||Stress induced by the non-living component of the environment.
||An additive used in pesticide spray formulations which enhances adherence to plants.
||Young trees under existing stands capable of becoming the next crop. Regeneration established before logging that has survived the logging operation.
||Feeding on flowers.
||Fond of flowers. Organism that has a close relationship with flowers, normally including the collection of pollen or nectar as a food source.
||The cultivation, that is, growing and tending, of trees and shrubs, individually or in small groups, generally for ornament, protection, and instruction rather than direct use or profit.
||Renewal of a tree crop by direct seeding or by planting seedlings or cuttings.
||Describes an organ or part of a body that is reduced in size, rudimentary.
||An organism capable of synthesizing the organic nutrients it needs from the mineral compounds present in nature. Plants and many bacteria are autotrophs or producers. Autotrophs do not need to obtain their nutrients from other living organisms. By contrast, heterotrophs cannot make their own food and so they feed on the tissues of other organisms.
|Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.)
||A biological insecticide developed in Canada. This natural bacterium, which occurs in soils, is sprayed on forests to combat damaging insects.
||Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.)
||Applying a chemical or other substance to the bole of a tree in the form of a band.
||A technique for determining the effectiveness of a substance by measuring its effects on animals, tissues or organisms and comparing them to the effects of a standard preparation.
||The collection of life on earth; the natural patterns that form from all the species of life (species diversity), the genes that each of them possess (genetic diversity), as well as the ecosystems which these species form (ecosystem diversity).
|Biological pest control methods
||The application of whole organisms or portions of organisms as biologically sound alternatives to broad-spectrum chemical pesticides.
||Méthodes de lutte biologique contre les ravageurs
||A pesticide derived from natural sources such as fungi and bacteria or created to closely resemble or be identical to a chemical produced in nature such as a pheromone. Typically a biopesticide is target-specific and has little or no impact on non-target organisms and the environment.
||Thin, flat part of a leaf.
||Circular bulge caused by the excessive growth of cells in part of a leaf, often with fungal cells mixed in.
||Relates to an organism that bores into and feeds on the woody and non-woody portions of plants.
||Having reduced wings that are shorter than the abdomen.
||Any of numerous insects that hide under a case, a shelter made by cutting and tying pieces of leaf together with silk; they feed and move around within this shelter. Casebearers are members of the order Lepidoptera .
||Larval form of the immature stage of Lepidopterans. Transforms into a butterfly or moth.
||Anterior part of the body consisting of the fused head and thoracic segments.
||One of a pair of appendages located at the posterior end of the abdomen.
||The anterior, usually fanglike, pair of appendages in arachnids that are used to chew prey.
||Refers to the modified mouth parts of some insects that comprise a pair of mandibles enabling them to chew and tear up food.
||Compound secreted by the epidermis in arthropods and making up the bulk of their cuticle (outer layer of the body).
||A single DNA molecule encoding a portion or all of a living organism’s genetic information; threadlike and located in the cell’s nucleus in higher organisms, circular in bacteria. Each species has a characteristic number of chromosomes.
||The pupa of butterfly. Intermediate stage between the larval stage and the adult in lepidopterans.
||Taxonomic level between Phyllum and Order. Eg, class Insecta
||Case of silk in which the pupa is formed.
||Feeding exclusively on the seeds and cones of conifers.
||A root that does not elongate beyond the confines of the original rooting volume within a container, even when outplanted with the container removed.
||The basal leg segment attached to the thorax and the trochanter bearing the femur.
||Pertaining to organisms that are active during the dim light of dusk or dawn.
||The fertilization of an egg in one plant by a sperm cell found in a pollen grain of another plant. The resulting seed will have the hereditary characteristics from both parents.
||1. Natural: Removal or decadence of lateral live crown by wind, abrasion, reduced light, etc.
2. Cultural: Mechanical removal of branch ends to shape crowns for aesthetic appeal, e.g., for Christmas trees, bonsai, etc.
||Taille en cime
||(Bionaty) Surface tissue layer of the cap of fungi.
(Entomology) Layer of material covering the body of arthropods. This covering is made hard and rigid by the chitin secreted by the epidermis.
||Timber produced from dead standing trees.
