||Rain, snow, sleet, hail or fog, usually with acidity below pH 5.6. Acidic precipitation is primarily the result of emissions of gases of sulphur and nitrogen oxides which are transformed into sulphuric acid and nitric acid respectively as they are transported over distances of hundreds to thousands of kilometres from their source.
||An additive used in pesticide spray formulations which enhances adherence to plants.
||Young trees under existing stands capable of becoming the next crop. Regeneration established before logging that has survived the logging operation.
||Limiting extension of a root system beyond a container by exposure to air.
||Of a forest, crop, or stand that contains trees of all, or almost all, age classes, including those of exploitable age.
||De tous âges
||Foliar disease characterized by reduced growth of some portions of the lobes and by the development of necrotic lesions between the veins and on the leaf margins; these lesions may spread to the entire leaf and then the buds and, in extreme cases, the twigs.
||Chemical substance capable of preventing the development of micro-organisms.
||Capable of killing fungi or impeding their development.
||A substance that the organism identifies as foreign, hence triggering the release of antibodies as a defence response.
||Tip or top of an animal or plant structure.
||Cup-shaped ascomatum found in certain ascomycetes fungi and containing the reproductive structures (asci and ascospores).
||Pertaining to the culture of trees.
||The cultivation, that is, growing and tending, of trees and shrubs, individually or in small groups, generally for ornament, protection, and instruction rather than direct use or profit.
||Includes areas that have been harvested recently (less than 10 years ago), and areas depleted by such natural disturbances as fire, insects and disease.
||Superficie en régénération
||Phylum of invertebrate animals that possess an exoskeleton and a segmented body with jointed appendages (legs). Arthropods include crustaceans, spiders and insects.
||Renewal of a tree crop by direct seeding or by planting seedlings or cuttings.
||Sexual stage of ascomycetes fungi, either an apothecium, a perithecium or a cleistothecium, which contains the asci and ascospores.
||Fungus spore produced within an ascus.
||Bag-like structure that develops within an ascomata and is made up of a membrane in which ascospores are produced; the ascospores are discharged from the ascus at maturity.
||Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole using an auger.
||Plantation à la tarière
|Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.)
||A biological insecticide developed in Canada. This natural bacterium, which occurs in soils, is sprayed on forests to combat damaging insects.
||Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.)
||Single-celled organisms that have no nucleus; Plural of bacterium.
||Setting out trees with their roots left undisturbed in a dug-out clod of soil. Note: if trees are bare-rooted, and roots are enclosed in a rough ball of soil, they are properly termed balled.
||Plantation en mottes
||Applying a chemical or other substance to the bole of a tree in the form of a band.
||The outer covering of trees.
||A treatment consisting of forcing a liquid or an encapsulated herbicide into the basal portion of a tree.
||Injection à la base de la tige
||All the silvicultural practices required to achieve free-growing (or established) regeneration of desired species at specified densities and stocking.
||Sylviculture de base
||Fungus spore produced on a basidium.
||Setting out young trees, etc., in loosely-woven baskets in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed.
||Plantation en paniers
||The collection of life on earth; the natural patterns that form from all the species of life (species diversity), the genes that each of them possess (genetic diversity), as well as the ecosystems which these species form (ecosystem diversity).
|Biological pest control methods
||The application of whole organisms or portions of organisms as biologically sound alternatives to broad-spectrum chemical pesticides.
||Méthodes de lutte biologique contre les ravageurs
||Rapid browning or blackening of leaves, which subsequently die, caused by the deterioration of growing tissues.
||Tree or trees felled or broken off by wind, snow, ice or age.
||One of three main forest zones in the world (see also tropical forest, temperate forest) located in northern regions and is characterized by the predominance of conifers (such as pine, spruce, larch and fir) and some deciduous (such as poplar and birch). The boreal forest (singular) is a colloquial term often used to refer to the overall forested area within the boreal zone, and sometimes to refer to the boreal zone itself because forests dominate this landscape. Boreal forests (plural) is the preferred term for the forested areas within the boreal zone.
||Lateral root pruning on four sides of nursery stock in situ. Previous undercutting is usually implicit.
