Forestry glossary


Term Definition French
Adaptive management area Stands or forest types that require similar management practices and are grouped as one unit for the purposes of silviculture management. Aire de gestion adaptée
Allowable annual cut (AAC) The amount of timber that is permitted to be cut annually from a particular area. AAC is used as the basis for regulating harvest levels to ensure a sustainable supply of timber. Possibilité annuelle de coupe (PAC)
Allowable cut The volume of wood that may be harvested, under management, for a given period. Possibilité de coupe
Ammoniacal copper quaternary A wood preservative used to replace a preservative (chromated copper arsenic) that contains arsenic. Cuivre ammoniacal quaternaire
Anthropogenic emission Emission caused by human activities (for example, burning fossil fuels or setting fires to clear forest land for agricultural purposes). Émission anthropique
Auger planting Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole using an auger. Plantation à la tarière
Ball planting Setting out trees with their roots left undisturbed in a dug-out clod of soil. Note: if trees are bare-rooted, and roots are enclosed in a rough ball of soil, they are properly termed balled. Plantation en mottes
Bark The outer covering of trees. Écorce
Basal area 1. Of a tree: The area in square metres of the cross section at breast height of the stem. 2. Of a forest, stand, or forest type: The area in square metres per hectare of the cross section at breast height of all trees. Surface terrière
Basket planting Setting out young trees, etc., in loosely-woven baskets in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed. Plantation en paniers
Beam A horizontal wood support member typically larger in cross-section than a joist. Poutre
Billet A product made from composite material that is easier to manufacture in a large size than in many smaller pieces and that is then cut into the desired dimensions for the final product. Bille
Bio-oil A volatile liquid produced through pyrolysis of carbon rich substances such as biomass from forestry and agricultural residues. Pyrolysis is the transformation of a carbon-rich substance into one or more substances by heat in the absence of oxygen. It is often referred to a destructive distillation. Bio-huile
Biochemicals A range of chemical substances made from forest biomass and typically used in industrial applications. Produits biochimiques
Biocomposites Made of a resin matrix and reinforced with natural fibres. Biocomposites
Bioenergy The kinetic energy released from biomass when it is eaten, burned or converted into fuel, or the potential energy embodied in biomass. Bioénergie
Biofuel A fuel that is derived from plant biomass, by chemical or geological processes. Biocombustible
Biogas A combustible gas and type of biofuel produced by the decomposition of biological materials (for example, forestry residues and municipal waste) through anaerobic digestion (that is, in the absence of oxygen) or fermentation. Typical biogas consists of 50 to 60% methane and carbon dioxide. Biogaz
Biomass The organic matter (cellulose and lignin) produced by plants. The term forest biomass generally refers to all of the material contained in the trees of a forest, including all their components (roots, branches, leaves, etc.). Biomasse
Biomass The total mass of living organisms of one or more species per unit of area, or all the species in a community. It can be divided into above-ground biomass and below-ground biomass. Biomasse
Biomaterials A range of novel materials made from forest biomass and typically used in industrial applications. Biomatériaux
Biomaterials and Biochemicals A growing and diverse class of forest biomass-based products that are not typical pulp and paper or wood products. Biomatériaux et produits biochimiques
Biomethanol Methanol produced from biomass instead of the conventional raw material and processes. Biométhanol
Bioplastics Plastic-like materials made from renewable, carbon-rich substances such as biomass (carbohydrates, cellulose, etc.). Bioplastique
Biopolymer Any polymer that is produced by a living organism or synthesized from renewable biomass. Naturally occurring biopolymers include proteins and starch (which are composed of amino acid and sugar monomer units, respectively); synthetic biopolymers include bioplastics, biotextiles, and some nanofibres. Biopolymère
Bioprocess A process that uses the processing capability of living cells (for example, yeasts) or their components (for example, enzymes) to create a commercially useful product. Bioprocédé
Bioproduct A consumer or industrial product that is made from biomass. Bioproducts are often made using a bioprocess and include a broad range of commodities intended for markets such as energy, transportation, chemicals, plastics, foods, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. Bioproduit
Biorefinery The refining or separating of raw materials, such as biomass into their molecular components—mainly cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin—then further refining or transforming these intermediates into further manufactured products such as energy, fuels, chemicals and material. Bioraffinage
Black liquor A liquid solution by-product of the so-called “kraft” wood pulping process, composed of lignin residues, hemicellulose, and the chemicals used in the process. Polluting if discharged into water, black liquor can be recovered and put to good use to create value-added bioproducts. Liqueur noire
Blank A relatively large wood product made by gluing together small pieces of wood, which can then be cut to size for different uses and products. Carrelet
Bleached chemi-thermo mechanical pulp (BCTMP) A semi-chemical pulp that has been bleached. Used to produce printing and writing papers, coated papers, packaging and tissue. Pâte chimico-thermomécanique blanchie (PCTMB)
Blockboard A panel product made by gluing together strips of wood, which can be used as core by covering both surfaces with wooden veneers or used as is for cutting boards and other products. Panneau latté
Blowdown Tree or trees felled or broken off by wind, snow, ice or age. Chablis
Board feet A unit of volume used for softwood and hardwood lumber: one board foot equals 1/12 of a cubic foot. Pied-planche
Boards Softwood lumber of standardized sizes that is typically less than 2 inches thick. Used in manufacturing and carpentry Planche
Boreal forest One of three main forest zones in the world (see also tropical forest, temperate forest) located in northern regions and is characterized by the predominance of conifers (such as pine, spruce, larch and fir) and some deciduous (such as poplar and birch). The boreal forest (singular) is a colloquial term often used to refer to the overall forested area within the boreal zone, and sometimes to refer to the boreal zone itself because forests dominate this landscape. Boreal forests (plural) is the preferred term for the forested areas within the boreal zone. Forêt boréale
Boxboard (also known as paperboard) A thick, strong paper material suitable for packaging lighter products, such as cereal or batteries. Carton pour boîtes (aussi appelé carton)
