|-3/2 power law of self-thinning
||Dense populations that have reached a size at which mortality occurs demonstrate a negative relationship between log mean plant weight and log stand density; this generally has a slope of -3/2.
||Relation à la puissance -3/2 de l’éclaircie naturelle
||A species of less commercial value than the principal species but sometimes useful in assisting the latter and liable to influence the method of treatment to some degree.
||Any silvicultural system derived from one or more of the basic systems and not dependent on any particular method of regeneration.
||A dynamic approach to forest management in which the effects of treatments and decisions are continually monitored and used, along with research results, to modify management on a continuing basis to ensure that objectives are being met.
|Adaptive management area
||Stands or forest types that require similar management practices and are grouped as one unit for the purposes of silviculture management.
||Aire de gestion adaptée
||Young trees under existing stands capable of becoming the next crop. Regeneration established before logging that has survived the logging operation.
||The establishment of a tree crop on an area from which it has always, or for very long, been absent. Where such establishment fails and is repeated, the latter may properly be termed reafforestation.
||A distinct group of trees or portion of growing stock recognized on the basis of age.
||An age class of one or at the most a few years.
||Limiting extension of a root system beyond a container by exposure to air.
||Of a forest, crop, or stand that contains trees of all, or almost all, age classes, including those of exploitable age.
||De tous âges
||The negative influence of a plant, other than a microorganism, upon another plant, through chemical exudate during their metabolism.
|Allowable annual cut (AAC)
||The amount of timber that is permitted to be cut annually from a particular area. AAC is used as the basis for regulating harvest levels to ensure a sustainable supply of timber.
||Possibilité annuelle de coupe (PAC)
||The volume of wood that may be harvested, under management, for a given period.
||Possibilité de coupe
||Heavy chains, often with spikes welded to the links, used in drag scarification.
||Includes areas that have been harvested recently (less than 10 years ago), and areas depleted by such natural disturbances as fire, insects and disease.
||Superficie en régénération
||Renewal of a tree crop by direct seeding or by planting seedlings or cuttings.
||Reproduction without fertilization. New individuals may develop from vegetative parts such as tubers, bulbs, or rooted stems, or from sexual parts such as unfertilized eggs or other cells in the ovule.
||Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole using an auger.
||Plantation à la tarière
||Birds, in particular, all the birds of a given site: the avifauna of a marsh, a prairie, etc.
|Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.)
||A biological insecticide developed in Canada. This natural bacterium, which occurs in soils, is sprayed on forests to combat damaging insects.
||Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.)
||An administrative term used to classify inadequately stocked forest land that has been denuded (cut over, burned, etc.).
||Single-celled organisms that have no nucleus; Plural of bacterium.
||Setting out trees with their roots left undisturbed in a dug-out clod of soil. Note: if trees are bare-rooted, and roots are enclosed in a rough ball of soil, they are properly termed balled.
||Plantation en mottes
||Applying pesticides and/or fertilizers in a linear strip on or along crop rows rather than over the entire ground area.
||Pulvérisation en bandes
||Removing a broad band of bark, from several centimetres to a metre wide, all round a living bole with some sapwood or without, so as to kill (with or without the aid of herbicide), or at least weaken, the tree.
||Applying a chemical or other substance to the bole of a tree in the form of a band.
||Removing the bark of a tree in narrow strips.
||1. Of a tree: The area in square metres of the cross section at breast height of the stem.
2. Of a forest, stand, or forest type: The area in square metres per hectare of the cross section at breast height of all trees.
|Basal bark treatment
||A treatment for killing trees and brush in which a herbicide is applied, by sprayer or brush, to a band of bark encircling the basal portion of the stem.
||Traitement arboricide cortical (à la base de l’arbre)
||A treatment consisting of forcing a liquid or an encapsulated herbicide into the basal portion of a tree.
||Injection à la base de la tige
|Basic forest management
||Extensive forest management plus artificial regeneration where necessary.
cf. extensive forest management
||Aménagement forestier de base
||All the silvicultural practices required to achieve free-growing (or established) regeneration of desired species at specified densities and stocking.
||Sylviculture de base
||Setting out young trees, etc., in loosely-woven baskets in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed.
||Plantation en paniers
||A site preparation procedure in which the soil is mounded mechanically to provide a well-drained ridge on which seedlings are planted or seeds distributed naturally or directly.
||The kinetic energy released from biomass when it is eaten, burned or converted into fuel, or the potential energy embodied in biomass.
|Biological pest control methods
||The application of whole organisms or portions of organisms as biologically sound alternatives to broad-spectrum chemical pesticides.
||Méthodes de lutte biologique contre les ravageurs
||The organic matter (cellulose and lignin) produced by plants. The term forest biomass generally refers to all of the material contained in the trees of a forest, including all their components (roots, branches, leaves, etc.).
||The total mass of living organisms of one or more species per unit of area, or all the species in a community. It can be divided into above-ground biomass and below-ground biomass.
||A pesticide derived from natural sources such as fungi and bacteria or created to closely resemble or be identical to a chemical produced in nature such as a pheromone. Typically a biopesticide is target-specific and has little or no impact on non-target organisms and the environment.
||Using the straight blade of a crawler tractor or similar equipment to remove coarse woody debris and thick duff off the site to create planting lines or spots.
||Préparation du terrain par coupe à la cisaille
||Any forest area in a crop or stand that has remained virtually unstocked, more particularly in plantations. A planting point where the tree has failed or is missing.
||Removal of the crop in blocks in one or more operations, generally for wildlife management purposes, encouraging regeneration, or protecting fragile sites.
Considered in Ontario to be a variation of clearcutting.
||Coupe par blocs
||Tree or trees felled or broken off by wind, snow, ice or age.
||One of three main forest zones in the world (see also tropical forest, temperate forest) located in northern regions and is characterized by the predominance of conifers (such as pine, spruce, larch and fir) and some deciduous (such as poplar and birch). The boreal forest (singular) is a colloquial term often used to refer to the overall forested area within the boreal zone, and sometimes to refer to the boreal zone itself because forests dominate this landscape. Boreal forests (plural) is the preferred term for the forested areas within the boreal zone.
||Lateral root pruning on four sides of nursery stock in situ. Previous undercutting is usually implicit.
||Élagage latéral (des racines)
||The standard height, 1.3 m above ground level, at which the diameter of a standing tree is measured. On sloping ground, breast height is usually measured on the uphill side of the tree.
||Hauteur de poitrine
||Allowing a controlled fire to burn over a designated area within well-defined boundaries, for reduction of fuel hazard, as a silvicultural treatment, or both.
||The scattering of fertilizer or other mixture more or less evenly over an area.
||Fertilisation à la volée
||A blade having scarifier teeth instead of a plain edge, for pushing large objects like tree roots and rocks off a site, leaving smaller stones, soil, etc. in place.
||Lame à rémanents
||An implement with blades mounted on a horizontal power-driven shaft, for reducing the bulk of slash after felling and so facilitating planting.
||Broyeuse de rémanents
||The removal of undesirable herbaceous and woody vegetation by manual or mechanical means.
||Removal of lateral buds from a stem to prevent them from developing into branches.
||Grafting by inserting a bud, with a small amount of tissue, into a slit or hole made in the bark of a stock plant. After union has formed, the portion of the stock plant above the bud is removed.
||A strip of land where disturbances are not allowed, or are closely monitored, to preserve aesthetic and other qualities adjacent to roads, trails, waterways and recreation sites.
||Setting out young trees grown in bullet-shaped rigid plastic tubes, which are injected into the ground by a spring-loaded gun, sometimes into prepared holes.
||Plantation en cartouches
||A place for storing seedlings close to the planting site.
||Lesion of the cambium and the living bark of trees that alters and kills these tissues in a localized area.
||The more or less continuous cover of branches and foliage formed collectively by the crowns of adjacent trees.
||syn. canopy cover class, crown class
Any class into which crops or stands may be divided on the basis of the degree of closure.
||Classe de couvert
||The amount of foliar cover, combining the extent of canopy closure and crown density.
||Densité du couvert
||A carbon reservoir that absorbs and stores carbon from another part of the carbon cycle. A sink stores more carbon than it emits to the atmosphere. This store of carbon can also be termed a reservoir or pool. Although a growing forest can be considered a carbon sink, when the forest stops growing and its trees die and start decomposing, it becomes a carbon source, because it emits more carbon than it stores.
||Puits de carbone
||Structure bearing the spores of a fungus, often composed of a cap and a stem.
||Any material, e.g. sawdust, that is thoroughly mixed with seed, fertilizer, herbicide, etc., to protect it in transit.
||A short-term, generally agricultural crop introduced into and at the start of a longer-rotation forest crop, mainly to provide early financial returns.
||syn. chain clearing, cabling in British Columbia.