More commonly, timber in dead standing trees.
||Member of a group of trees commonly called hardwoods or angiosperms. The latter term comes from the Greek "angion (vessel) + "sperma" (seed), denoting the fact that the seed is carried in a fruit. Deciduous trees shed their leaves in autumn.
||Micro-organisms that break down, digest and metabolize organic wastes, such as dead leaves, dropped fruits, wood and dead animals.
||The removal of all or most of a plant’s leaves by natural disturbance agents (e.g., insects) or through the actions of humans (e.g., the application of herbicides).
||Organism that feeds on the foliage of plants. Eg, insects that feed on and destroy whole leaves or parts of leaves.
||Feeding on detritus, decomposing organic matter.
||A period of greatly decreased metabolic activity occurring in arthropods. This period may occur during any of various developmental stages depending on the species.
||Change in the normal colour of wood following infection by a micro-organism.
||Alteration of the normal functions of a whole plant or part of it, caused by a living or dead agent. The main agents involved in the initiation of disease are pollution, animals, fungi and other plants.
||Harmful deviation from normal functioning of physiological processes, generally pathogenic or environmental in origin.
||Pertaining to organisms that are active during the day.
||A general term referring to the litter and humus layers of the forest floor.
||External parasite that lives permanently on the body of a vertebrate or in accessible openings, such as the nose or ears. They are obligate parasites during part of or their entire life cycle. This type of parasite lives on the outside of its host's body without entering it or killing it.
||A loosely defined type of habitat that occurs at the boundary between two different habitat types. Typically, edge habitats share characteristics with both adjacent habitat types and have particular transitional characteristics that are important to wildlife.
||Habitat de lisière
||A scleotized fore wing that covers the hind wing like a sheath. Found in Coleoptera.
||Species that are threatened with imminent extinction; includes species whose numbers or habitats have been reduced to critical levels.
||Espèce en voie de disparition
||Organism that lives inside and feeds on a single host, which dies after the parasitoid has completed its larval development.
||Part of zoology concerned with the study of insects.
A shoot arising from a dormant or adventitious bud on the stem or branch of a woody plant.
||Refers to the local extinction of a species that is no longer found in a locality or country, but exists elsewhere in the world.
||A general term for all forms of animal life characteristic of a region, period or special environment.
||A nursery, generally not permanent, established in or near the forest rather than near an administrative or executive headquarters. Also referred to as satellite nursery in Ontario and in the Prairies.
||Pertaining to an organism that is associated with flowers. Frequenting flowers without harming them (eg, butterflies).
||Ecology: Generally, an ecosystem characterized by a more or less dense and extensive tree cover. More particularly, a plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, growing more or less closely together.
||Ecosystem that generally covers a large area and is composed of woody vegetation dominated by trees growing in a relatively dense pattern.
||Care for the health of the forest, particularly by sanitation cutting.
||Generally, a profession embracing the science, business, and art of creating, conserving, and managing forests and forest lands for the continuing use of their resources, material or other.
||Geometric shape with four sides.
||Feeding on fruit or the reproductive structures of plants.
||Feeding on fungi.
||Relates to an organism that induces the formation of galls and feeds on their tissues.
||Pertaining to an organism that lives in a gall made by a different insect.
|Genetically modified organism (GMO)
||An organism that has had its DNA sequence altered through genetic engineering, a natural process, or the action of mutagens.
||Organisme génétiquement modifié (OGM)
||Living in or on the ground.
||Lacking hairs or down.
||Feeding on seeds.
||The environment in which a population or individual lives; includes not only the place where a species is found, but also the particular characteristics of the place (for example, climate or the availability of suitable food and shelter) that make it especially well suited to meet the life cycle needs of that species.
||Small knobbed structure representing the hind wings in dipterans.
||Series of small hooks found in some insects that anchor the hind wings to the fore wings during flight.
||Feeding on blood.
||Incomplete metamorphosis in which there is no pupal stage. The larvae, also called nymphs, are inactive and resemble the adults.
||Feeding occasionally on seeds and cones, but usually lives and feeds on stems and needles.
||A place or material in which young insect larvae hide during the winter.
||Sleeplike stage in which an organism's metabolism is reduced to its lowest level.
||Complete metamorphosis in which a pupal stage occurs between the larval stage and the adult form. The pupa is inactive and looks very different from the adult.
||The area in which an animal lives, hunts, and mates throughout its life.
||Organism harbouring a parasite.
||Living in or on humus or leaf litter.
||Plant obtained by crossing two genetically dissimilar parent plants.