Broadcast fertilizing The scattering of fertilizer or other mixture more or less evenly over an area. Fertilisation à la volée
Bullet planting Setting out young trees grown in bullet-shaped rigid plastic tubes, which are injected into the ground by a spring-loaded gun, sometimes into prepared holes. Plantation en cartouches
Butt joint A connection between two pieces of wood by simply gluing together two end surfaces without any additional reinforcements. Joint d’extrémité
Cambium Fast-growing tissue that produces wood and phloem (vascular cambium) and bark (cork cambium). Cambium
Canadian Standards Association (CSA) A leading developer of standards and codes, including an internationally recognized forestry certification system. The CSA is a not-for-profit, membership-based association. Association canadienne de normalisation (CSA)
Canker Lesion of the cambium and the living bark of trees that alters and kills these tissues in a localized area. Chancre
Capital and repair expenditures Capital expenditures include the cost of procuring, constructing and installing new durable plants, machinery or equipment, whether for replacement of worn or obsolete assets, as additions to existing assets or for lease or rent to others. Repair expenditures include costs to repair and maintain structures, machinery and equipment. Dépenses en immobilisations et réparations
Cellulose filaments (CF) An ultra-lightweight ribbonlike material with unique bonding properties. Provides extra strength and improved absorption in products such as facial tissues and paper towels without sacrificing softness. Filaments de cellulose (FC)
Cellulose nanofibrils A nanomaterial commonly processed into a liquid or gel form. Strengthens paper and board products and can also be used in biocomposites, paints and other high-value products. Nanofibrilles de cellulose
Certification (forest) Forest certification is a market-based instrument aimed at promoting sustainable forest management that takes into account environmental, economic and social issues. It involves the independent assessment of forest management according to internationally (or nationally) accepted standards, and the tracking and monitoring of the supply of forest products to the market place. If the forest management is in compliance with a set of specified standards, and the timber from this forest has been tracked and accounted for through all stages of the production process, then it can be given a label which is recognized in the market place. Certification forestière
Chain of custody The process of monitoring the production and distribution of goods from the forest to the end-product, i.e., tracing the origin of the product. Continuité de possession
Check A crack in the surface of a piece of wood resulting from uneven drying. Gerce
Chemical pulp Made from wood fibres broken down by chemicals (usually kraft or sulphite) instead of mechanical force. Pâte chimique
Chord An outer or edge component member of a truss. Membrure
Chromated copper arsenic A wood preservative that in most instances has been replaced by ammoniacal copper quaternary. Arséniate de cuivre et de chrome
Clear wood Knot-free wood formed subsequent to pruning. Bois sans défaut
Co-generation The simultaneous production of electricity and heat from steam. Cogénération
Column A vertical support member used mostly in construction. Colonne
Commercial forest Forest land that is able to grow commercial timber within an acceptable time frame and is designated for such a purpose. Forêt d'intérêt commercial
Communications paper The most commonly produced paper in Canada. Includes: Newsprint, groundwood and freesheet. Papier de communication
Composite wood product A material produced by gluing together wood elements with a synthetic resin. Produit en bois composite
Compound fertilizer A mixture of chemical nutrients added to the soil, having a broad array of actions. Fertilisant multiaction
Containerboard Component materials used in the manufacture of shipping containers and other corrugated board products. Carton caisse
Continuous boreal forest Main subarea of the vast boreal zone, which is characterized by relatively dense stands containing primarily boreal coniferous species and shade-intolerant deciduous trees. Forêt boréale continue
Contour planting Setting out of young trees along a contour line. Plantation en bandes de niveau
Corridor planting Setting trees in parallel rows, generally at regular intervals between and in lines, on land either wholly or partially cleared. Plantation en lignes
Crop The harvestable vegetation growing on a forest area, more particularly the major woody growth forming the forest crop. Peuplement forestier
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) Large structural panels made of multiple layers of lumber glued together at right angles to each other. Used in walls, floors and roofs; an alternative to concrete and steel systems. Panneau lamellé-croisé (CLT)
Cull Trees or logs or portions thereof that are of merchantable size but are rendered unmerchantable by defects. In nursery practice, a seedling that does not match the grade or specifications. Rebut
Cultivar A variety of plant cultivated on account of its favourable characteristics for horticulture, forestry or agriculture. Cultivars
Cupping When the edges of a piece of lumber are raised compared to its middle. Bombement
Cutting 1. [bouture (n.f.)] A short length cut from a young, living stem, branch, or root, for propagating a whole new plant, in soil or other media. 2. [abattage (n.m.)] The act of cutting down a standing tree. s Abattage
Cutting cycle The planned interval between partial harvests in an uneven-aged stand. Rotation
Cutting regime System of cutting treatments applied to a stand at a defined period. Régime d’exploitation
De-inking A process that removes the inks, coatings and other contaminants from waste papers so that the fibres can be recycled into new products. Désencrage
Decay Decomposition of wood caused by micro-organisms, mostly fungi. The wood generally becomes soft and crumbly, loses density and changes colour. Carie
Deciduous forest Subarea of the northern temperate zone, which is characterized mainly by sugar maple-dominated deciduous forests. This is the subarea with the greatest floristic richness. Forêt décidue
Deforestation Permanent removal of forest cover and withdrawal of land from forest use, whether deliberately or circumstantially. Déboisement
Diameter-limit cutting Removal of all merchantable trees above a specified minimum diameter, which in mixed stands may vary with species. (1) Abattage au diamètre limite
Dibble planting Sowing seeds or setting out seedlings in rough holes made with a stick or peg. Also termed dibbling if done with a specially adapted tool such as a dibble. Plantation au bâton
Dimension lumber Softwood lumber of standardized sizes that is usually 2 inches thick (e.g. 2x4). Used to frame wood buildings like houses. Bois d’échantillon
