well as the ecosystems which these species form (ecosystem diversity). Biodiversité
Biological pest control methods The application of whole organisms or portions of organisms as biologically sound alternatives to broad-spectrum chemical pesticides. Méthodes de lutte biologique contre les ravageurs
Biopesticide A pesticide derived from natural sources such as fungi and bacteria or created to closely resemble or be identical to a chemical produced in nature such as a pheromone. Typically a biopesticide is target-specific and has little or no impact on non-target organisms and the environment. Biopesticide
Borer Relates to an organism that bores into and feeds on the woody and non-woody portions of plants. Perceur
Brachypterous Having reduced wings that are shorter than the abdomen. Brachyptère
Casebearer Any of numerous insects that hide under a case, a shelter made by cutting and tying pieces of leaf together with silk; they feed and move around within this shelter. Casebearers are members of the order Lepidoptera . Porte-case
Caterpillar Larval form of the immature stage of Lepidopterans. Transforms into a butterfly or moth. Chenille
Cephalothorax Anterior part of the body consisting of the fused head and thoracic segments. Céphalothorax
Cercus One of a pair of appendages located at the posterior end of the abdomen. Cerque
Chelicera The anterior, usually fanglike, pair of appendages in arachnids that are used to chew prey. Chélicère
Chewing Refers to the modified mouth parts of some insects that comprise a pair of mandibles enabling them to chew and tear up food. Broyeur
Chitin Compound secreted by the epidermis in arthropods and making up the bulk of their cuticle (outer layer of the body). Chitine
Chrysalis The pupa of butterfly. Intermediate stage between the larval stage and the adult in lepidopterans. Chrysalide
Cocoon Case of silk in which the pupa is formed. Cocon
Cone-feeding Feeding exclusively on the seeds and cones of conifers. Conophage
Cuticle (Bionaty) Surface tissue layer of the cap of fungi. (Entomology) Layer of material covering the body of arthropods. This covering is made hard and rigid by the chitin secreted by the epidermis. Cuticule
Defoliation The removal of all or most of a plant’s leaves by natural disturbance agents (e.g., insects) or through the actions of humans (e.g., the application of herbicides). Défoliation
Defoliator Organism that feeds on the foliage of plants. Eg, insects that feed on and destroy whole leaves or parts of leaves. Défoliateur
Detritivorous Feeding on detritus, decomposing organic matter. Détritivore
Diapause A period of greatly decreased metabolic activity occurring in arthropods. This period may occur during any of various developmental stages depending on the species. Diapause
Disease Alteration of the normal functions of a whole plant or part of it, caused by a living or dead agent. The main agents involved in the initiation of disease are pollution, animals, fungi and other plants. Maladie
Disease Harmful deviation from normal functioning of physiological processes, generally pathogenic or environmental in origin. Maladie
Diurnal Pertaining to organisms that are active during the day. Diurne
Ectoparasite External parasite that lives permanently on the body of a vertebrate or in accessible openings, such as the nose or ears. They are obligate parasites during part of or their entire life cycle. This type of parasite lives on the outside of its host's body without entering it or killing it. Ectoparasite
Elytron A scleotized fore wing that covers the hind wing like a sheath. Found in Coleoptera. Élytre
Endoparasitoid Organism that lives inside and feeds on a single host, which dies after the parasitoid has completed its larval development. Endoparasitoïde
Entomology Part of zoology concerned with the study of insects. Entomologie
Exotic An introduced, non-native tree species. Exotique
Field nursery A nursery, generally not permanent, established in or near the forest rather than near an administrative or executive headquarters. Also referred to as satellite nursery in Ontario and in the Prairies. Pépinière volante
Filiform (threadliked) Thread-like. Filiforme
Floricolous Pertaining to an organism that is associated with flowers. Frequenting flowers without harming them (eg, butterflies). Floricole
Forest Ecology: Generally, an ecosystem characterized by a more or less dense and extensive tree cover. More particularly, a plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, growing more or less closely together. Forêt