||Élagage latéral (des racines)
||A strip of land where disturbances are not allowed, or are closely monitored, to preserve aesthetic and other qualities adjacent to roads, trails, waterways and recreation sites.
||Setting out young trees grown in bullet-shaped rigid plastic tubes, which are injected into the ground by a spring-loaded gun, sometimes into prepared holes.
||Plantation en cartouches
||Thickening and hardening of the cambium tissues which occur as part of a plant's response to a wound.
||Lesion of the cambium and the living bark of trees that alters and kills these tissues in a localized area.
||A carbon reservoir that absorbs and stores carbon from another part of the carbon cycle. A sink stores more carbon than it emits to the atmosphere. This store of carbon can also be termed a reservoir or pool. Although a growing forest can be considered a carbon sink, when the forest stops growing and its trees die and start decomposing, it becomes a carbon source, because it emits more carbon than it stores.
||Puits de carbone
||Larval form of the immature stage of Lepidopterans. Transforms into a butterfly or moth.
||Compound secreted by the epidermis in arthropods and making up the bulk of their cuticle (outer layer of the body).
||Spherical ascomatum (with no opening) found in certain ascomycetes fungi and containing the reproductive structures (asci and ascospores).
||An alteration in measured quantities (for example, precipitation, temperature, radiation, wind and cloudiness) within the climate system that departs significantly from previous average conditions and is seen to endure, bringing about corresponding changes in ecosystems and socio-economic activity.
|Coarse woody debris
||The standing and downed dead wood in a forest.
||Débris ligneux grossier
||Forest land that is able to grow commercial timber within an acceptable time frame and is designated for such a purpose.
||Forêt d'intérêt commercial
||Specialized hypha upon which one or more conidia are borne.
||Thin-walled spore produced asexually by certain fungi.
|Continuous boreal forest
||Main subarea of the vast boreal zone, which is characterized by relatively dense stands containing primarily boreal coniferous species and shade-intolerant deciduous trees.
||Forêt boréale continue
||Setting out of young trees along a contour line.
||Plantation en bandes de niveau
||Setting trees in parallel rows, generally at regular intervals between and in lines, on land either wholly or partially cleared.
||Plantation en lignes
||The harvestable vegetation growing on a forest area, more particularly the major woody growth forming the forest crop.
||1. Natural: Removal or decadence of lateral live crown by wind, abrasion, reduced light, etc.
2. Cultural: Mechanical removal of branch ends to shape crowns for aesthetic appeal, e.g., for Christmas trees, bonsai, etc.
||Taille en cime
||(Bionaty) Surface tissue layer of the cap of fungi.
(Entomology) Layer of material covering the body of arthropods. This covering is made hard and rigid by the chitin secreted by the epidermis.
||Decomposition of wood caused by micro-organisms, mostly fungi. The wood generally becomes soft and crumbly, loses density and changes colour.
||Trees that lose their leaves in the fall, such as birch, maple and basswood, are deciduous species. “Deciduous” means falling off or shed seasonally.
||Espèce arborescente décidue
||Refers to gills, folds, tubes or teeth that run down the stem of fungi.
||The removal of all or most of a plant’s leaves by natural disturbance agents (e.g., insects) or through the actions of humans (e.g., the application of herbicides).
||Organism that feeds on the foliage of plants. Eg, insects that feed on and destroy whole leaves or parts of leaves.
||Process of becoming dried out.
||Feeding on detritus, decomposing organic matter.
||Sowing seeds or setting out seedlings in rough holes made with a stick or peg. Also termed dibbling if done with a specially adapted tool such as a dibble.
||Plantation au bâton
||Computer-based representation of a mathematical model describing natural phenomena. These models use complex equations to perform essentially mathematical simulations of natural phenomena. They are used to study and test hypotheses about tides, climate change, the changes in an insect population or a forest, and so on.
||Pertaining to organisms that are active during the day.
||In tree injection, a method of banding that uses a tight waterproof bandage packed with a chemical, either dry or in paste form.