A method of reducing or clearing undesirable scrub by dragging through it a heavy chain (generally further weighted by objects such as concrete cylinders or large steel balls).
||A modification of strip cutting where the strip is angled part way along its length.
||Coupe par chevrons
||Knot-free wood formed subsequent to pruning.
||Bois sans défaut
||n: An area of forest land from which all merchantable trees have recently been harvested. syn. clearcutting
v: To harvest all merchantable trees from an area of forest land.
||Coupe à blanc
||A silvicultural method in which most merchantable trees in a stand are harvested simultaneously, producing a fully exposed microclimate for the development of a new age class.
||Coupe à blanc
||A method of regenerating an even-aged forest stand in which new seedlings become established in fully exposed microenvironments after removal of most or all of the existing trees. Regeneration can originate naturally or artificially.
||Mode de régénération par coupe à blanc
||An alteration in measured quantities (for example, precipitation, temperature, radiation, wind and cloudiness) within the climate system that departs significantly from previous average conditions and is seen to endure, bringing about corresponding changes in ecosystems and socio-economic activity.
|Climate change mitigation
||Human intervention to reduce the effects of climate change.
||Atténuation du changement climatique
||Forest land that is able to grow commercial timber within an acceptable time frame and is designated for such a purpose.
||Forêt d'intérêt commercial
||The management of forest lands using strategies and practices that increase the productivity of both timber and non-timber resources.
||Creating plantations in one area in order to replace, in part or whole, a loss of growing stock elsewhere.
||Reboisement de compensation
||A treatment designed to reduce the competitive effect of undesirable vegetation threatening the success of the regeneration of desirable tree species.
cf. brushing, cleaning
||Lutte contre la concurrence végétale
||In ecology, principle (also known as Gause’s principle) that states no two species can occupy exactly the same fundamental niche indefinitely in a habitat where they are competing for the same essential resource, and that one species will crowd out the other.
||The proportion of each tree species in a stand expressed as a percentage of the total number, basal area, or volume of all tree species in the stand.
||A mixture of chemical nutrients added to the soil, having a broad array of actions.
||Harvesting of cones after seed maturation but before their dispersal.
||Récolte de cônes
||A device for collecting cones from a standing tree; it is lowered from a helicopter, over the crown of a tree. Cones or cone-bearing branches are removed and retrieved by the device.
||Cueilleur de cônes
||Member of a group of trees commonly called softwoods or gymnosperms. The word gymnosperm, from the Greek gymnos (naked) and sperma (seed), means "naked-seeded." This refers to the fact that conifer seeds are not contained in fruit tissue. The seeds are instead borne on scales, which are grouped together to form cones. Most conifers have persistent foliage consisting of needles or scales.
||A root that does not elongate beyond the confines of the original rooting volume within a container, even when outplanted with the container removed.
||Portable receptacle (pot, bag, or linked spaces) to hold rooting medium for growing planting stock.
|Continuous boreal forest
||Main subarea of the vast boreal zone, which is characterized by relatively dense stands containing primarily boreal coniferous species and shade-intolerant deciduous trees.
||Forêt boréale continue
||Trench made along a contour (i.e., horizontal) line, for the purpose of checking run-off and soil loss, and conserving moisture, in a hillside plantation.
||Labour de niveau
||Setting out of young trees along a contour line.
||Plantation en bandes de niveau
||A change from one silvicultural system to another, also called conversion cut, or from one stand of trees or ecosystem to another, termed species conversion, the silvicultural procedures involved constituting a conversion system.
||Natural regeneration originating from stump sprouts, stool shoots, or root suckers.
||A method of regenerating a forest stand in which the cut trees produce sprouts, suckers, or shoots.
||Régime du taillis
|Coppice selection method
||A coppice method in which only selected shoots of merchantable size are cut at each felling, giving uneven-aged stands.
||A coppice method in which some of the coppice shoots are reserved for the whole of the next rotation, the rest being cut.
||Cutting trees close to ground level with a view to their producing coppice shoots.
||Coupe de rajeunissement
||A small woodlot or forest regularly cut over for regrowth.
||Bosquet de taillis
||Setting trees in parallel rows, generally at regular intervals between and in lines, on land either wholly or partially cleared.
||Plantation en lignes
||The harvestable vegetation growing on a forest area, more particularly the major woody growth forming the forest crop.
||Any tree selected to become or forming a component of the final crop.
||Arbre du peuplement final
||The upper part of a tree.
||Trees in a forest with crowns of similar development and occupying a similar position in the canopy; the term applies to groups of trees.
||Classe de cime
|Crown closure class
||Any interval into which the range of proportions of ground area covered by the vertically projected tree crown areas of a stand is divided for classification and use.
||Classe de fermeture du couvert
||The ground area covered by the crowns of trees or woody vegetation as delimited by the vertical projection of crown perimeters and commonly expressed as a percentage of total ground area.
||1. Natural: Removal or decadence of lateral live crown by wind, abrasion, reduced light, etc.
2. Cultural: Mechanical removal of branch ends to shape crowns for aesthetic appeal, e.g., for Christmas trees, bonsai, etc.
||Taille en cime
||The compaction of slash and brush by machinery. In Manitoba, the chopping of slash and provision of microsites are considered important features of this treatment.
||Trees or logs or portions thereof that are of merchantable size but are rendered unmerchantable by defects. In nursery practice, a seedling that does not match the grade or specifications.
||A variety of plant cultivated on account of its favourable characteristics for horticulture, forestry or agriculture.
||An area of forest land from which some or all timber has recently been cut.
||1. [bouture (n.f.)] A short length cut from a young, living stem, branch, or root, for propagating a whole new plant, in soil or other media.
2. [abattage (n.m.)] The act of cutting down a standing tree.
||The planned interval between partial harvests in an uneven-aged stand.
||System of cutting treatments applied to a stand at a defined period.
||Timber produced from dead standing trees.