Forest Ecosystem that generally covers a large area and is composed of woody vegetation dominated by trees growing in a relatively dense pattern. Forêt
Forest hygiene Care for the health of the forest, particularly by sanitation cutting. Hygiène sylvicole
Forestry Generally, a profession embracing the science, business, and art of creating, conserving, and managing forests and forest lands for the continuing use of their resources, material or other. Foresterie
Frugivorous Feeding on fruit or the reproductive structures of plants. Carpophage
Fusiform Spindle-shaped. Fusiforme
Gall-forming Relates to an organism that induces the formation of galls and feeds on their tissues. Galligène
Gall-inhabiting Pertaining to an organism that lives in a gall made by a different insect. Gallicole
Glabrous Lacking hairs or down. Glabre
Granivorous Feeding on seeds. Granivore
Haltere Small knobbed structure representing the hind wings in dipterans. Haltère
Hamuli Series of small hooks found in some insects that anchor the hind wings to the fore wings during flight. Hamule
Hematophagous Feeding on blood. Hématophage
Hemimetabolism Incomplete metamorphosis in which there is no pupal stage. The larvae, also called nymphs, are inactive and resemble the adults. Hémimétabole
Heteroconophagous Feeding occasionally on seeds and cones, but usually lives and feeds on stems and needles. Hétéroconophage
Hibernaculum A place or material in which young insect larvae hide during the winter. Hibernacle
Hibernation Sleeplike stage in which an organism's metabolism is reduced to its lowest level. Hibernation
Holometabolism Complete metamorphosis in which a pupal stage occurs between the larval stage and the adult form. The pupa is inactive and looks very different from the adult. Holométabole
Home range The area in which an animal lives, hunts, and mates throughout its life. Domaine vital
Imago The adult sexually mature stage in the life cycle of an insect after metamorphosis. Imago
Insect Invertebrate animal that has six legs. Insecte
Insecticide Any chemical or biological preparation used to kill or disrupt the development of insects. Insecticide
Intermediate treatments Any treatment in a stand during that portion of the rotation not included in the final harvest or regeneration period. cf. tending Traitement intermédiaire
Juices Organic liquid contained in certain plant and animal structures, eg, plant sap. Suc
Larva Immature stage (between the egg and the pupa) in insects that undergo complete metamorphosis before becoming adults. Larve
Larvarium Tube or sheath made by a larva as its shelter. Larvarium
Leaffolder Insect that folds a leaf in two to make a shelter for hiding or feeding. Plieuse
Leafroller Organism that hides and feeds inside a leaf or the tip of a leaf that it has rolled-up into a cigar-shaped tube. Enrouleuse
Leaftier Organism that ties two or more leaves together with silk threads, forming a tube in which to hide and feed. Lieuse
Live-crown ratio A rough but convenient index of the ability of a tree's crown to nourish the remaining part of the tree; it is the percentage of length of stem having living branches. L-notch planting [plantation avec fentes en L. Taux de cime vivante
Maggot Whitish larva that resembles a worm and has no legs (example : fly larva). Asticot
Metamorphosis All of the changes that an insect undergoes from the egg stage to adult form. Métamorphose
Microfauna Soil-dwelling micro-organisms (animals) that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Synonym: soil fauna. Microfaune
Mine Gallery excavated by a larva in plant tissues, such as a leaf or bark. Mine
Miner Organism that feeds inside the blade of a leaf, between the epidermal layers, or beneath the bark of plants, by first excavating a mine into these tissues. Mineuse
Model forest A forest or designated area including forests and woodlands for which an integrated management plan is created and implemented to achieve multiple objectives on a sustainable basis. Forêt modèle
Monophagous Organism that feeds on a single host, whether plant or animal. Monophage
Morphology Form and structure of living organisms. Morphologie
Mortality Death or destruction of forest trees as result of competition, disease, insect damage, drought, wind, fire, old age, and other factors, excluding harvesting. Mortalité
Moult Process whereby arthropods shed their old cuticle (external covering) and replace it with a new one. Mue
Mutagens Agents that cause a change in the DNA sequence of a cell. These include chemicals, X-rays, and ultraviolet light. Mutagènes