||Injection à sec
||A loosely defined type of habitat that occurs at the boundary between two different habitat types. Typically, edge habitats share characteristics with both adjacent habitat types and have particular transitional characteristics that are important to wildlife.
||Habitat de lisière
||A scleotized fore wing that covers the hind wing like a sheath. Found in Coleoptera.
||Organism that lives inside and feeds on a single host, which dies after the parasitoid has completed its larval development.
||Of a forest, stand, or forest type in which relatively small age differences exist between individual trees. The differences in age permitted are usually 10 to 20 years.
||A forest stand or type in which relatively small age differences exist between individual trees (usually 10–20 years).
||An introduced, non-native tree species.
||A general term for all forms of animal life characteristic of a region, period or special environment.
||A nursery, generally not permanent, established in or near the forest rather than near an administrative or executive headquarters. Also referred to as satellite nursery in Ontario and in the Prairies.
||A general term for all forms of plant life characteristic of a region, period or special environment.
||The reproductive structure of a tree or other plant consisting of the male and/or female parts.
||All the leaves of a tree.
||Ecology: Generally, an ecosystem characterized by a more or less dense and extensive tree cover. More particularly, a plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, growing more or less closely together.
||Ecosystem that generally covers a large area and is composed of woody vegetation dominated by trees growing in a relatively dense pattern.
||Care for the health of the forest, particularly by sanitation cutting.
||Land primarily intended for growing, or currently supporting, forest. It includes land not now forested (for example, clearcut lands and northern lands that are forested but not intended for any commercial forestry use) and plantations.
||Any activities that enhance or recover forest growth or harvest yield (e.g., site preparation, planting, thinning, fertilizing, harvesting, etc.), and road construction or reconstruction within forest lands.
||Generally, a profession embracing the science, business, and art of creating, conserving, and managing forests and forest lands for the continuing use of their resources, material or other.
||Any activity that is carried out on forest land to facilitate the use of forest resources, including, but not limited to, timber harvesting, road construction, silviculture, grazing, recreation, pest control and wildfire suppression.
||The splitting or isolating of patches of similar habitat, typically forest cover, but including other types of habitat. Habitat can be fragmented naturally or from forest management activities, such as clearcut logging.
||A reproductive structure on or in which spores of a fungus are produced.
||syn. fuelwood plantation
Setting out young trees to be hogged for burning.
||Substance used to kill fungi.
||Any agent used to kill or inhibit the growth of fungi and their spores.
||Products that can inhibit the growth of fungi or kill them. Fungicides are used in agriculture and industrial plantation forestry to protect plants and trees from certain fungal diseases.
||Combining desired traits, for example, pest resistance and herbicide tolerance, in a genetically modified organism.
||Empilement de gènes
||Living in or on the ground.
||Plate-shaped membrane located under the cap of a fungus; all of the gills together form the hymenium.
||Destruction of tissue (water conducting system) in a ring around a tree.
||The rise in temperature of the Earth's atmosphere due to the greenhouse effect.
||Feeding on seeds.
|Greenhouse gas source
||Any process or activity (for example, forest fires or conversion of forest land to agricultural or urban uses) that releases greenhouse gases or precursors of those gases into the atmosphere. As trees and forest products decompose or burn, they release carbon in the form of carbon dioxide.
||Source de gaz à effet de serre
||Setting out young trees in groups.
||Plantation par bouquets
||The environment in which a population or individual lives; includes not only the place where a species is found, but also the particular characteristics of the place (for example, climate or the availability of suitable food and shelter) that make it especially well suited to meet the life cycle needs of that species.
|Hardwood(s) (broad-leaved trees)
||Trees whose leaves are not persistent and fall off at the end of a defined growing season or during a period of temperature or moisture stress. This is the predominant tree type in deciduous forests. Also refers to the wood produced by these trees.
||Feuillus (arbres à feuilles caduques)
||Feeding on blood.
||A forest managed to harvest forest products and to sustain the natural system, including its bioproductivity, biotic and abiotic diversity. Modern technology, equipment and methods may be used to harvest, restock and tend the forest, with an emphasis on natural restocking, supplemented with artificial restocking of appropriate endemic species.