More commonly, timber in dead standing trees.
||Decomposition of wood caused by micro-organisms, mostly fungi. The wood generally becomes soft and crumbly, loses density and changes colour.
||Trees that lose their leaves in the fall, such as birch, maple and basswood, are deciduous species. “Deciduous” means falling off or shed seasonally.
||Espèce arborescente décidue
||Disease that is characterized by a progressive decline in a tree’s health and in its growth and that may kill it. While the causes of this phenomenon are not known, it is generally believed that a combination of factors is to blame: pollution, soil acidification, drought, freeze-thaw action, etc.
||A surface treatment that loosens compacted soils. In Saskatchewan, termed decompaction.
||The removal of all or most of a plant’s leaves by natural disturbance agents (e.g., insects) or through the actions of humans (e.g., the application of herbicides).
||Permanent removal of forest cover and withdrawal of land from forest use, whether deliberately or circumstantially.
|Desirable plant species
||Species that contribute to management objectives.
||diameter at breast height (dbh) [diamètre à hauteur de poitrine (dhp)]: The stem diameter of a tree measured at breast height (1.3 m above ground level).
||Removal of all merchantable trees above a specified minimum diameter, which in mixed stands may vary with species. (1)
||Abattage au diamètre limite
||Sowing seeds or setting out seedlings in rough holes made with a stick or peg. Also termed dibbling if done with a specially adapted tool such as a dibble.
||Plantation au bâton
||Computer-based representation of a mathematical model describing natural phenomena. These models use complex equations to perform essentially mathematical simulations of natural phenomena. They are used to study and test hypotheses about tides, climate change, the changes in an insect population or a forest, and so on.
||The immersion of seedling roots in a solution or water prior to planting.
||Scarification technique using disks to break small slash and the organic layer and to cut vegetation, loosening and incorporating these into the soil.
||Change in the normal colour of wood following infection by a micro-organism.
||Alteration of the normal functions of a whole plant or part of it, caused by a living or dead agent. The main agents involved in the initiation of disease are pollution, animals, fungi and other plants.
||Harmful deviation from normal functioning of physiological processes, generally pathogenic or environmental in origin.
||Any tree that is lying on the ground, whether uprooted, stem-broken, or deliberately cut.
||Towing one or more rows of anchor chains, sharkfin barrels, tractor pads, alone or in various combinations, to break up and possibly spread slash and to loosen the forest floor and topsoil or expose mineral soil.
||Scarifiage par traînage
||Hydrology/engineering: The process of removal of water from soil, particularly by surface runoff and subsurface percolation and artificially by measures for hastening removal, e.g., by ditching.
||A mechanical device for sowing seed in furrowed lines (i.e., in drills).
||Semoir en ligne
||In tree injection, a method of banding that uses a tight waterproof bandage packed with a chemical, either dry or in paste form.
||Injection à sec
||A general term referring to the litter and humus layers of the forest floor.
||Management systems that attempt to simulate ecological processes with the goal of maintaining a satisfactory level of diversity in natural landscapes and their pattern of distribution in order to ensure the sustainability of forest ecosystem processes.
||A race (provenance) adapted to the selective action of a particular environment. Ecotypes are described in terms of the primary environmental influence, e.g., climatic or edaphic.
||Any seedling, whether natural or planted, that has survived in reasonable vigor for some arbitrary time and is so sited that it should make an effective contribution to the crop.
||A tree whose crown at maturity projects well above the level of the highest canopy.
||A process designed to contribute pertinent environmental information to the decision-making process of forest management or other natural resource projects and programs.
|Environmental goods and services
||Benefits humans get directly or indirectly from ecosystem functions. Ecosystem functions are the "…habitat, biological or system properties or processes of ecosystems" (Costanza et al. 1997). They include clean air and water, soil retention, and wildlife habitat, to name a few.
||Biens et services écologiques [ou environnementaux]
A shoot arising from a dormant or adventitious bud on the stem or branch of a woody plant.
||The process of developing a crop to the stage at which the young trees may be considered established, i.e., safe from juvenile mortality and no longer in need of special protection or special tending, but only routine cleaning and thinning.
||The time elapsing between the initiation of a new crop and its establishment.
||The enrichment of water by nutrients, especially compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus, that will accelerate the growth of algae and higher forms of plant life. This enrichment may interfere with the normal ecological balance of the receiving waters.
||Of a forest, stand, or forest type in which relatively small age differences exist between individual trees. The differences in age permitted are usually 10 to 20 years.
||A forest stand or type in which relatively small age differences exist between individual trees (usually 10–20 years).
||Silvicultural systems in which stands have an even-aged structure, e.g., clearcutting method, coppice method, seed-tree method.
||A situation in which second-growth forests provide less timber than the original forests.
||A general term for all forms of animal life characteristic of a region, period or special environment.
||A type of wildlife management that does not attempt to manage for all species, but selects a few species of particular concern or interest (for example, big game species or endangered species) and aims management programs at them. With respect to habitat, it is generally assumed that providing habitat for these species provides habitat for other species as well.
||Gestion axée sur les espèces
||A self-propelled machine used to fell trees by shearing them off near the ground using a hydraulic apparatus. Some models also strip limbs and bunch the logs for later pickup.
||The application of chemical or organic fertilizers with the objective of increasing the unit area soil productivity.
||Generally, measure of the percentage, by number, of seeds in a given sample that germinate and produce a seedling, irrespective of subsequent seedling survival.
||Germination au champ
||A nursery, generally not permanent, established in or near the forest rather than near an administrative or executive headquarters. Also referred to as satellite nursery in Ontario and in the Prairies.
||The planting of trees in areas of inadequate stocking to achieve the desired level of stocking, either in plantations or areas of natural regeneration.
||A tree or species of inferior value, retained in thinning or cleaning, in the absence of any better.
||Remplissage (arbre de)
||The last of a series of progressive regeneration cuts which removes the last of the original seed trees when the regeneration is considered established.
|Fire hazard reduction
||Any treatment of fuels that reduces the threat of ignition and spread of fire.
||Réduction du risque d’incendie
||A general term for all forms of plant life characteristic of a region, period or special environment.
||Ecology: Generally, an ecosystem characterized by a more or less dense and extensive tree cover. More particularly, a plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, growing more or less closely together.
||Ecosystem that generally covers a large area and is composed of woody vegetation dominated by trees growing in a relatively dense pattern.
||Care for the health of the forest, particularly by sanitation cutting.
||Land primarily intended for growing, or currently supporting, forest. It includes land not now forested (for example, clearcut lands and northern lands that are forested but not intended for any commercial forestry use) and plantations.
||That branch of forestry concerned with the overall administrative, economic, legal and social aspects and with the essentially scientific and technical aspects, especially silviculture, protection and forest regulation.
|Forest management unit
||An area of forest land managed as a unit for fiber production and other renewable resources. This unit can be the entire province or territory, a provincial forest management subdivision, an industrial timber limit, etc.
||Unité d’aménagement forestier
||A computer-based simulation that, within definable parameters, forecasts the development of a forest.
||Modèle de forêt
||Any activities that enhance or recover forest growth or harvest yield (e.g., site preparation, planting, thinning, fertilizing, harvesting, etc.), and road construction or reconstruction within forest lands.
||see forest site type
|Forest site classification
||Grouping of forest sites using either the composition or the productivity of the vegetation as well as soil and topographic position.
||Classification de station forestière
|Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
||An international certification and labelling system under which forests are certified against strict environmental and social standards, and fibre from certified forests is tracked from the forest to consumers.
||Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
|Forest tree improvement
||The control of parentage combined with other silvicultural activities (such as site preparation or fertilizing) to improve the overall yield and quality of products from forest lands.
||Amélioration générale des arbres forestiers
|Forest tree species
||Group of individuals that possess common characteristics and are capable of producing fertile progeny
||A group of forested areas or stands of similar composition; forest types are usually separated and identified by species composition and often by height and crown closure classes.
||Generally, a profession embracing the science, business, and art of creating, conserving, and managing forests and forest lands for the continuing use of their resources, material or other.
||Any activity that is carried out on forest land to facilitate the use of forest resources, including, but not limited to, timber harvesting, road construction, silviculture, grazing, recreation, pest control and wildfire suppression.
||General shape of a tree.
||All the operations contributing to the creation of a new forest cover up to the stage where it is considered established.
||A self-propelled machine, usually self-loading, that transports trees or logs by carrying them completely off the ground.