Direct employment Persons employed directly in the following industries: forestry and logging (includes timber tract operations, nurseries and logging), industries involved in support activities for forestry (for example, fire prevention/fighting, reforestation, pest control), and paper manufacturing and wood product manufacturing (includes production of lumber and other wood products). Emploi direct
Discoloration Change in the normal colour of wood following infection by a micro-organism. Coloration
Dissolving pulp Has a high hemicellulose content and can be made from hardwood or softwood tree species. Used mostly for non-paper applications, such as manufacturing rayon and compounds for food and cosmetics. Pâte à dissoudre
Downed tree Any tree that is lying on the ground, whether uprooted, stem-broken, or deliberately cut. Arbre abattu
Ecolabeling Process used to determine when a product can display a special seal or mark signifying that it is less harmful to the environment than most other similar products. The two-steps are: establishment of criteria, and certification that a product meets the criteria. Écoétiquetage
Ecotourism A type of tourism that focuses on nature-related experiences (for example, bird watching). Écotourisme
Emissions Waste substances released into the air or water. Émissions
End grain The surface of wood when it is cut across the growth rings. Veine d’extrémité
Engineered wood products A composite wood product made from glued fibre, lumber and/or veneer to meet specific design criteria. Produits du bois de haute technologie
Environmental assessment A process designed to contribute pertinent environmental information to the decision-making process of forest management or other natural resource projects and programs. Évaluation environnementale
Establishment period The time elapsing between the initiation of a new crop and its establishment. Période d’implantation
Even-aged system Silvicultural systems in which stands have an even-aged structure, e.g., clearcutting method, coppice method, seed-tree method. Régime équienne
Falldown A situation in which second-growth forests provide less timber than the original forests. Exploitation secondaire
Feedstock Raw material, such as forest biomass, used as input in an industrial process to make a product. Matière première
Feller-buncher A self-propelled machine used to fell trees by shearing them off near the ground using a hydraulic apparatus. Some models also strip limbs and bunch the logs for later pickup. Abatteuse-groupeuse
Fermentation Transformation of organic substrates, especially carbohydrates, into chemical intermediates with micro-organisms such as bacteria, yeasts, molds and fungus for the production of energy, fuels, chemicals and materials. Fermentation
Fertilizing The application of chemical or organic fertilizers with the objective of increasing the unit area soil productivity. Fertilisation
Fibre (wood) A material in which the wood is reduced to predominantly individual fibres by mechanical or chemical means, or a combination of the two. Virgin fibre is derived from trees not previously processed into paper; recycled fibre has been reclaimed from a previous product such as old newsprint and reprocessed and incorporated into a new product. Fibre (ligneuse)
Fibre mats Carpet-like mats made from wood-fibre, with a variety of uses, including automotive composite mats and building insulation. Tapis de fibres
Fibre-reinforced composites Multilayer materials of carbon fibre, steel, glass, natural fibres including hemp, cereal straw, flax with binders (resins) moulded or formed into intermediate products such as building materials, automotive parts and machinery, etc. Distinct properties in each layer produce a composite with a combination of properties. Composés renforcés de fibres
Field nursery A nursery, generally not permanent, established in or near the forest rather than near an administrative or executive headquarters. Also referred to as satellite nursery in Ontario and in the Prairies. Pépinière volante
Flange An outer structural element used with other connecting members to make engineered wood products. Semelle
Flitch A large rectangular block of wood cut from a log. Quartelet
Forest Ecology: Generally, an ecosystem characterized by a more or less dense and extensive tree cover. More particularly, a plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, growing more or less closely together. Forêt
Forest Ecosystem that generally covers a large area and is composed of woody vegetation dominated by trees growing in a relatively dense pattern. Forêt
Forest biomaterial Any novel material derived from forest biomass (particularly wood fibre and cellulosic residues) for industrial use. Forest biomaterials can be blends of natural fibres and polymers (for example, biocomposite building materials) or biopolymers (for example, bioplastics, biotextiles, and nanofibres). Biomatériau forestier
Forest biorefinery A plant that uses renewable forest feedstocks (for example, harvest residues, effluent extracts, and black liquors) to integrate the production of conventional forest products with that of value-added bioproducts and bioenergy. A forest biorefinery aims at maximizing the feedstocks’ value by recovering all of the intermediate and end products, hence yielding minimum waste and pollution. Bioraffinerie forestière
Forest management unit An area of forest land managed as a unit for fiber production and other renewable resources. This unit can be the entire province or territory, a provincial forest management subdivision, an industrial timber limit, etc. Unité d’aménagement forestier
Forest practices Any activities that enhance or recover forest growth or harvest yield (e.g., site preparation, planting, thinning, fertilizing, harvesting, etc.), and road construction or reconstruction within forest lands. Pratiques forestières
Forest sector The forest sector includes governments, conservation and environmental groups, woodlot owners, Aboriginals, urban forestry interests, lumber and pulp and paper producers and value-added industries, forest-reliant communities, the recreation and tourism industries, and other sectors of the economy (including the energy, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries) that derive wealth and well-being from forest resources. Secteur forestier
Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) An international certification and labelling system under which forests are certified against strict environmental and social standards, and fibre from certified forests is tracked from the forest to consumers. Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
Forestry Generally, a profession embracing the science, business, and art of creating, conserving, and managing forests and forest lands for the continuing use of their resources, material or other. Foresterie
Forestry practices Any activity that is carried out on forest land to facilitate the use of forest resources, including, but not limited to, timber harvesting, road construction, silviculture, grazing, recreation, pest control and wildfire suppression. Pratiques forestières
Formation All the operations contributing to the creation of a new forest cover up to the stage where it is considered established. Période d’établissement
Forwarder A self-propelled machine, usually self-loading, that transports trees or logs by carrying them completely off the ground. Porteur