||Feeding occasionally on seeds and cones, but usually lives and feeds on stems and needles.
||Sleeplike stage in which an organism's metabolism is reduced to its lowest level.
||Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole or pit. Roots separated on either side of a wedge or saddle of earth left in situ when the hole was dug is termed saddle planting.
||Plantation sur potets
||The area in which an animal lives, hunts, and mates throughout its life.
||Organism harbouring a parasite.
||Living in or on humus or leaf litter.
||Parasitic organism that lives off of another parasite.
||Organism that attacks and lives on another parasitoid.
||One of many filaments that make up the mycelium or body of a fungus.
||Reduced virulence in a micro-organism caused by genetic mutation or the presence of a virus.
|Industrial plantation forestry
||Tree cultivation using methods of intensive silviculture: plantations made up of genetically improved stock, fertilization, drainage, phytosanitary treatments, release of higher quality stems, etc.
||Any chemical or biological preparation used to kill or disrupt the development of insects.
|Integrated pest management
||The use of a mix of techniques and/or strategies to control pests, as opposed to the application of a single method.
||Lutte intégrée contre les ravageurs
||Application of cultural measures which, in addition to simply maintaining the forest cover, will allow an increase in the value or volume of the cut.
||Any treatment in a stand during that portion of the rotation not included in the final harvest or regeneration period.
||Planting young trees among existing natural regeneration or previously planted trees of similar age.
||A survey of a forest area to determine data such as area, condition, timber, volume and species for a specific purpose, such as planning, purchasing, evaluating, managing or harvesting.
||Extra leader growth extension late in the growing season.
||Areas of land that are distinguished by differences in landforms, vegetation, land use, and aesthetic characteristics.
||Organ in plants that has various forms (needles, scales, etc.) and that carries on photosynthesis, producing energy for life.
||Organism that hides and feeds inside a leaf or the tip of a leaf that it has rolled-up into a cigar-shaped tube.
|Lifting the canopy
||Removing the lower constituents of a canopy, e.g., the lowest undergrowth, shrubs, and small trees in a multistoried forest, mainly to assist the main crop, particularly for regeneration, but also for readier access.
||Élagage de dégagement
||Growing in or on wood.
||Main component of wood.
||A complex and relatively hydrophobic biopolymer present in the secondary cell walls of vascular plants—and particularly abundant in wood—that gives rigidity to plant stems and allows them to conduct water efficiently.
||A rough but convenient index of the ability of a tree's crown to nourish the remaining part of the tree; it is the percentage of length of stem having living branches. L-notch planting [plantation avec fentes en L.
||Taux de cime vivante
|Lop and top
||The branches and tops cut from a tree, generally once felled or fallen.
||Whitish larva that resembles a worm and has no legs (example : fly larva).
||In regular crops or stands, that portion of the growing stock retained after an intermediate cutting.
||Setting out young trees by means of a machine specially designed for this operation.
||Gallery excavated by a larva in plant tissues, such as a leaf or bark.
||Organism that feeds inside the blade of a leaf, between the epidermal layers, or beneath the bark of plants, by first excavating a mine into these tissues.
||Acarian that feeds on plant or animal matter.
||A stand composed of two or more species in which less than 80% of trees in the main crown canopy are of a single species.
The threshold in Manitoba and New Brunswick is 75%.
cf. pure stand
||Trees belonging to either of the botanical groups Gymnospermae or Angiospermae that are substantially intermingled in stands.
||A forest or designated area including forests and woodlands for which an integrated management plan is created and implemented to achieve multiple objectives on a sustainable basis.
||Form and structure of living organisms.
||Death or destruction of forest trees as result of competition, disease, insect damage, drought, wind, fire, old age, and other factors, excluding harvesting.
||Setting out young trees on raised microsites.
||Plantation sur butte
||Vegetative part of a fungus, which is composed of a mass of hyphae and distinct from the fruiting body.
|National forest strategy
||An overarching national vision and framework for Canada’s forests developed by the Council of Canadian Forest Ministers. The first strategy appeared in 1981.
||Stratégie nationale sur la forêt
||A species that occurs naturally in an area.