||The splitting or isolating of patches of similar habitat, typically forest cover, but including other types of habitat. Habitat can be fragmented naturally or from forest management activities, such as clearcut logging.
||Girdling by making a series of downward, more or less overlapping incisions, generally for the introduction of herbicide. Spaced incisions are termed frill cuts. A double series of such incisions is referred to as double-frill girdling.
||Annélation en encoches
||syn. fuelwood plantation
Setting out young trees to be hogged for burning.
||Substance used to kill fungi.
||Any agent used to kill or inhibit the growth of fungi and their spores.
||Products that can inhibit the growth of fungi or kill them. Fungicides are used in agriculture and industrial plantation forestry to protect plants and trees from certain fungal diseases.
||The change in space and time in the pattern, frequency, size, and successional processes of forest canopy gaps caused by the fall or death of one or more canopy trees.
||Dynamique des trouées
||A test made to determine the viability of seeds, spores, or pollen grains in a given sample.
||Essai de germination
||The percentage of seeds, spores, or pollen grains in a given sample that actually germinate, irrespective of time. In any batch of seeds, the percentage that is pure (of the species required) multiplied by the germinative capacity.
||1. Silviculture: Making more or less continuous incisions around a living stem, through at least both bark and cambium, generally with the object of killing the trees.
||The rise in temperature of the Earth's atmosphere due to the greenhouse effect.
||n: A plant that has been grafted.
v: To place a detached cutting or branch tip (scion) in close cambial contact with a rooted plant (understock) in such a manner that scion and rootstock unite.
||Geological formation that dates back more than 450 million years and is characterized by vast expanses of granite of volcanic origin. The Canadian Shield is made up largely of granite bedrock. Since granite has little capacity to neutralize acid rain, the forest ecosystems in these regions are fairly vulnerable to the effects of acid deposition.
||A handling tool suspended from the end of the boom, consisting of a downward-turned clamp that is opened to pick up the stems or logs and then closed to lift and deposit them further away.
||Increasing the fertility of soil by raising suitable herbaceous crops on it, particularly Fabaceae, but also Cruciferae and Gramineae, and digging or ploughing them while succulent, with or without supplementary fertilizers.
|Green tree cut
||Harvesting that retains live trees of a specific species and size on the area to be cut to achieve a site-specific objective.
||Coupe avec réserves
|Greenhouse gas sinks
||Any process, activity or mechanism that removes greenhouse gases or their precursors from the atmosphere. The principal natural mechanism is photosynthesis.
||Puits de gaz à effet de serre
||A shelterwood system in which the canopy is opened, by group cutting, so as to create fairly evenly distributed gaps which are enlarged by subsequent cuttings.
||Système des coupes progressives par trouées
||Setting out young trees in groups.
||Plantation par bouquets
||A method of regenerating and maintaining uneven-aged stands in which trees are removed in small groups.
||Jardinage par bouquets
||All the trees growing in a forest or in a specified part of it, generally expressed in terms of number or volume.
||Matériel sur pied
||A method of management by which species are assembled into groups based on similarities in their habitat requirements. One species is selected to indicate the group; conserving the habitat of that particular species ensures the conservation of other members of the guild.
||Gestion par association
||Removing the undesirable species inhibiting the growth of valued species manually.
||A snag composed primarily of sound wood, generally merchantable.
|Hardwood(s) (broad-leaved trees)
||Trees whose leaves are not persistent and fall off at the end of a defined growing season or during a period of temperature or moisture stress. This is the predominant tree type in deciduous forests. Also refers to the wood produced by these trees.
||Feuillus (arbres à feuilles caduques)
||Temporary storage of seedlings by burial of root systems in a trench.
||Mise en jauge
||Any chemical preparation used to kill or inhibit the growth of forbs, grasses, woody plants, and their seeds.
||Capable of surviving and recovering from the application of herbicides.
||Tolérant aux herbicides
||A forest managed to harvest forest products and to sustain the natural system, including its bioproductivity, biotic and abiotic diversity. Modern technology, equipment and methods may be used to harvest, restock and tend the forest, with an emphasis on natural restocking, supplemented with artificial restocking of appropriate endemic species.
||Crops and stands of trees, generally of seedling origin, that normally develop a high closed canopy. A term originally used to differentiate the natural, essentially seedling forest of long rotation from the artificial.
||A partial harvest removing only the most valuable species, or trees of desirable size and quality, without regard for the condition of the residual stand.
||Silvicultural systems in which the crops are normally of seedling origin, natural and/or artificial, and the rotation is, traditionally at least, long.
||Régime de la futaie
||An accessory system in which selected trees of the old crop, scattered or in groups, are retained after regeneration is completed, for the whole or a part of the next rotation.
||Futaie avec sur-réserves
||Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole or pit. Roots separated on either side of a wedge or saddle of earth left in situ when the hole was dug is termed saddle planting.
||Plantation sur potets
||Broad brush approach based on a theory according to which a whole cannot be analyzed without considering the sum of its parts or reduced to discrete elements.
||A general term for the more or less decomposed (plant and animal) residues in the soil, litter therefore being excluded.
||In even-aged management, those trees or stands that have grown past the regeneration stage but are not yet mature. In uneven-aged management, established trees too young for commercial harvest.
||A cutting made in a stand past the sapling stage, primarily to improve composition and quality through the removal of less desirable trees of any species.
||The increase in diameter, basal area, height, volume, quality, or value of individual trees or stands during a given period. (5)
|Industrial plantation forestry
||Tree cultivation using methods of intensive silviculture: plantations made up of genetically improved stock, fertilization, drainage, phytosanitary treatments, release of higher quality stems, etc.
||Any chemical or biological preparation used to kill or disrupt the development of insects.
|Integrated landscape management (ILM)
||The integrated planning and assessment of land uses and human activities over whole landscapes to ensure the long-term economic, social and environmental sustainability of ecosystems and their resources. It is applied at appropriate temporal and spatial scales necessary to achieve multiple management objectives.
||Aménagement intégré du paysage (AIP)
|Integrated pest management
||The use of a mix of techniques and/or strategies to control pests, as opposed to the application of a single method.
||Lutte intégrée contre les ravageurs
|Integrated resource management
||A holistic approach to resource management that entails the management of two or more resources (for example, water, soil, timber, pasture, wildlife, and recreation) and that integrates the values of the community into the design of policies or projects to use and sustain these resources in perpetuity.
||Gestion intégrée des ressources
||Application of cultural measures which, in addition to simply maintaining the forest cover, will allow an increase in the value or volume of the cut.
||An agroforestry system involving the cultivation of agricultural crops or forest-derived crops that require full sun between rows (or other arrangements) of trees or shrubs. (See also sun system.)
||Any treatment in a stand during that portion of the rotation not included in the final harvest or regeneration period.
||Planting young trees among existing natural regeneration or previously planted trees of similar age.
||A survey of a forest area to determine data such as area, condition, timber, volume and species for a specific purpose, such as planning, purchasing, evaluating, managing or harvesting.
|Irregular shelterwood system
||see shelterwood cutting
||Système des coupes progressives irrégulières
||see stocking: partially stocked
||Matériel relatif irrégulier
||A root, especially a seedling tap root, having a sharp bend greater than 90, shaped like a J. Frequently introduced by inappropriate planting.
||Racine en J
||An inner layer of xylem surrounding the pith, in which the cells are smaller and/or less structurally developed than those of the outer xylem. The period during which it is formed is termed the juvenile period; it varies between individuals
||Bois de jeunesse
||Special form of slit planting involving two slits at right angles with the seedling placed at the apex of the L.
||plantation avec fentes en L
||Areas of land that are distinguished by differences in landforms, vegetation, land use, and aesthetic characteristics.
||The rooting of an undetached branch, lying on or partially buried in the soil, or surrounded by moist fiber sealed in a plastic wrap (air layering), termed a layer, which is capable of independent growth after separation from the parent plan.
||Regeneration of a forest stand using layerings.
||Méthode du marcottage
||Process in which soluble substances in the soil are removed by the movement of water.
||A strip of timber left standing between two clearcut areas.
||A tree (marked to be) left standing in an area where other trees are felled.
||Arbre marqué en réserve
||Loosening and removing a plant from the ground as typically practised in nurseries.
|Lifting the canopy
||Removing the lower constituents of a canopy, e.g., the lowest undergrowth, shrubs, and small trees in a multistoried forest, mainly to assist the main crop, particularly for regeneration, but also for readier access.
||Élagage de dégagement
||Transplanting seedlings or rooted cuttings in rows in a nursery bed.
||Repiquage en ligne
||Uppermost layer of organic debris on a forest floor.
||The burning of green slash progressively as it is cut.
||General term comprising wounds resulting from cutting, breakage, or crushing of trees that resulted from the felling and the removal of trees designated for cutting.