Fossil fuel Solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel formed in the ground over millions of years from fossilized plant and animal remains exposed to high temperatures and pressures. Petroleum (crude oil), natural gas, and coal are fossil fuels. Fossil fuel reserves are being used much faster than they can rebuild and therefore, are non-renewable resources. The high rate of combustion of fossil fuels in industrialized societies contributes to global warming because natural processes have a limited capacity to absorb the carbon dioxide emitted. (See also carbon sequestration.) Combustible fossile
Fossil fuels Oil, gas, coal and other fuels that were formed under the Earth's surface from the fossilized remains of plants and tiny animals that lived millions of years ago. Combustible fossile
Fragmentation The splitting or isolating of patches of similar habitat, typically forest cover, but including other types of habitat. Habitat can be fragmented naturally or from forest management activities, such as clearcut logging. Fragmentation
Freesheet Made from at least 80% chemical pulp, and can be bleached or unbleached and coated or not, depending on desired characteristics. Uses include office paper for printing and copying. Papier fin non couché et couché
Fuel plantation syn. fuelwood plantation Setting out young trees to be hogged for burning. Plantation énergétique
Gasification Conversion of a carbon-rich feedstock (usually solid) to a gas using high temperatures and a limited amount of oxygen. Gazéification
Gill Plate-shaped membrane located under the cap of a fungus; all of the gills together form the hymenium. Lamelle
Global warming The rise in temperature of the Earth's atmosphere due to the greenhouse effect. Réchauffement climatique
Glue-laminated timber (Glulam) A structural product made of multiple pieces of lumber glued together in a desired form. Used in non-residential structural applications, often as part of architectural or aesthetic design. Bois lamellé-collé
Glued wood Smaller boards glued or joined together to make larger or longer pieces of wood for structural and non-structural uses. Bois collé
Graded The assignment of products into different categories based on standard visual appearance characteristics or factors that limit strength . Classification
Grain The direction in which the majority of cells in wood are oriented; wood has different properties "with" or "against" the grain. Grain
Grapple A handling tool suspended from the end of the boom, consisting of a downward-turned clamp that is opened to pick up the stems or logs and then closed to lift and deposit them further away. Grappin
Green chemistry Chemical processes, products, and technologies that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of substances hazardous to human health and the environment and that incorporate energy efficient methods, the use of renewable feedstocks, and other such considerations in their design. Chimie verte
Greenhouse gas sinks Any process, activity or mechanism that removes greenhouse gases or their precursors from the atmosphere. The principal natural mechanism is photosynthesis. Puits de gaz à effet de serre
Greenhouse gas source Any process or activity (for example, forest fires or conversion of forest land to agricultural or urban uses) that releases greenhouse gases or precursors of those gases into the atmosphere. As trees and forest products decompose or burn, they release carbon in the form of carbon dioxide. Source de gaz à effet de serre
Groundwood Made from at least 20% mechanical pulp, and can be bleached or unbleached and coated or not, depending on desired characteristics. Uses include higher quality coloured printing and magazines. Papier de pâte mécanique non couché et couché
Group planting Setting out young trees in groups. Plantation par bouquets
Group-selection method A method of regenerating and maintaining uneven-aged stands in which trees are removed in small groups. Jardinage par bouquets
Growing stock All the trees growing in a forest or in a specified part of it, generally expressed in terms of number or volume. Matériel sur pied
Header A short beam over a structural opening such as a door or window. Linteau
Hemicellulose-based One of the main components of wood, hemicellulose is a sugar that can be used as fuel or converted into other bioproducts, including sweeteners. Produits à base d’hémicellulose
Heritage forest A forest managed to harvest forest products and to sustain the natural system, including its bioproductivity, biotic and abiotic diversity. Modern technology, equipment and methods may be used to harvest, restock and tend the forest, with an emphasis on natural restocking, supplemented with artificial restocking of appropriate endemic species. Forêt patrimoniale
Hogging Reducing wood to coarse chips, for fuel or the manufacture of wood pulp and wood chipboard. Déchiquetage
Hole planting Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole or pit. Roots separated on either side of a wedge or saddle of earth left in situ when the hole was dug is termed saddle planting. Plantation sur potets
Household and sanitary paper Made for various uses around the home and for industrial and commercial purposes. Household papers include facial tissues, toilet paper, hand towels and napkins. Sanitary papers include products like baby diapers, adult incontinence products and sanitary napkins. Papier à usage domestique et sanitaire
I-joists Structural wood products joined in the shape of an I. An alternative to dimension lumber in floor joists (supports) and roof rafters. Poutre en I
Industrial plantation forestry Tree cultivation using methods of intensive silviculture: plantations made up of genetically improved stock, fertilization, drainage, phytosanitary treatments, release of higher quality stems, etc. Ligniculture
Innovation The use of a new idea, material or technology to produce new goods or services or to change the way in which goods or services are produced or distributed. Innovation can include improved managerial systems, new production techniques, new technology, the results of research and development, or the application of information technologies. Innovation
Integrated pest management The use of a mix of techniques and/or strategies to control pests, as opposed to the application of a single method. Lutte intégrée contre les ravageurs
Intercropping An agroforestry system involving the cultivation of agricultural crops or forest-derived crops that require full sun between rows (or other arrangements) of trees or shrubs. (See also sun system.) Culture intercalaire
Interplanting Planting young trees among existing natural regeneration or previously planted trees of similar age. Plantation intercalaire
Inventory (forest) A survey of a forest area to determine data such as area, condition, timber, volume and species for a specific purpose, such as planning, purchasing, evaluating, managing or harvesting. Inventaire forestier
Joinery The fabrication of connections between wooden elements by woodworking techniques or the use of metal connectors. Menuiserie