||Renewal of a tree crop by natural seeding, sprouting, suckering, or layering.
||Feeding on dead or decomposing animal matter.
||Alteration of tissues caused by the death of cells.
||Living in and feeding on needles.
||Setting out a number of seedlings or seeds close together in a prepared hole, pit, or spot.
||Plantation en nids
||A forest management philosophy that attempts to retain characteristics of old-growth stands in managed stands.
||An area set aside for the raising of young trees mainly for planting out. Temporary nurseries, particularly those formed beneath a high canopy of large trees, may be termed bush nurseries.
cf. field nursery
||One of the specially prepared plots in a nursery where seed is sown or into which transplants or cuttings are put.
||Mineral or organic substances (elements or chemical compounds) that plants and animals require for normal growth and activity. Plants and trees obtain nutrients primarily from the soil by absorbing them through their roots.
||The process of healing of cut branch stubs by the cambium of the surrounding stem surface.
||An old growth forest differs significantly from younger stands in structure, ecological function and species composition with respect to canopy closure, age class structure, accumulation of woody debris and the presence of species and functional processes that are representative of the potential natural community.
||Forêt anciennne / vieille forêt
||Proposed name for the natural forest commonly found in northern Canada. This forest is a mixture of wetlands and small trees, occasionally interspersed with highly productive forests.
||In even-aged management, those trees or stands past the mature stage.
||Form of reproduction in which an organism develops from an unfertilized egg.
||Living or dead agent that alters the normal functions of a whole plant or part of a plant.
||Scientific discipline that is concerned with all aspects of soils.
||Incorporating seed in a matrix of fungicide, insecticide, repellent, coloring material or inert carrier, or any combination of these, so as to form a small ball termed a seed pellet.
||Flask-shaped ascomatum found in certain ascomycetes fungi and containing the reproductive structures (ascus and ascospores).
||Organism that causes serious damage to plants or foodstuffs.
||A heritable trait that enables an organism (e.g., a tree) to be less damaged by pests compared to its non-resistant relatives.
||Résistance aux ravageurs
||The part of the tree that is produced through the growth of cambium cells in an outward direction. It may also be called secondary phloem. The sap produced by the leaves travels through the phloem tissue downwards in the tree. Compared with the xylem (wood) the phloem occupies a very small part of the tree.
||Species that are the first to colonize a new site or a new ecosystem. They are generally shade intolerant and need a lot of sunlight in order to grow. Poplars and birches are pioneer species.
||Setting out young trees in small depressions, natural or excavated, with a view to collecting and conserving moisture.
||Plantation sur trous
||Forest stands established by planting and/or seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestation which are either of introduced species (all planted stands) or intensively managed stands of indigenous species, which meet all the following criteria: one or two species at plantation, even age class, regular spacing.
||Application of forestry principles to an artificial crop or stand.
||Foresterie de plantation
||Establishing a forest by setting out seedlings, transplants, or cuttings in an area.
||A stand containing a preponderance of good phenotypes, but not necessarily plus trees.
||Cutting back the crown of a tree (removal of dead, diseased or unwanted branches).
||A group that includes all possible members of a species in a territory at a given time.
||Setting out young trees in pot-shaped receptacles having a closed or only perforated end and made of various materials, in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed.
||Plantation en pot
||Organism that hunts, captures and kills several types of prey (insects and acarians) over the course of its development.
||A geographically defined area which is designated or regulated and managed to achieve specific conservation objectives.
||Zone / aire protégée
||All forest land managed primarily to exert beneficial influence on soil, water, landscape, or for any other purpose when production of merchantable timber, if any, is incidental.
||Forêt de protection
||Single-celled animal-like microorganisms whose cells have a nucleus. Protozoa play an important role in the ecology of aquatic and soil environments, where they are omnipresent.
||1. The removal of live branches from standing trees, termed green pruning; or of dead branches, dry pruning.