||The offspring of genetically different parents (usually refers to crosses between two species).
||Sexual reproduction using genetically distinct parents, that is, belonging to different populations, varieties, or species.
||Parasitic organism that lives off of another parasite.
||Organism that attacks and lives on another parasitoid.
||The adult sexually mature stage in the life cycle of an insect after metamorphosis.
||Invertebrate animal that has six legs.
||Any chemical or biological preparation used to kill or disrupt the development of insects.
||Any treatment in a stand during that portion of the rotation not included in the final harvest or regeneration period.
||A root, especially a seedling tap root, having a sharp bend greater than 90, shaped like a J. Frequently introduced by inappropriate planting.
||Racine en J
||Organic liquid contained in certain plant and animal structures, eg, plant sap.
||Special form of slit planting involving two slits at right angles with the seedling placed at the apex of the L.
||plantation avec fentes en L
||Immature stage (between the egg and the pupa) in insects that undergo complete metamorphosis before becoming adults.
||Tube or sheath made by a larva as its shelter.
||Insect that folds a leaf in two to make a shelter for hiding or feeding.
||Organism that hides and feeds inside a leaf or the tip of a leaf that it has rolled-up into a cigar-shaped tube.
||Organism that ties two or more leaves together with silk threads, forming a tube in which to hide and feed.
||Growing in or on wood.
||Uppermost layer of organic debris on a forest floor.
||A rough but convenient index of the ability of a tree's crown to nourish the remaining part of the tree; it is the percentage of length of stem having living branches. L-notch planting [plantation avec fentes en L.
||Taux de cime vivante
|Living modified organism (LMO)
||As defined in the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, a living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology.
||Organisme vivant modifié (OVM)
|Lop and top
||The branches and tops cut from a tree, generally once felled or fallen.
||Whitish larva that resembles a worm and has no legs (example : fly larva).
||All of the changes that an insect undergoes from the egg stage to adult form.
||Soil-dwelling micro-organisms (animals) that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Synonym: soil fauna.
||The ultimate unit of the habitat, i.e., the specific spot occupied by an individual organism. By extension, the more or less specialized relationships existing between an organism and its environment.
||Gallery excavated by a larva in plant tissues, such as a leaf or bark.
||Organism that feeds inside the blade of a leaf, between the epidermal layers, or beneath the bark of plants, by first excavating a mine into these tissues.
||A forest or designated area including forests and woodlands for which an integrated management plan is created and implemented to achieve multiple objectives on a sustainable basis.
||Organism that feeds on a single host, whether plant or animal.
||Form and structure of living organisms.
||Death or destruction of forest trees as result of competition, disease, insect damage, drought, wind, fire, old age, and other factors, excluding harvesting.
||Process whereby arthropods shed their old cuticle (external covering) and replace it with a new one.
||Agents that cause a change in the DNA sequence of a cell. These include chemicals, X-rays, and ultraviolet light.
||A change to the DNA sequence of a gene or chromosome; may be expressed or unexpressed by the cell. If a mutation occurs in a gene, it changes the structure, function, or expression of the protein produced.
||Feeding on fungi
||Feeding on fungi.
||A species that occurs naturally in an area.
||Renewal of a tree crop by natural seeding, sprouting, suckering, or layering.
||Feeding on dead or decomposing animal matter.
||Sweet liquid produced by special glands in flowers (called nectaries) to attract insects.
||Feeding on nectar.
||Relates to an organism that spins a silk nest or tent in order to hide or feed.
||The unique environment used to sustain the existence of an organism or species.
||Globulose or elongated mass formed by certain fungi or a mixture of plant and fungal tissues.
||An area set aside for the raising of young trees mainly for planting out. Temporary nurseries, particularly those formed beneath a high canopy of large trees, may be termed bush nurseries.
cf. field nursery
||One of the specially prepared plots in a nursery where seed is sown or into which transplants or cuttings are put.
||Synonym of the pupa or chrysalis stage found in insects with complete metamorphosis. The nymph is the final instar before the adult form. Nymphs are inactive and do not feed. Synonym of the larva in insects that go through incomplete metamorphosis. The nymph changes directly into the adult without going through a pupal stage; the nymph feeds and moves around. The term nymph is also used to describe the immature stages of acarians.
||The process of healing of cut branch stubs by the cambium of the surrounding stem surface.