Joist A horizontal support member typically smaller in cross-section than a beam; often uses dimension lumber or I-beams. Solive
Juvenile wood An inner layer of xylem surrounding the pith, in which the cells are smaller and/or less structurally developed than those of the outer xylem. The period during which it is formed is termed the juvenile period; it varies between individuals Bois de jeunesse
Kiln A chamber having controlled air flow, temperature and relative humidity, which is used for drying lumber, veneer and other wood products. Séchoir à bois
L-notch planting Special form of slit planting involving two slits at right angles with the seedling placed at the apex of the L. plantation avec fentes en L
Labels Have an adhesive on one side and are often coated on the other, for uses such as weight and price labels at grocery store. Étiquette
Laminated beam A beam consisting of two or more layers of wood, glued, nailed or otherwise bonded together, with the grain going in the same direction. Poutre lamellée
Laminated veneer lumber (LVL) A structural material made of multiple layers of veneer glued together under heat and pressure. A substitute for dimension lumber. Bois en placage stratifié (LVL)
Landscape Areas of land that are distinguished by differences in landforms, vegetation, land use, and aesthetic characteristics. Paysage
Lay-up The placement of prepared elements into the desired form before pressing. Drapage
Light framing lumber Lumber that is 5 to 10 cm thick and 5 to 10 cm wide. It is used in a large variety of general construction applications. Bois à charpente légère
Liquid alcohols Also known as methyl alcohol or wood alcohol. It is formed in the destructive distillation of wood or made synthetically, and used especially as an alternative fuel, a gasoline additive, a solvent, an antifreeze, or a denaturant for ethyl alcohol. Alcools liquides
Logging damage General term comprising wounds resulting from cutting, breakage, or crushing of trees that resulted from the felling and the removal of trees designated for cutting. May also include scoring of site and soil leading to exposure Dommage de coupe
Logs Trunk or large limbs of a felled tree. Used for log homes, solid wood and pulp products. Bille
Lumber Wood processed in a sawmill. Bois d'œuvre
Lumber products Wood of different sizes for different end-uses. Produits de bois d’oeuvre
Machine stress rated (MSR) Softwood dimension lumber mechanically tested for strength. Used for engineered wood products such as roof trusses. Bois classé par contrainte mécanique
Main crop In regular crops or stands, that portion of the growing stock retained after an intermediate cutting. Peuplement principal
Management plan A predetermined course of action and direction to achieve a set of results, usually specified as goals, objectives and policies. Plan d'aménagement
Marking rule Means of standardizing marking practice among individuals and for various areas of the same forest type, commonly for thinning purposes. Règle de marquage
Mechanical planting Setting out young trees by means of a machine specially designed for this operation. Plantation mécanique
Mechanical pulp Made from wood fibres ground into very fine particles. Used to make newsprint and some other communications papers. Pâte mécanique
Medium density fibreboard (MDF) A wood-based composite material that uses wood fibre rather than particles, strands or veneers to produce board or sheet products. It is made by combining wood fibre with a synthetic resin or other bonding system and applying pressure and heat to create a compressed fibreboard with a density ranging from 0.60 to 0.80 g/cm3. MDF is increasingly used in areas such as furniture manufacture, cabinetry, joinery, shelving, craftwork and flooring. Panneau de fibres à densité moyenne (MDF)
Merchantable Of a tree or stand that has attained sufficient size, quality, and/or volume to make it suitable for harvesting. Does not imply accessibility, economic or otherwise. Marchand
Mixed forest Subarea of the northern temperate zone, which is dominated by mixed forests encompassing both coniferous boreal species and more southerly deciduous species. Forêt mélangée
Mixed stand A stand composed of two or more species in which less than 80% of trees in the main crown canopy are of a single species. The threshold in Manitoba and New Brunswick is 75%. cf. pure stand Mélangé
Mixedwoods Trees belonging to either of the botanical groups Gymnospermae or Angiospermae that are substantially intermingled in stands. Peuplement mixte
Mortality Death or destruction of forest trees as result of competition, disease, insect damage, drought, wind, fire, old age, and other factors, excluding harvesting. Mortalité
Moulding Shaped lengths of wood or composite material used in decorative applications, such as crown moulding where walls meet ceilings, or baseboard moulding where walls meet floors. Moulure
Mound planting Setting out young trees on raised microsites. Plantation sur butte
Nanocrystalline cellulose Nano structures made from pure cellulose used in coating, papermaking, drug delivery, biocide dispersion, composite products, etc. Cellulose nanocristalline
National forest strategy An overarching national vision and framework for Canada’s forests developed by the Council of Canadian Forest Ministers. The first strategy appeared in 1981. Stratégie nationale sur la forêt
Nest planting Setting out a number of seedlings or seeds close together in a prepared hole, pit, or spot. Plantation en nids
Newsprint Made from mechanical pulp. Used mostly to make newspapers. Papier journal
Non-commercial tree species A tree species for which there is currently no market. Essence forestière non commerciale
Non-timber forest products Any commodity obtained from the forest that does not necessitate harvesting trees. It includes game animals, fur-bearers, nuts and seeds, berries, mushrooms, oils, foliage, medicinal plants, peat, fuelwood, forage, etc. Produit forestier non ligneux (PFNL)
Northern bleached hardwood kraft (NBHK) Made from northern hardwood species. Used to make a wide variety of products, from communication papers to tissue and paper towels. Pâte kraft blanchie de feuillus de l’hémisphère Nord (NBHK)
Northern bleached softwood kraft (NBSK) Made from northern softwood species that grow in temperate forests. Used to make a wide variety of products, from communication papers to packaging and tissue and towel products. Pâte kraft blanchie de résineux de l’hémisphère Nord (NBSK)
Nursery An area set aside for the raising of young trees mainly for planting out. Temporary nurseries, particularly those formed beneath a high canopy of large trees, may be termed bush nurseries. cf. field nursery Pépinière
Nursery bed One of the specially prepared plots in a nursery where seed is sown or into which transplants or cuttings are put. Planche
Opportunity wood Potential woody biomass resources available for salvage following natural disturbances—for example, wood damaged by insect pests such as the mountain pine beetle, by disease, or by fire or wind — or forestry activities — for example, small-diameter or other trees left standing. In some cases, harvesting and construction residues are also viewed as opportunity wood. Bois d’occasion