2. Removal of live or dead branches from ground level to as high as a person's reach (2.0-2.5 m) in a young stand.
||Removal of branches from a tree, particularly beneath the crown.
||Spherical or flask-shaped structure (resembles a perithecium, but is asexual) within which conidia are formed.
||Setting out four young trees to form the corners of a square with a fifth tree at its center.
||Plantation en quinconces
||A population that exists within a species and exhibits genetic characteristics distinct from those of the other populations. It is usually an interbreeding unit.
||Living on or in roots. A parasite of roots.
||Renewal of a forest crop by natural, artificial, or vegetative (regrowth) means. Also the new crop so obtained. The new crop is generally less than 1.3 m high.
||The capacity of a community or ecosystem to maintain or regain normal function and development following disturbance.
||Setting out young trees on a long, narrow crest of excavated soil, generally on a slice thrown up by a plough.
||Plantation sur bourrelet
||Ring structure around the base of some fungi.
||A strip of land of variable width adjacent to and influenced by a body of fresh water.
||The act of reducing one or more roots considered to be superfluous, usually at some stage before outplanting, in order to improve the shape and size of a root system.
||Élagage des racines
||The trimming of roots by a cutting tool after lifting and prior to outplanting.
||Taille des racines
||Feeding on the roots of plants.
||The removal of dead, damaged, or susceptible trees or their parts, or of vegetation that serves as an alternative host for crop-tree pathogens, to prevent or control the spread of pests or pathogens.
||Refers to organisms that feed on decaying or decayed plant or animal matter.
||Refers to an organism that develops in partially decomposed woody debris.
||Living on rotting wood.
||Feeding on dung or excrement.
||Living in association with dung or excrement.
||Cuticular protein that has been hardened and darkened.
||Part of integument hardened through the excretion of calcium (crustaceans) or the deposition of sclerotin.
|Second growth forest
||The forest growth that has developed (naturally or artificially) following the removal of the original forest.
||Forêt de seconde venue
||Process whereby one stand or plant community supplants another; it is triggered by a major disturbance in a forest ecosystem.
||A plantation of trees, assumed or proven genetically to be superior, that has been isolated so as to reduce pollination from genetically inferior outside sources, and intensively managed to improve the genotype and produce frequent, abundant, etc.
||Verger à graines
||Forest treated and managed under the selection system.
||Feeding on grain or seeds.
||Reproduction that involves the fusion of genetic material from two distinct entities.
||Cutting away undesirable shoots to favor survival and growth of selected shoots.
||Élagage des rejets
||A series of stand tending (thinning, pruning, etc.) treatments applied after regeneration to achieve a specific stand management objective.
||The theory and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, growth, and quality of forest stands to achieve the objectives of management.
||Practices aimed at ensuring wise harvesting of forest resources : conservation, regeneration, reforestation, cutting, etc.
||Prying open a cut made by a spade, mattock, or planting bar (termed bar planting), inserting a young tree, then closing the cut on the latter by pressure.
||Plantation en fente
||Pertaining to an organism that feeds on snails.
||Circular or nearly circular lesions that appear on a leaf blade. They have a central zone of necrotic (dead, brown) tissue colonized by a pathogen; this zone is surrounded by healthy, coloured tissue.
||Setting out young trees in small, prepared patches.
||Plantation sur placeaux
||Any substance, solid or liquid, that, when added to a pesticide, herbicide, liquid fertilizer, or fire retardant, enables it to spread better over the surfaces on which it is deposited.
||A community of trees possessing sufficient uniformity in composition, age, arrangement, or condition to be distinguishable from the forest or other growth on adjoining areas, thus forming a silvicultural or management entity.
||1. Silviculture: A living stump capable of producing sprouts or shoots.