May also include scoring of site and soil leading to exposure
||Dommage de coupe
||Chopping branches, tops, and small trees after felling into lengths such that the resultant slash will lie close to the ground.
||Wood processed in a sawmill.
||In regular crops or stands, that portion of the growing stock retained after an intermediate cutting.
||A predetermined course of action and direction to achieve a set of results, usually specified as goals, objectives and policies.
||Commonly the dung of farm animals. Also natural or artificial food material for plants and trees, supplying nitrogen, phosphates, and potash and other essential nutrients.
||syn. marking axe, marking cog. A light hammer having a die for stamping letters, figures, or other distinctive devices.
||Means of standardizing marking practice among individuals and for various areas of the same forest type, commonly for thinning purposes.
||Règle de marquage
||In even-aged management, those trees or stands that are sufficiently developed to be harvestable and that are at or near rotation age (includes overmature trees and stands for which an overmature class has not been recognized.
||Trees or stands grouped according to their stage of development, from establishment to suitability for harvest. A maturity class may comprise one or more age classes.
||Classe de maturité
||Setting out young trees by means of a machine specially designed for this operation.
||Of a tree or stand that has attained sufficient size, quality, and/or volume to make it suitable for harvesting. Does not imply accessibility, economic or otherwise.
||A snag that is of sufficient quality and/or volume to make it suitable for harvesting.
||Soil-dwelling micro-organisms (animals) that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Synonym: soil fauna.
||An irrigation technique for rooting cuttings where water, with or without fertilizers, is sprayed in minute drops on the plants.
||A stand composed of two or more species in which less than 80% of trees in the main crown canopy are of a single species.
The threshold in Manitoba and New Brunswick is 75%.
cf. pure stand
||Trees belonging to either of the botanical groups Gymnospermae or Angiospermae that are substantially intermingled in stands.
||Site preparation technique involving rotating tillers or other devices that mix soil and surface organic material with fine debris.
||A forest or designated area including forests and woodlands for which an integrated management plan is created and implemented to achieve multiple objectives on a sustainable basis.
||1. General: Cultivation of a single crop or product without using the land for other purposes.
2. Biology: Extensive areas of land occupied or dominated by plant species that are closely related genetically.
||The act of extinguishing a fire after it has been brought under control.
||Death or destruction of forest trees as result of competition, disease, insect damage, drought, wind, fire, old age, and other factors, excluding harvesting.
||Setting out young trees on raised microsites.
||Plantation sur butte
||Any loose covering on the surface of the soil, whether natural, like litter, or deliberately applied, like organic residues, crushed gravel, or artificial material like plastic, glass-wool, metal foil, and paper, used to reduce competing vegetation.
|Multiple forest use
||A system of resource use where the forest resources in a given land unit serve more than one user.
||Utilisation intégrée de la forêt
||Renewal of a tree crop by natural seeding, sprouting, suckering, or layering.
||Reddening or browning of needles, sometimes leading to premature shedding of foliage.
||Setting out a number of seedlings or seeds close together in a prepared hole, pit, or spot.
||Plantation en nids
||A forest management philosophy that attempts to retain characteristics of old-growth stands in managed stands.
||Globulose or elongated mass formed by certain fungi or a mixture of plant and fungal tissues.
|Non-commercial tree species
||A tree species for which there is currently no market.
||Essence forestière non commerciale
||A value within the forest other than timber that includes, but is not limited to, biological diversity, fisheries, wildlife, minerals, water quality and quantity, recreation and tourism, cultural heritage values, and wilderness and aesthetic values.
||Valeurs non ligneuses
||A dead or downed log that fosters tree seedlings by protecting them from such environmental factors as wind, insolation, or frost, or by providing appropriate soil and microclimate.
||An area set aside for the raising of young trees mainly for planting out. Temporary nurseries, particularly those formed beneath a high canopy of large trees, may be termed bush nurseries.
cf. field nursery
||One of the specially prepared plots in a nursery where seed is sown or into which transplants or cuttings are put.
||Mineral or organic substances (elements or chemical compounds) that plants and animals require for normal growth and activity. Plants and trees obtain nutrients primarily from the soil by absorbing them through their roots.
||The process of healing of cut branch stubs by the cambium of the surrounding stem surface.
||A stand of mature or overmature trees relatively uninfluenced by human activity.
||Première venue, de
||An old growth forest differs significantly from younger stands in structure, ecological function and species composition with respect to canopy closure, age class structure, accumulation of woody debris and the presence of species and functional processes that are representative of the potential natural community.
||Forêt anciennne / vieille forêt
||Proposed name for the natural forest commonly found in northern Canada. This forest is a mixture of wetlands and small trees, occasionally interspersed with highly productive forests.
||Considerable reduction of canopy density, e.g., by lopping, felling, or herbicidal treatment of selected trees, or naturally through pests, disease, or drought mortality.
||Ouverture du couvert
||Potential woody biomass resources available for salvage following natural disturbances—for example, wood damaged by insect pests such as the mountain pine beetle, by disease, or by fire or wind — or forestry activities — for example, small-diameter or other trees left standing. In some cases, harvesting and construction residues are also viewed as opportunity wood.
||A seedling, transplant, or cutting ready to be established on an area.
||Plant sur le terrain
||In even-aged management, those trees or stands past the mature stage.
||The uppermost continuous layer of a vegetation cover, for example the tree canopy in a forest ecosystem or the uppermost layer of a shrub stand.
||A final harvest in which the cutting releases advance regeneration.
||Suppression de l’étage dominant
||A low-pressure hand tool for squirting a distinctive mark of paint on trees and timber.
||Removal of only part of a stand for purposes other than regenerating a new age class.
||Any cutting in which only part of the stand is harvested.
||Burning felling debris, grass, etc. in patches for the purpose of preparing sites for group planting or sowing.
||Brûlage par placettes
||A silvicultural system that creates openings less than one hectare in size and is designed to manage each opening as a distinct even-aged opening.
||Coupe par trouées
||A modification of the clearcutting system developed in the Pacific Coast region of North America, whereby patches of about 5 to 200 ha are logged as single units, separated for as long as practicable.
||Exploitation par blocs
||A mechanized implement used to expose patches of mineral soil in a systematic pattern.
||Scarificateur de placeaux
||A microscopic organism or virus directly capable of causing disease. see thinning: precommercial.
||A parasitic organism directly capable of causing disease.
||The study of disease.
||Study of diseases and the effects they have on plants.
||Scientific discipline that is concerned with all aspects of soils.
||Incorporating seed in a matrix of fungicide, insecticide, repellent, coloring material or inert carrier, or any combination of these, so as to form a small ball termed a seed pellet.