Oriented strand board (OSB) A structural panel made of strands or flakes of wood glued and pressurized together and oriented in different directions to achieve desired properties. Used as a load-bearing component in residential buildings. Panneau de copeaux orientés (OSB)
Oriented strandboard (OSB) A panel made from wood strands oriented in the face layers and normally cross-oriented in the core layer, combined under heat and pressure with a water-resistant binder. Orienting the strands greatly increases the bending stiffness and strength of the panels. Panneau de particules orientées
Packaging paper Thicker and stronger paper sheets used to wrap or contain materials and goods for storage and transport. Emballage
Paint gun A low-pressure hand tool for squirting a distinctive mark of paint on trees and timber. Pistolet marqueur
Panels Sheets of wood or fibres glued together under heat and pressure. Panneaux
Paper Sheets of material produced from wood pulp. Has many uses, including for writing or printing on and packaging. Papiers
Particle (wood) A small element produced mechanically from wood. Particles can be further subdivided based on their geometry into categories or types such as chips, flakes, shavings, sawdust and slivers. Particle dimensions are typically 25 mm or less along the grain direction and of varying widths and thicknesses. Particules de bois
Particleboard A panel made from wood particles, which are often the residue from other wood processing operations, combined under heat and pressure with a water-resistant binder. It differs from fibreboard in that the wood particles are larger than fibres. Panneau de particules
Patch logging A modification of the clearcutting system developed in the Pacific Coast region of North America, whereby patches of about 5 to 200 ha are logged as single units, separated for as long as practicable. Exploitation par blocs
Pest Organism that causes serious damage to plants or foodstuffs. Ravageur
Petrochemical A chemical made from petroleum, natural gas, or other fossilized hydrocarbons. (See also fossil fuel.) Produit pétrochimique
Phenolic compound A highly complex organic compound that exists in every plant in various mixes, ratios and concentrations. Phenols include, for example, many plant pigments. Composés phénoliques
Pit planting Setting out young trees in small depressions, natural or excavated, with a view to collecting and conserving moisture. Plantation sur trous
Planer shavings Thin pieces of wood generated when dried lumber is planed smooth prior to shipping. Particule de rabotage
Planing An operation consisting of giving a uniform width and thickness to sawn wood while removing as much as possible any surface irregularities caused by previous operations. Rabotage
Plantation forest Forest stands established by planting and/or seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestation which are either of introduced species (all planted stands) or intensively managed stands of indigenous species, which meet all the following criteria: one or two species at plantation, even age class, regular spacing. Plantation forestière
Plantation forestry Application of forestry principles to an artificial crop or stand. Foresterie de plantation
Planting Establishing a forest by setting out seedlings, transplants, or cuttings in an area. Plantation
Platform-frame The typical residential construction method in North America, using wood for both vertical and horizontal support; stacks each floor on the completed floor beneath it for support. Charpente à plate-forme
Plus stand A stand containing a preponderance of good phenotypes, but not necessarily plus trees. Peuplement plus
Plywood A structural panel made of multiple layers of wood veneers glued together with the grain of each layer perpendicular to that of the next. Used as a structural, load-bearing component of buildings. Contreplaqué
Polymer Any natural or synthetic compound of high molecular weight composed of numerous repeated simple subunits (monomers) sharing pairs of electrons. Examples include plastics and high-strength fibres. (See also biopolymer.) Polymère
Post A vertical support member of a minimum 5½ inches in its cross-section dimension. Poteau
Post-and-beam A traditional method of creating structures using precisely fitted and joined timbers, usually secured by wooden pegs. Poteau et poutre
Pot planting Setting out young trees in pot-shaped receptacles having a closed or only perforated end and made of various materials, in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed. Plantation en pot
Pre-commercial thinning Cutting in an immature crop or stand to improve crop spacing and to accelerate the diameter increment of favoured trees, and/or improve the average form of the trees that remain. Does not yield trees of commercial value. Éclaircie précommerciale
Precommercial thinning Silvicultural treatment that consists in freeing trees that have good growth potential from competition by cutting the lower quality stems that are competing with them. Éclaircie précommerciale
Pulp Wood chips that have been ground mechanically into fibres and are used for the production of inexpensive paper, such as newsprint, or that have been chemically treated to remove the lignin and are used to manufacture higher quality papers. Pâte
Pulp-moulded products Papermaking pulp moulded into packaging materials that snugly fit or separate fragile articles. Used for products such as egg cartons, domestic and utility trays, and bottle protectors. Produits moulés en pâte et papier
Quadrat A small, clearly demarcated sample area of known size on which observations are made. Quadrat
Quincunx planting Setting out four young trees to form the corners of a square with a fifth tree at its center. Plantation en quinconces
Rafter A sloped structural member of either dimension lumber on edge or timber, used as part of a roof support. Chevron
Recycled pulp Made from paper and packaging material. Used to manufacture new communication papers, packaging and paper towels. Pâte recyclée
Regeneration period The time between the initial regeneration cut and the successful reestablishment of a stand by natural or artificial means. Période de régénération
Research and development (R&D) Set of activities directed toward improving and innovating products and processes from a technological point of view and not from a commercial point of view. Encompasses basic research, applied research and development. Recherche et développement (R-D)
Resins Viscous (liquid or semi-liquid) substances derived from forest biomass and used as adhesives in industrial applications. Résines
Ridge planting Setting out young trees on a long, narrow crest of excavated soil, generally on a slice thrown up by a plough. Plantation sur bourrelet
Risk assessment A quantitative and qualitative approach to determining the hazardous capacity of a new product. This involves the identification and characterization of hazards, an assessment of exposure to the product, and a final risk characterization of the product. Évaluation des risques