2. Propagation: A living stump maintained to produce cuttings, layers, etc.
||Crop planting in which strips of heavy-rooted plants are alternated with loose-rooted plants which serve as barriers to wind and water erosion.
||Plantation en lisières
||Setting trees, generally in two or more parallel lines, in a long narrow area of land that has been wholly or partially cleared.
||Plantation en bandes
||The distribution of trees in a stand or group by age, size, or crown classes (e.g., all-aged, even-aged, uneven-aged, regular, and irregular structures).
||Part of trunk with roots remaining after a tree has been cut down.
||The gradual supplanting of one community of plants by another, the sequence of communities being termed a sere and each stage seral.
||Pertains to an organism that has mouth parts designed for collecting flower nectar.
|Sustainable Forestry Initiative
||A forest certification program run by a multi-stakeholder (environment, industry, government, academic groups, etc.) board of directors. The SFI standard is a comprehensive system of principles, objectives and performance measures that combines the perpetual growing and harvesting of trees with the long-term protection of wildlife, plants, and soil and water quality.
||Sustainable Forestry Initiative
||The living together in intimate association of two dissimilar organisms, so that the cohabitation is mutually beneficial.
||see slit planting
||Bêchage en T
||The raising of a forest crop in conjunction with a temporary agricultural crop.
||Plantation en taungya
||One of three main forest zones in the world (see also boreal forest, tropical forest). The woodland of rather mild climatic areas; composed mainly of deciduous trees.
||Generally, any operation carried out for the benefit of a forest crop or an individual thereof, at any stage of its life; covers operations both on the crop itself, e.g., thinnings and improvement cuttings, and on competing vegetation.
||Living in the soil or litter.
||Any of numerous insects in the order Thysanoptera that are of minute size, have fringed wings (if winged) and feed mostly on plant juices.
||Genetically engineered to contain DNA from an external source, such as another species or a different variety. Many transgenic plants are more herbicide tolerant, are resistant to insect or viral pests, or produce modified versions of fruit or flowers.
||Privately owned woodland in which the production of wood fibre is a primary management goal, as distinct from a tree nursery, fruit orchard, or landscape business.
||Propriété forestière de production
||The deliberate introduction, by pressure or simple absorption of a chemical -- generally a water-soluble salt in solution -- into the sapstream of a living tree.
||A specially designed tool used to inject a solution into a living tree.
||Setting out young trees in a shallow trench or a continuous slit.
||Plantation en sillon
||Part of the tree that is generally straight and vertical, located between the root collar and the branches (crown).
||Setting out young trees in narrow, open-ended cylinders of various materials, in which they have been raised from seed or into which they have been transplanted.
||Plantation de semis en tube
||Cylindrical structures beneath the fungus cap constituting the hymenium in certain fungi. A tubular opening made by a worm or another animal.
||Planting young trees under the canopy of an existing stand.
||Plantation en sous-étage
||The lower level of vegetation in a forest. Usually formed by ground vegetation (mosses, herbs and lichens), herbs and shrubs.
||Of a forest, stand, or forest type in which intermingling trees differ markedly in age. The differences in age permitted in an uneven-aged stand are usually greater than 10-20 years.
||The trees, forests, and associated organisms that grow near buildings and in gardens, green spaces, parks, and golf courses located in village, town, suburban, and urban areas.
||The structure formed by different layers of vegetation in a forest.
||Organ that is diminished in size and often nonfunctional.
||Assumption of the health of a tree based on observation of the foliage.
||Classe de vigueur
||Measure of a pathogen's ability to multiply in a living organism and harm it.
||Primitive microorganisms that must infect the living cells of animals, plants, or bacteria in order to replicate. When outside the host cells, viruses adopt a form consisting, most of the time, of a RNA or DNA molecule surrounded by a protein matrix.
||Bringing forth living, fully formed individuals that are capable of feeding. Said of producing bulbils on young plants, instead of and in place of flowers.
||Natural regeneration following site preparation and seeding or planting that could either supplement or completely obscure the trees being planted or seeded on the area.
||Cup-like sheath surrounding the stem base in some fungi, eg, Amanita; it is a remnant of the universal veil.
||Drying out, loss of colour and shape of leaves, then twigs and branches, caused by a lack of water or the presence of toxins.
||1. A tree or trees thrown down or with their stems broken off or other parts blown down by the wind.
2. Any area on which the trees have been thrown down or broken by the wind.
||Planting between the two lanes created in windrowing.
||Plantation sur entrandain
||Dead and decomposing wood of various sizes.
||That feeds on wood.
||Feeding on woody tissues (wood).
||Growing in or living on wood.