Mutation A change to the DNA sequence of a gene or chromosome; may be expressed or unexpressed by the cell. If a mutation occurs in a gene, it changes the structure, function, or expression of the protein produced. Mutation
Mycetophagous Feeding on fungi Mycétophage
Mycophagous Feeding on fungi. Mycophage
Necrophagous Feeding on dead or decomposing animal matter. Nécrophage
Nectarivorous Feeding on nectar. Nectarivore
Nesting Relates to an organism that spins a silk nest or tent in order to hide or feed. Nid tissé
Niche environment The unique environment used to sustain the existence of an organism or species. Niche écologique
Nursery An area set aside for the raising of young trees mainly for planting out. Temporary nurseries, particularly those formed beneath a high canopy of large trees, may be termed bush nurseries. cf. field nursery Pépinière
Nursery bed One of the specially prepared plots in a nursery where seed is sown or into which transplants or cuttings are put. Planche
Nymph Synonym of the pupa or chrysalis stage found in insects with complete metamorphosis. The nymph is the final instar before the adult form. Nymphs are inactive and do not feed. Synonym of the larva in insects that go through incomplete metamorphosis. The nymph changes directly into the adult without going through a pupal stage; the nymph feeds and moves around. The term nymph is also used to describe the immature stages of acarians. Nymphe
Occlusion The process of healing of cut branch stubs by the cambium of the surrounding stem surface. Occlusion
Opportunity wood Potential woody biomass resources available for salvage following natural disturbances—for example, wood damaged by insect pests such as the mountain pine beetle, by disease, or by fire or wind — or forestry activities — for example, small-diameter or other trees left standing. In some cases, harvesting and construction residues are also viewed as opportunity wood. Bois d’occasion
Parasite Organism that lives on or in and feeds on a living plant or animal (host). The parasite gradually weakens the host and may or may not kill it. Parasite
Parasitoid An organism that lives at the expense of another (its host); impedes its growth and eventually kills it. Insect parasitoids, which are often very tiny, attack a single organism (plant or animal); from which they derive everything they need for their own growth and reproduction. One way a parasitoid does this is by laying its eggs in the body of the host insect. Parasitoids are being used more and more for biological control of insect pests, thus reducing the need for chemical insecticides. Predators, unlike parasitoids, prey on more than one organism and kill and consume their tissues. Parasitoïde
Parthenogenesis Form of reproduction in which an organism develops from an unfertilized egg. Parthénogenèse
Pelleting Incorporating seed in a matrix of fungicide, insecticide, repellent, coloring material or inert carrier, or any combination of these, so as to form a small ball termed a seed pellet. Enrobage
Pest Organism that causes serious damage to plants or foodstuffs. Ravageur
Pesticide Any preparation used to control populations of injurious organisms, plant or animal. Pesticide
Pheromones A chemical substance released by animals, including insects, that influences the behaviour or development of other individuals of the same species, for example, sexual attractants. Phéromones
Phyllophagous Feeding on the leaves of plants. Phyllophage
Phytophagous Refers to organisms that feed on plants. Phytophage
Piercing-sucking Relates to an organism that has specialized mouthparts for sucking the fluids from plants, thereby causing deformities or killing the affected plant sections. Piqueur-suceur
Plantation forestry Application of forestry principles to an artificial crop or stand. Foresterie de plantation
Pollinivorous Feeding on pollen. Pollinivore
Polyphagous Feeding on several plant or animal species. Organism that develops on more than one host, eg, the gypsy moth, a polyphagous caterpillar feeds on both deciduous and coniferous trees. Polyphage
Population A group that includes all possible members of a species in a territory at a given time. Population
Predator Organism that hunts, captures and kills several types of prey (insects and acarians) over the course of its development. Prédateur
Prepupa Larval stage before pupation during which the insect stops eating and prepares for the pupal stage by making a cocoon, a shelter or attaching itself to an object with silk threads. Prépupe