||Taxonomic level between Class and Family. In insects, for example, classification in orders is based primarily on wing shape.
||Group of tissues organized to perform a distinct function.
||A seedling, transplant, or cutting ready to be established on an area.
||Plant sur le terrain
||Organism that lives on or in and feeds on a living plant or animal (host). The parasite gradually weakens the host and may or may not kill it.
||An organism that lives at the expense of another (its host); impedes its growth and eventually kills it. Insect parasitoids, which are often very tiny, attack a single organism (plant or animal); from which they derive everything they need for their own growth and reproduction. One way a parasitoid does this is by laying its eggs in the body of the host insect. Parasitoids are being used more and more for biological control of insect pests, thus reducing the need for chemical insecticides. Predators, unlike parasitoids, prey on more than one organism and kill and consume their tissues.
||Form of reproduction in which an organism develops from an unfertilized egg.
|Particle gun transformation
||Transformation par canon à particules
||Incorporating seed in a matrix of fungicide, insecticide, repellent, coloring material or inert carrier, or any combination of these, so as to form a small ball termed a seed pellet.
||Organism that causes serious damage to plants or foodstuffs.
||Any preparation used to control populations of injurious organisms, plant or animal.
||A chemical substance released by animals, including insects, that influences the behaviour or development of other individuals of the same species, for example, sexual attractants.
||Feeding on the leaves of plants.
||Taxonomic level between Kingdom and Class. Eg, phyllum Arthropoda composed of organisms with a segmented body. The body wall is more or less hardened and forms an exoskeleton.
||Refers to organisms that feed on plants.
||Relates to an organism that has specialized mouthparts for sucking the fluids from plants, thereby causing deformities or killing the affected plant sections.
||Application of forestry principles to an artificial crop or stand.
||Foresterie de plantation
||Transfer of pollen from the anther of a flower to the stigma of a flower of the same species, resulting in fertilization.
||Feeding on pollen.
||Feeding on several plant or animal species. Organism that develops on more than one host, eg, the gypsy moth, a polyphagous caterpillar feeds on both deciduous and coniferous trees.
||A group that includes all possible members of a species in a territory at a given time.
||Organism that hunts, captures and kills several types of prey (insects and acarians) over the course of its development.
||Larval stage before pupation during which the insect stops eating and prepares for the pupal stage by making a cocoon, a shelter or attaching itself to an object with silk threads.
||Tube-shaped mouthpart used by insects to suck nectar from flowers or suck other liquid food.
||Pertaining to the stage between the larval stage and the adult in insects.
||Process whereby a larva tranforms into a pupa and later emerges as a mature insect.
||A population that exists within a species and exhibits genetic characteristics distinct from those of the other populations. It is usually an interbreeding unit.
||Living on or in roots. A parasite of roots.
||Abnormally large branches that project at sharp acute angles from the bole and are persistent (often associated with previous weevil attack).
||Renewal of a forest crop by natural, artificial, or vegetative (regrowth) means. Also the new crop so obtained. The new crop is generally less than 1.3 m high.
||Part of the tree that anchors it and absorbs nutrients from the soil.
||The trimming of roots by a cutting tool after lifting and prior to outplanting.
||Taille des racines
||Feeding on the roots of plants.
||The total mass or volume of the plant root system divided by the total mass or volume of the shoot system, usually on an oven-dry basis.
||Rapport système racinaire/système foliacé
||Rigid or segmented projection on the anterior part of some insect head bearing the mouth parts.
||The exploitation of trees that are dead, dying, or deteriorating (e.g., because overmature or materially damaged by fire, wind, insects, fungi, or other injurious agencies) before their timber becomes economically worthless.
||Coupe de récupération
||The removal of dead, damaged, or susceptible trees, essentially to prevent the spread of pests or pathogens and so promote forest hygiene.
||The removal of dead, damaged, or susceptible trees or their parts, or of vegetation that serves as an alternative host for crop-tree pathogens, to prevent or control the spread of pests or pathogens.
||Feeding on plant sap.
||Refers to organisms that feed on decaying or decayed plant or animal matter.
||Refers to an organism that develops in partially decomposed woody debris.
||Living on rotting wood.
||Insect in the order Hymenoptera; the female has a sawlike structure that it uses for egg-laying.
||Mouche à scie
||(Botany) One of the small overlapping plate-like parts that make up the modified leaf of cedars.