Roundwood Sections of tree stems, with or without bark. May include logs, bolts, posts and pilings. Bois ronds
Rutting The resulting depressions in the soil due to the repeated passage of a logging machine’s wheels at the same place. Orniérage
Sawnwood Wood produced by sawing logs into smaller parts for further processing. Bois scié
Sawtimber Trees that will yield logs suitable in size and quality for the production of lumber. Bois de sciage
Scaling An activity consisting of measuring, by calculation or any other scientific means, the real or apparent volume. Mesurage
Second growth forest The forest growth that has developed (naturally or artificially) following the removal of the original forest. Forêt de seconde venue
Secondary wood products Use of panels or lumber to create higher-value manufactured products, such as flooring, decking, furniture and cabinets. Produits de la transformation secondaire du bois
Selection forest Forest treated and managed under the selection system. Forêt jardinée
Selection method A method of regenerating a forest stand and maintaining an uneven-aged structure by removing some trees in all size classes either singly or in small groups or strips. Jardinage
Semi-chemical pulp Made from wood fibres broken down by both chemical and mechanical processes. Pâte semi-chimique
Shakes and shingles Thin, tapered pieces of wood (usually cedar) used for roofing. Shakes are split from a block of wood. Shingles are sawn and more precisely milled. Bardeaux de fente et bardeaux
Shearing 1. A method of harvest using mechanical shears. 2. The shaping of a tree crown, particularly with respect to Christmas trees or ornamentals, by removing part of the leader and/or the ends of live branches to comply with a desired crown for Abattage à la cisaille (mécanique)
Shortwood harvesting Felling and cross-cutting on the spot, i.e. transporting the logs from the cutting, not the whole bole or tree. Exploitation en bois courts
Side grain The surface of wood when it is cut parallel to the growth rings. Bois de fil
Silvicultural system A process that applies silvicultural practices, including tending (thinning, pruning, etc.), harvesting, and replacement, to a stand in order to produce a crop of timber and other forest products. Note: the system is named by the cutting Régime sylvicole
Single tree selection A method of regenerating uneven-aged stands in which individual trees are removed more or less uniformly throughout the stand. Jardinage par arbre
Skidder A self-propelled logging machine with an articulated frame, used for hauling operations. Débardeur
Slit planting Prying open a cut made by a spade, mattock, or planting bar (termed bar planting), inserting a young tree, then closing the cut on the latter by pressure. Plantation en fente
Slope of grain The angle made between the long axis of wood cells (the grain direction) and the length of a piece of wood. Pente de fil
Southern Yellow Pine (SYP) Ten species of pine, which grow in the southeastern United States, grouped as one lumber type for production and marketing purposes. Southern Yellow Pine is one of the strongest resinous tree species used in the construction field. Pin jaune d’Amérique (PJA)
Specialty paper A variety of distinctive papers designed and produced for particular uses, such as: Thermal paper and labels. Papier de spécialité
Specialty wood product Any forest commodity made of wood and not intended for the high-volume conventional forest sector, thus excluding lumber, fibreboard, and pulp and paper. Examples include carvings, canoes, snowshoes, bowls, utensils, toys, jewellery, decorative boxes, and musical instruments. Specialty wood products often enhance the value of residual wood from forest harvesting (for example, tree stumps, knotted trees, and blue-stained wood attacked by the mountain pine beetle) or of shrub and tree species with a unique wood grain pattern (for example, bird’s eye maple). Produit du bois spécialisé
SPF (spruce-pine-fir) Canadian woods of similar characteristics that are grouped as one lumber type for production and marketing purposes. EPS (épinette-pin-sapin)
Spot planting Setting out young trees in small, prepared patches. Plantation sur placeaux
Square edged When each of the four edges of a piece of lumber form a clean 90-degree angle with no wane. Avivé
Squared timber A large, squared piece of a log at least 5.5 inches wide. Used to form post-and-beam style buildings. Bois équarri
Stand A community of trees possessing sufficient uniformity in composition, age, arrangement, or condition to be distinguishable from the forest or other growth on adjoining areas, thus forming a silvicultural or management entity. Peuplement
Strand (wood) A specialized knife-cut wood flake of controlled thickness and a length along the grain orientation of at least twice and usually many times its width. Copeau long
Stressed-skin panel An insulated building panel made from a rigid insulation core (like styrofoam) and covered by two sheets of structural panel material. Panneau sandwich
Strip cropping Crop planting in which strips of heavy-rooted plants are alternated with loose-rooted plants which serve as barriers to wind and water erosion. Plantation en lisières
Strip planting Setting trees, generally in two or more parallel lines, in a long narrow area of land that has been wholly or partially cleared. Plantation en bandes
Structural lumber Wood suitable for framing and load-bearing structures essentially by virtue of its strength. Bois de charpente
Structural panel A wide, flat material used as a load-bearing component in wooden construction (such as floors, wall sheathing, roof sheathing) or to make ncrete forms. Panneau structural
Stud A vertical structural member used in construction of walls—typically 92 5/8 inches tall. Montant
Stumpage fee The fee paid by an individual or company for the timber they harvest from public forests or privately owned forest land. Droit de coupe
Substantial equivalence A principle for safety assessment that compares a genetically modified product to a traditional non-modified product of the same species with a long history of safe use. A genetically modified product is substantially equivalent to the non-modified one if it is as safe to the environment and human health. Équivalence en substance
Sustainable forestry Management of forested area in order to provide wood products in perpetuity, soil and watershed integrity, persistence of most native species and maintenance of highly sensitive species or suitable conditions. Foresterie durable
Sustainable Forestry Initiative A forest certification program run by a multi-stakeholder (environment, industry, government, academic groups, etc.) board of directors. The SFI standard is a comprehensive system of principles, objectives and performance measures that combines the perpetual growing and harvesting of trees with the long-term protection of wildlife, plants, and soil and water quality. Sustainable Forestry Initiative
Sustained yield The yield of defined forest products of specific quality and in projected quantity that a forest can provide continuously at a given intensity of management. Rendement soutenu