Proboscis Tube-shaped mouthpart used by insects to suck nectar from flowers or suck other liquid food. Proboscis
Pupal Pertaining to the stage between the larval stage and the adult in insects. Pupal
Pupation Process whereby a larva tranforms into a pupa and later emerges as a mature insect. Nymphose
Race A population that exists within a species and exhibits genetic characteristics distinct from those of the other populations. It is usually an interbreeding unit. Race
Rostrum Rigid or segmented projection on the anterior part of some insect head bearing the mouth parts. Rostre
Sanitation measures The removal of dead, damaged, or susceptible trees or their parts, or of vegetation that serves as an alternative host for crop-tree pathogens, to prevent or control the spread of pests or pathogens. Mesures sanitaires
Sap-feeding Feeding on plant sap. Succivore
Sawfly Insect in the order Hymenoptera; the female has a sawlike structure that it uses for egg-laying. Mouche à scie
Scale (Botany) One of the small overlapping plate-like parts that make up the modified leaf of cedars. (Entomology) Tiny, overlapping plates covering the wings of butterflies. Écaille
Sclerotin Cuticular protein that has been hardened and darkened. Sclérotine
Sclerotized Part of integument hardened through the excretion of calcium (crustaceans) or the deposition of sclerotin. Sclérifié
Seed orchard A plantation of trees, assumed or proven genetically to be superior, that has been isolated so as to reduce pollination from genetically inferior outside sources, and intensively managed to improve the genotype and produce frequent, abundant, etc. Verger à graines
Seed-feeding Feeding on seeds. Cléthrophage
Selection forest Forest treated and managed under the selection system. Forêt jardinée
Sexual reproduction Reproduction that involves the fusion of genetic material from two distinct entities. Reproduction sexuée
Skeletonizer Organism that devours the upper layer of leaves but not the veins. Squeletteuse
Snail-feeding Pertaining to an organism that feeds on snails. Héliciphage
Spreader Any substance, solid or liquid, that, when added to a pesticide, herbicide, liquid fertilizer, or fire retardant, enables it to spread better over the surfaces on which it is deposited. Dispersant
Stage Distinct period separating the successive moults that occur during larval development. Period or phase in the life cycle of anthropods. Eg, egg stage, larval stage, pupal stage and adult stage. Stade
Stylet Sharp, stiff structure in the mouth parts of certain piercing-sucking insects and barb in bees and wasps. Stylet
Sucking Pertains to an organism that has mouth parts modified for sucking food, by means of a tube or proboscis (beak). Suceur
Sucking (lapping) Pertains to an organism that has mouth parts designed for collecting flower nectar. Lécheur
Symbiotic association The living together in intimate association of two dissimilar organisms, so that the cohabitation is mutually beneficial. Association symbiotique
Tending Generally, any operation carried out for the benefit of a forest crop or an individual thereof, at any stage of its life; covers operations both on the crop itself, e.g., thinnings and improvement cuttings, and on competing vegetation. Soins culturaux
Thrips Any of numerous insects in the order Thysanoptera that are of minute size, have fringed wings (if winged) and feed mostly on plant juices. Thrips
Tick Parasitic acarian that feeds on animal blood. Tique
Trait A distinguishable characteristic of an organism. Caractère
Transgenic Genetically engineered to contain DNA from an external source, such as another species or a different variety. Many transgenic plants are more herbicide tolerant, are resistant to insect or viral pests, or produce modified versions of fruit or flowers. Transgénique
Tubes Cylindrical structures beneath the fungus cap constituting the hymenium in certain fungi. A tubular opening made by a worm or another animal. Tubes
Tubicolous Dwelling in a tube, eg pine tube moth. Tubicole
Univoltine Having only one generation per season. Univoltin
Venation Distribution of veins on the wings of an insect or on a leaf. Nervation
Water bombing The act of dropping suppressants (water or short-term retardant) on a wildfire from an aircraft in flight. Arrosage aérien
Webworm Organism that spins a silk shelter in which to hide or feed. Tisseuse
Worm-like Resembling a worm. Vermiforme
Xylophagous That feeds on wood. Lignivore
Zoophagous Refers to organisms that feed on animals (including other arthropods). Zoophage