(Entomology) Tiny, overlapping plates covering the wings of butterflies.
||Feeding on dung or excrement.
||Living in association with dung or excrement.
||Cuticular protein that has been hardened and darkened.
||Part of integument hardened through the excretion of calcium (crustaceans) or the deposition of sclerotin.
||A plantation of trees, assumed or proven genetically to be superior, that has been isolated so as to reduce pollination from genetically inferior outside sources, and intensively managed to improve the genotype and produce frequent, abundant, etc.
||Verger à graines
||Feeding on seeds.
||Forest treated and managed under the selection system.
||Feeding on grain or seeds.
||Reproduction that involves the fusion of genetic material from two distinct entities.
||Organism that devours the upper layer of leaves but not the veins.
||Pertaining to an organism that feeds on snails.
||Group of individuals that possess common characteristics and are capable of producing fertile progeny
||Cell or group of cells capable of producing a new organism.
||Deposit of spores released into the air or onto a surface when a fungus cap is placed gills downwards.
||Circular or nearly circular lesions that appear on a leaf blade. They have a central zone of necrotic (dead, brown) tissue colonized by a pathogen; this zone is surrounded by healthy, coloured tissue.
||Any substance, solid or liquid, that, when added to a pesticide, herbicide, liquid fertilizer, or fire retardant, enables it to spread better over the surfaces on which it is deposited.
||Distinct period separating the successive moults that occur during larval development. Period or phase in the life cycle of anthropods. Eg, egg stage, larval stage, pupal stage and adult stage.
||Sharp, stiff structure in the mouth parts of certain piercing-sucking insects and barb in bees and wasps.
||Pertains to an organism that has mouth parts modified for sucking food, by means of a tube or proboscis (beak).
||Pertains to an organism that has mouth parts designed for collecting flower nectar.
||The living together in intimate association of two dissimilar organisms, so that the cohabitation is mutually beneficial.
||Set of rules governing the classification and naming of species.
||Generally, any operation carried out for the benefit of a forest crop or an individual thereof, at any stage of its life; covers operations both on the crop itself, e.g., thinnings and improvement cuttings, and on competing vegetation.
||Living in the soil or litter.
||A species that is likely to become endangered in Canada if the factors affecting its vulnerability are not reversed.
||Any of numerous insects in the order Thysanoptera that are of minute size, have fringed wings (if winged) and feed mostly on plant juices.
||Parasitic acarian that feeds on animal blood.
||The ability of an organism or biological process to subsist under a given set of environmental conditions. The range of these under which it can subsist, representing its limits of tolerance, is termed its ecological amplitude.
||A distinguishable characteristic of an organism.
||Transfer of foreign DNA into the cell of an organism to change its genetic makeup. This is a natural process for many bacteria.
||Genetically engineered to contain DNA from an external source, such as another species or a different variety. Many transgenic plants are more herbicide tolerant, are resistant to insect or viral pests, or produce modified versions of fruit or flowers.
||A seedling that has been replanted one or more times in a nursery to improve its size and growth potential characteristics. Also a tree that is moved from one place to another.
||Cylindrical structures beneath the fungus cap constituting the hymenium in certain fungi. A tubular opening made by a worm or another animal.
||Dwelling in a tube, eg pine tube moth.
||The smallest division of a branch which bears the annual shoot.
||Having only one generation per season.
||Subdivision of species, a group of individuals that have common characteristics (example : The different varieties of apples).
||Distribution of veins on the wings of an insect or on a leaf.
||Small, bladder-like structure.
||Organ that is diminished in size and often nonfunctional.
||Measure of a pathogen's ability to multiply in a living organism and harm it.
||Primitive microorganisms that must infect the living cells of animals, plants, or bacteria in order to replicate. When outside the host cells, viruses adopt a form consisting, most of the time, of a RNA or DNA molecule surrounded by a protein matrix.
||Natural regeneration following site preparation and seeding or planting that could either supplement or completely obscure the trees being planted or seeded on the area.
||A species that is considered at risk because it exists in low numbers or in restricted ranges, due to loss of habitat or other factors.
||The act of dropping suppressants (water or short-term retardant) on a wildfire from an aircraft in flight.
||Organism that spins a silk shelter in which to hide or feed.
||Resembling a worm.
||That feeds on wood.
||Feeding on woody tissues (wood).
||Growing in or living on wood.
||Refers to organisms that feed on animals (including other arthropods).