Sustained-yield forestry The yield of defined forest products of specific quality and in projected quantity that a forest can provide continuously at a given intensity of management. Foresterie à rendement soutenu
Synthesis gas A mixture of gases resulting from reacting carbon rich substances with steam in a reduced oxygen environment (partial oxidation), which contains mostly carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The organic source materials can be biomass, natural gas, methane, naphtha, heavy petroleum oils and coke (coal). Gaz de synthèse
T-notching see slit planting Bêchage en T
Tall oil An oily liquid by-product of the so-called “kraft” pulping process (particularly of pine wood), composed of a mixture of rosins, fatty acids, and other substances. Soaps, emulsifiers, adhesives, and lubricants are only a few of the many value-added bioproducts that can be made from recovered tall oil. Résine liquide
Tariff An import tax or a list of articles and the import tax that must be paid on items on that list. A protective tariff is meant to protect local businesses from foreign competition; a retaliatory tariff is in response to a foreign country's tax on goods from your country; and an antidumping tariff is to prevent foreign countries from selling their goods in the importing country at a lower price than the goods sell for the foreign country or at a price lower than the manufacturing cost. Tarif
Taungya plantation The raising of a forest crop in conjunction with a temporary agricultural crop. Plantation en taungya
Temperate forest One of three main forest zones in the world (see also boreal forest, tropical forest). The woodland of rather mild climatic areas; composed mainly of deciduous trees. Forêt tempérée
Thermal paper Coated with a chemical that changes colour when exposed to heat. Used in thermal printers, cash registers and credit card terminals. Papier thermosensible
Thermochemical conversion Thermal and chemical processes by which carbon-rich substances are converted to intermediate chemicals for the production of energy, fuels, chemicals and materials. Conversion thermochimique
Thermoplastics The most commonly used material in plastics processing. Softens with heat and solidifies when cooled. Thermoplastiques
Thinning A partial cutting or spacing operation made in an immature forest stand to accelerate the growth of the remaining trees. Éclaircie
Timberbelt Multiple rows of trees planted to provide environmental benefits (including wind protection, soil conservation, and wildlife corridors) and the opportunity for woody biomass production for conversion into bioenergy and other bioproducts. It can also act as an agroforestry system for the production of agricultural or forest-derived crops. Haie brise-vent
Tongue-and-groove A method of connecting two pieces of a wooden product by shaping a ridge on one piece that fits into a slot on an adjacent piece (the connection hides the gap between the two pieces). Assemblage à rainure et languette
Treaty A legally binding agreement, often between two parties. Traité
Tree class Any class into which the trees forming a crop or stand may be divided for a variety of purposes. Classe d’arbre
Trench planting Setting out young trees in a shallow trench or a continuous slit. Plantation en sillon
Trim Shaped lengths of wood or composite material used in decorative applications such as around door or window frames (moulding is often used for trim). Boiserie
Trusses Structural frames with a triangular arrangement of webs and chords to transfer loads to reaction points. Used as a structural support in residential and non-residential roof structures. Ferme
Tube planting Setting out young trees in narrow, open-ended cylinders of various materials, in which they have been raised from seed or into which they have been transplanted. Plantation de semis en tube
Twisting A type of warp that results in the four corners of a piece of lumber no longer being in the same plane. Torsion
Underplanting Planting young trees under the canopy of an existing stand. Plantation en sous-étage
Uneven-aged system A silvicultural system in which stands have an uneven-aged structure. Régime inéquienne
Unmerchantable Of a tree or stand that has not attained sufficient size, quality, and/or volume to make it suitable for harvesting. Non marchand
Uprooting The removal of trees with their roots by detaching or breaking the roots below the ground surface. Déracinage
Value-added product A product that has had value added to it through further processing. Examples include windows, doors, kitchen cabinets, flooring and mouldings. Value-added pulp and paper products include items such as packaging, diapers, coated papers, tissue, business papers, stationery and other consumer paper products. Produit à valeur ajoutée
Variable-retention A silvicultural system that follows nature’s model by always retaining part of the forest after harvesting. Standing trees are left in a dispersed or aggregated form to meet objectives such as retaining old-growth structure, habitat protection and visual quality. Variable retention retains structural features (snags, large woody debris, live trees of varying sizes, canopy levels) as wildlife habitat. Rétention variable
Veneer A thin layer of wood prepared by peeling or slicing a log. Used to overlay other wood products like cabinets, doors and furniture. Placage
Wane The presence of bark or the absence of wood along the edges of a piece of lumber resulting from the curved outer surface of the log as it is broken down into straight-edged lumber. Flache
Warp When the edge or surface of lumber no longer remains straight because of uneven shrinkage along the length of a piece of lumber. Gauchissement
Web A connecting and strengthening component used to join other structural elements in products such as I-beams. Âme
Weed tree Any tree of a species having little or no economic value on the site in question. Indésirable
Windfall 1. A tree or trees thrown down or with their stems broken off or other parts blown down by the wind. 2. Any area on which the trees have been thrown down or broken by the wind. Chablis
Windrow planting Planting between the two lanes created in windrowing. Plantation sur entrandain
Wood composites Products made from wood waste or residues created in the manufacturing of other wood products. Composites de bois
Wood connection technologies Fastenings (nails, screws, bolts, pressure-applied plates, etc.) that join wood to wood, metal, concrete, plastic or any other solid material. Technologies de fixation du bois
Wood-cement composites Produced by mixing small pieces of wood with cement under pressure. Non-structural uses include acoustic ceiling tiles, siding and roadside noise barriers; structural uses include concrete-filled insulating forms. Composites bois-ciment
Wood-plastic composite A mixture or mechanical combination of wood and plastic resins that are solid in a finished state, are mutually insoluble and differ in chemical nature. Composite bois plastique
Working group An aggregate of forest stands, or forest stand and forest sites, which are grouped for the purpose of applying a common set of silvicultural treatments (also called operational group). Section d’aménagement