||The part(s) of forest allocated for regeneration (the regeneration block) or other treatment during a specified period. (3)
||Affectation de régénération
||Any organism, whether insect, pathogen, mammal, or competing vegetation, capable of causing damage to a forest crop.
||Organism that causes serious damage to plants or foodstuffs.
||Any preparation used to control populations of injurious organisms, plant or animal.
||The part of the tree that is produced through the growth of cambium cells in an outward direction. It may also be called secondary phloem. The sap produced by the leaves travels through the phloem tissue downwards in the tree. Compared with the xylem (wood) the phloem occupies a very small part of the tree.
||Slash disposal whereby coarse woody debris are gathered into windrows or isolated piles.
||Mise en andain
||Species that are the first to colonize a new site or a new ecosystem. They are generally shade intolerant and need a lot of sunlight in order to grow. Poplars and birches are pioneer species.
||A species adapted to early stages of natural forest succession or growth on newly available sites.
||Setting out young trees in small depressions, natural or excavated, with a view to collecting and conserving moisture.
||Plantation sur trous
||A flat, box-type container in which plants are raised.
||Forest stands established by planting and/or seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestation which are either of introduced species (all planted stands) or intensively managed stands of indigenous species, which meet all the following criteria: one or two species at plantation, even age class, regular spacing.
||Application of forestry principles to an artificial crop or stand.
||Foresterie de plantation
||Establishing a forest by setting out seedlings, transplants, or cuttings in an area.
||A motorized auger used to create planting holes.
||A long-handled, tapered spade used to make narrow, deep holes for young plants of tap-rooted tree species.
||Bêche à planter
||Special devices of varying complexity which make holes by compression and either set or shoot a containerized seedling into the soil.
||Plantoir à pistolet
||Specially designed machine that cuts a narrow trench through the soil in which seedling roots are inserted and then held in place by closing of the trench.
||The exact spot where a young tree has been set out.
||Emplacement des semis
||Operation designed to loosen compacted soils and/or to pull the roots of unwanted plants out of the ground by means of single- or double-moldboard ploughs or special shaping devices pulled by a tractor, bulldozer, or similar equipment.
||A small container seedling which is to be planted and raised as a bare-root seedling.
||A stand containing a preponderance of good phenotypes, but not necessarily plus trees.
||A phenotype judged (but not proved by testing) to be unusually superior in some quality or qualities.
|Pocket of infection
||Area in a stand or plantation where a disease originated.
||A tree between a sapling and small sawtimber size. Size varies by region, e.g., for boreal and eastern forests 12-20 cm dbh.
||The systematic harvest cutting of pollard shoots, with due provision for replacing exhausted or defective pollards.
||Taillis sur têtards
||Cutting back the crown of a tree (removal of dead, diseased or unwanted branches).
||The simultaneous cultivation of a number of crops as opposed to stands composed of a single species.
||A group that includes all possible members of a species in a territory at a given time.
||Setting out young trees in pot-shaped receptacles having a closed or only perforated end and made of various materials, in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed.
||Plantation en pot
||Cutting in an immature crop or stand to improve crop spacing and to accelerate the diameter increment of favoured trees, and/or improve the average form of the trees that remain. Does not yield trees of commercial value.
||Silvicultural treatment that consists in freeing trees that have good growth potential from competition by cutting the lower quality stems that are competing with them.
||A tree whose crown has grown above the general level of the upper canopy.
||The germination of seed, generally to the stage when the radicle is just emerging, before sowing in the field or nursery.
||Removing trees near the end of a rotation so as to permanently open the canopy and enlarge the crowns of seed bearers, with a view to improving conditions for seed production and natural regeneration, as typically in shelterwood systems.
||The knowledgeable application of fire to a specific land area to accomplish predetermined forest management or other land use objectives.
||The species to which the silviculture of a mixed forest is primarily directed, either for its (or their) economic or protective value.
||The rate of production of wood of given specifications, by volume or weight, for a given area.
cf. site capability
||A test in which the genetic constitution of an individual is evaluated from the performance of its progeny produced by some specific mating system.
||Test de descendance
||A geographically defined area which is designated or regulated and managed to achieve specific conservation objectives.
||Zone / aire protégée
||All forest land managed primarily to exert beneficial influence on soil, water, landscape, or for any other purpose when production of merchantable timber, if any, is incidental.
||Forêt de protection
||An experiment, usually replicated, comparing trees grown from seed or cuttings collected from many parts of a species, natural range.
||Test de provenance
||1. The removal of live branches from standing trees, termed green pruning; or of dead branches, dry pruning.
2. Removal of live or dead branches from ground level to as high as a person's reach (2.0-2.5 m) in a young stand.
||Removal of branches from a tree, particularly beneath the crown.
||A saw specially designed to prune standing trees.
||Scie à élaguer
||Wood chips that have been ground mechanically into fibres and are used for the production of inexpensive paper, such as newsprint, or that have been chemically treated to remove the lignin and are used to manufacture higher quality papers.
||A small, clearly demarcated sample area of known size on which observations are made.
||Setting out four young trees to form the corners of a square with a fifth tree at its center.
||Plantation en quinconces
||Site preparation technique using a bulldozer or similar equipment with a blade having teeth instead of a plain edge, for pushing large, coarse woody debris and rocks off a site and leaving smaller stones, soil, and small finer slash.
||syn. reafforestation Successful renewal of a forest crop by planting or direct seeding.
||Création de forêt
||Renewal of a forest crop by natural, artificial, or vegetative (regrowth) means. Also the new crop so obtained. The new crop is generally less than 1.3 m high.
||The area selected, normally in a working plan or working scheme, for regeneration generally with a specified period of time in view.
||Quartier de régénération
||The area, and the young trees in the area, being managed during the regeneration interval in the shelterwood silvicultural system. In this interval, old and young trees occupy the same area, the young being protected by the old.
||Classe de régénération
||Any removal of trees intended to assist regeneration already present or to make regeneration possible.
||Coupe de régénération
||The year in which the new crop is deemed to be started at an acceptable stocking level, whether by planting, natural or artificial seeding, or by vegetative means.
||Début de la régénération
||The period between the seed cutting and the final cutting on a particular area under one of the shelterwood systems.
||Durée de régénération
||The time between the initial regeneration cut and the successful reestablishment of a stand by natural or artificial means.
||Période de régénération
||An inventory of the quantity and quality of regeneration over a given area.
||Relevé de la régénération
||A term used in reference to coppice, as well as recovery of vegetation from treatment designed to impede or control its growth.
||See seed-tree method.
||Coupe à blanc avec réserves
||The capacity of a community or ecosystem to maintain or regain normal function and development following disturbance.
||A silvicultural system designed to retain individual trees or groups of trees to maintain structural diversity over the area of the cutblock.
||Coupe à rétention variable
||Setting out young trees on a long, narrow crest of excavated soil, generally on a slice thrown up by a plough.
||Plantation sur bourrelet
||Removing a narrow strip of bark (only), all around a living stem, in order to stimulate flowering or to girdle it; or a felled stem or a log, for under-bark diameter measurement.
|Riparian forest buffer
||A strip of forested land of variable width adjacent to a flowing body of fresh water, which it influences and is affected by. Prone to flooding, a riparian forest buffer can be integrated into an agroforestry system and help counter stream bank erosion, protect water quality, and regularize water flow.
||A strip of land of variable width adjacent to and influenced by a body of fresh water.
||A toothed blade or set of heavy tines mounted at the front or rear of a vehicle for breaking up soft rock and hard ground, and tearing out stumps and boulders. Also a vehicle so equipped.
||A V-shaped plough mounted with a ripper blade used for scarification on frozen soil.
||The mechanical penetration and shearing of range soils to depths of 3-7 cm for the purpose of breaking hardpan layers to facilitate penetration of plant roots, water, organic matter, and nutrients.
||Part of the tree that anchors it and absorbs nutrients from the soil.
||The act of reducing one or more roots considered to be superfluous, usually at some stage before outplanting, in order to improve the shape and size of a root system.
||Élagage des racines
||The act or treatment of immersing, sometimes several times in close succession, the root systems of bare-root planting stock in a clay slurry with the aim of improving outplant performance.
||Pralinage des racines
||An implement, either mounted on the front of a dozer, skidder or forwarder, or trailed, having tines for collecting stumps and slash.
||Decomposition of the woody tissue in roots causing the death of the cambium or bark of the roots, thus girdling the trees at the root collar and causing their death.
||1. The accidental removal of roots during lifting, handling, and planting, especially when caused by improper practices.
2. The removal of bark from roots.
||Dépouillement des racines
||The trimming of roots by a cutting tool after lifting and prior to outplanting.
||Taille des racines
||The mass of roots, soil and rocks that remains intact when a tree, shrub, or stump is uprooted.
||The total mass or volume of the plant root system divided by the total mass or volume of the shoot system, usually on an oven-dry basis.
||Rapport système racinaire/système foliacé
||A site preparation machine using hammers, teeth, tines, or flails mounted on a horizontal drum or horizontal or vertical shaft revolving at high speed.
||Laboureur à lames rotatives
||The planned number of years between the formation or regeneration of a crop or stand and its final cutting at a specified stage or maturity.
||Prescribed burning applied at regular intervals on a specific site as a means of pest control.
||Sections of tree stems, with or without bark. May include logs, bolts, posts and pilings.
||Disease caused by a fungus that is parasitic on higher plants and may go through five different developmental stages, usually involving hosts. Following infection, orange pustules appear, possibly followed by premature shedding of foliage, witches' brooms or cankers.
||The resulting depressions in the soil due to the repeated passage of a logging machine’s wheels at the same place.
||The exploitation of trees that are dead, dying, or deteriorating (e.g., because overmature or materially damaged by fire, wind, insects, fungi, or other injurious agencies) before their timber becomes economically worthless.
||Coupe de récupération
||The removal—after the main logging—of the rest of the timber, with a view to supplying a different class of product.
||Coupe de récupération
||The removal of dead, damaged, or susceptible trees, essentially to prevent the spread of pests or pathogens and so promote forest hygiene.
||The removal of dead, damaged, or susceptible trees or their parts, or of vegetation that serves as an alternative host for crop-tree pathogens, to prevent or control the spread of pests or pathogens.
||A general term for a young tree no longer a seedling but not yet a pole, about 1-2 m high and 2-4 cm in dbh, typically growing vigorously and without dead bark or more than an occasional dead branch.
||Trees that will yield logs suitable in size and quality for the production of lumber.
||Bois de sciage
||Paring off low and surface vegetation, with most of its roots, to expose a weed-free soil surface, generally preparatory to sowing or planting thereon. If done by chemicals, termed chemical screefing.
||The study of the material universe or physical reality in order to understand it. This is done by making observations and collecting data about natural events and conditions, then organizing and explaining them with hypotheses, theories, models, laws and principles.
||An aerial plant part, often a branchlet, that is grafted onto another root-bearing plant (stock, rootstock).
||A tool for marking trees or round timber by scoring the outer surface.
||The forest growth that has developed (naturally or artificially) following the removal of the original forest.
||Seconde venue, de
|Second growth forest
||The forest growth that has developed (naturally or artificially) following the removal of the original forest.
||Forêt de seconde venue
||A species of inferior quality and/or size, and of lesser silvicultural value, associated with the principal species.
cf. accessory species
||Process whereby one stand or plant community supplants another; it is triggered by a major disturbance in a forest ecosystem.
||A place in which seeds of rare plant or obsolete varieties are stored, usually vacuum-packed and under cold conditions, to prolong their viability.
||Banque de semences
||1. Any tree producing seed.
2. Any tree retained to provide seed for natural regeneration, e.g., during seed cuttings.
|Seed collection area
||A forest stand that exhibits good characteristics of growth, form, and vigor and that is not managed for cone production, but from which seed is collected, usually at the time of harvest.
||Zone de récolte de semences
||Removing trees in a mature stand so as to effect permanent opening of its canopy (if there was no preparatory cutting to do this) and so provide conditions for securing regeneration from the seed of trees retained for that purpose.
||A plantation of trees, assumed or proven genetically to be superior, that has been isolated so as to reduce pollination from genetically inferior outside sources, and intensively managed to improve the genotype and produce frequent, abundant, etc.
||Verger à graines
||The locality where a seed lot was collected usually defined on an eco-geographic basis by distance, elevation, precipitation, latitude, etc.
||Origine des graines
A prepared, limited space, e.g., a small, cultivated patch, within which (tree) seeds are sown.
||A device for catching the seeds falling on a small area of ground, from trees or shrubs. Used for determining the amount of seedfall and the time, period, rate, and distance of dissemination.
||Piège à semences
||A tree selected, and often reserved, for seed collection or provision of seed for natural regeneration.
||The year in which a tree species produces, either as an individual or a crop, an adequate amount of seed; applies to any species but particularly to those with irregular or infrequent seed production.
||A method of regenerating a forest stand in which all trees are removed from the area except for a small number of seed-bearing trees that are left singly or in small groups.
||Mode de régénération par coupe avec réserve de semenciers
||In natural regeneration, the soil or forest floor on which seed falls. In nursery practice, and also in the field, a prepared area over which seed is sown.
||Lit de germination
||aerial [ensemencement aérien]: Broadcast seeding of seeds or seed pellets from aircraft.
broadcast [ensemencement à la volée]: The sowing of seeds more or less evenly over a whole area.
||Choosing individuals with desired qualities to serve as parents for the next generation.
||Annual or periodic cutting of trees chosen individually or by groups, in an uneven-aged stand, in order to recover the yield and develop a balanced uneven-aged stand structure, while providing the cultural measures required for tree growth.
||Coupe de jardinage
||Forest treated and managed under the selection system.
||A method of regenerating a forest stand and maintaining an uneven-aged structure by removing some trees in all size classes either singly or in small groups or strips.
||Environmental influences on an organism that determine its likelihood of being preferentially selected among its co-habitants, that is, having a better survival and/or reproduction.
||Reproduction that involves the fusion of genetic material from two distinct entities.
||An agroforestry system involving the planting of trees or shrubs whose canopy provides the appropriate level of shade to grow shade-requiring (perennial) crops.
||Système de production sous couvert forestier
||A mechanical site preparation device consisting of pairs of metal barrels on which are welded steel fins along opposing spiral lines.
||1. A method of harvest using mechanical shears.
2. The shaping of a tree crown, particularly with respect to Christmas trees or ornamentals, by removing part of the leader and/or the ends of live branches to comply with a desired crown for
||Abattage à la cisaille (mécanique)
||A strip of living trees and/or shrubs maintained mainly to provide shelter for open land from wind, desiccation, snow-drift, etc.
||Any regeneration cutting in a more or less regular and mature crop, designed to establish a new crop under the protection (overhead or side) of the old, or where the resultant crop will be more or less regular.
||Cutting away undesirable shoots to favor survival and growth of selected shoots.
||Élagage des rejets
||Felling and cross-cutting on the spot, i.e. transporting the logs from the cutting, not the whole bole or tree.
||Exploitation en bois courts
||The study of the life history and general characteristics of forest trees and stands, with particular reference to locality factors as a basis of silviculture.
||The capacity of a herbicide indirectly to promote positive growth responses in crop trees.
||A series of stand tending (thinning, pruning, etc.) treatments applied after regeneration to achieve a specific stand management objective.
||A process that applies silvicultural practices, including tending (thinning, pruning, etc.), harvesting, and replacement, to a stand in order to produce a crop of timber and other forest products.
Note: the system is named by the cutting
||The theory and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, growth, and quality of forest stands to achieve the objectives of management.
||Practices aimed at ensuring wise harvesting of forest resources : conservation, regeneration, reforestation, cutting, etc.
||An agroforestry system where trees and livestock are produced together.
||An agroforestry practice involving the compatible combination of tree growing with forage and livestock production in order to maximize both ecological and economic benefits.
|Simple coppice system
||A coppice system in which the crop is clearcut and regenerated by stool shoots, stump sprouts, or root suckers, giving even-aged stands; rotation is relatively short.
|Single tree selection
||A method of regenerating uneven-aged stands in which individual trees are removed more or less uniformly throughout the stand.
||Jardinage par arbre
||A plough with one moldboard, generally right-hand, turning the whole furrow slice to one side of the furrow.
||Charrue à versoir simple
||A land area based on its climatic, physiographic, edaphic, and biotic factors that determine its suitability and productivity for particular species and silvicultural alternatives.
||The mean annual increment in merchantable volume which can be expected for a forest area, assuming it is fully stocked by one or more species best adapted to the site, at or near rotation age. Expressed in cubic metres per he
||Potentiel de station
||Any interval into which the site index range is divided for purposes of classification and use.
||Classe de station
||Application of analytical techniques based on macroclimate, soil, land form, and vegetation, to predict yield.
||Classification de station
||An ecological term referring to a physical or biological parameter used to describe and distinguish sites.
||Facteur de station
||Modifications to a given site in order to improve growing conditions for a specific species or mixture of species.
||Amélioration de la station
||An expression of forest site quality based on the height, at a specified age, of dominant and codominant trees in a stand. May be grouped into site classes. Expressed in metres. Usually refers to a particular species.
||Indice de station
||The productive capacity of a site; usually expressed as volume production of a given species per unit area (cubic metres per hectare) or per unit of time (cubic metres per year).
||Qualité de station
||Ranges in tree sizes representing stages in the development of a tree or stand.
||Classe de dimension
||The residue left on the ground after felling and tending and/or accumulating there as a result of storm, fire, girdling, or treatment with herbicide. It includes unutilized logs, uprooted stumps, broken or uprooted stems.
||Intentional burning of debris resulting from timber harvesting operations, where the fuel has not been piled or windrowed, allowing the fire to spread freely over the entire harvested area.
||Brûlage à plat
||Prying open a cut made by a spade, mattock, or planting bar (termed bar planting), inserting a young tree, then closing the cut on the latter by pressure.
||Plantation en fente
||A standing dead tree from which the leaves and most of the branches have fallen.
||Removing or cutting away snags, on land or in water.
||Arasement des chicots
||A snag composed primarily of wood in advanced stages of decay and deterioration, particularly in the sapwood portion.
||A prepared, sometimes fertilized, block or ball of loam, peat, plastic foam, etc., into which one or more seeds are pressed, so that, on planting out, the emergent seedling can have a better start in an unfavorable environment.
||Motte à semis
||The distance between trees in a plantation, a thinned stand, or a natural stand.
v: see thinning: spacing
||Canadian woods of similar characteristics that are grouped as one lumber type for production and marketing purposes.
||Setting out young trees in small, prepared patches.
||Plantation sur placeaux
||A scarification implement enabling site preparation on patches.
||Scarificateur sur placeaux
||Removing undesirable vegetation from patches.
||Any substance, solid or liquid, that, when added to a pesticide, herbicide, liquid fertilizer, or fire retardant, enables it to spread better over the surfaces on which it is deposited.
||Generally, any shoot arising from a plant. More particularly, a shoot arising from the base of a plant, from the stool (stool shoot) or from the root (sucker).
||Rejet de taillis
||A community of trees possessing sufficient uniformity in composition, age, arrangement, or condition to be distinguishable from the forest or other growth on adjoining areas, thus forming a silvicultural or management entity.
||The descriptive measurement of a stand by the criteria of composition, health, age, size, volume, or spatial arrangement.
||État d’un peuplement
||A quantitative measurement of tree stocking, expressed in terms of number of trees, total basal area, or volume, per unit of area. More precisely, a measure of the degree of crowding of trees within a stand.
||Densité de peuplement
||A mathematical model that forecasts the development of a forest stand, usually in terms of mean stand attributes, e.g., mean diameter, height.
||Modèle de peuplement
||A summary table showing the number of trees per unit area by species and diameter classes, for a stand or type. The data may also be presented in the form of a frequency distribution of diameter classes.
||Table de peuplement
||A tree selected to remain standing, after the rest of the stand has been felled over a younger or a new crop, for some special purpose, e.g., shelter, seeding, production of a special quality or size of timber.
||A summary table showing the volume of trees per unit area by species and diameter classes, for a stand or type.
||Table de stock
|Stocked forest land
||Land supporting tree growth. In this context, tree growth includes seedlings and saplings.
||Terrain forestier boisé
||In regeneration surveys, a quadrat having at least one live tree seedling or regrowth. The criteria for what constitutes a "stocked" area vary with species, site, country, etc.
||A qualitative expression of the adequacy of tree cover on an area, in terms of crown closure, number of trees, basal area, or volume, in relation to a preestablished norm.
||Reference level for the optimum proportion of an area actually occupied by trees, expressed in terms of stocked quadrats or percentage of canopy closure.
||Guide de stocking
|Storied high forest
||A crop of trees in which the canopy can be differentiated into one or more layers, the dominant species in natural forest generally differing in each layer.
||A horizontal stratum or layer in a plant community; in forests, appearing as one or more canopies.
A forest having more than two stories is called multistoried. A forest having one story (the main story) is called single-storied.
||Crop planting in which strips of heavy-rooted plants are alternated with loose-rooted plants which serve as barriers to wind and water erosion.
||Plantation en lisières
||Removal of the crop in strips in more than one operations, generally for encouraging natural regeneration or protecting fragile sites. Considered to be a variation of clearcutting.
||Coupe par bandes
||Setting trees, generally in two or more parallel lines, in a long narrow area of land that has been wholly or partially cleared.
||Plantation en bandes
||The distribution of trees in a stand or group by age, size, or crown classes (e.g., all-aged, even-aged, uneven-aged, regular, and irregular structures).
||The broken or cut base of a branch projecting from a tree stem.
||A general term for the process of pulling out stumps by force. Removal of stumps may be done to facilitate scarification or to prevent infection from diseased root systems.
||Application of herbicides to or near hardwood stumps to prevent coppicing. Also, fungicides or paint can be applied to prevent fungal infection.
||Badigeonnage de souches
||The fee paid by an individual or company for the timber they harvest from public forests or privately owned forest land.
||Droit de coupe
||Characteristic of a plant that has not developed normally and resembles a bonsai.
||The gradual supplanting of one community of plants by another, the sequence of communities being termed a sere and each stage seral.
||An agroforestry system involving the planting of trees or shrubs with agricultural crops or forest-derived crops that require full sun. As the trees/shrubs grow, the canopy closes, and the level of shade increases, a sun system may become a shade system or another agroforestry system. (See also intercropping.)
||Système de production à découvert
||The capacity of forests, ranging from stands to ecoregions, to maintain their health, productivity, diversity, and overall integrity, in the long run, in the context of human activity and use. The concept of producing a biological resource under management practices that ensure replacement of the part harvested, by regrowth or reproduction, before another harvest occurs.
|Sustainable forest management
||Management that maintains and enhances the long-term health of forest ecosystems for the benefit of all living things while providing environmental, economic, social and cultural opportunities for present and future generations.
||Aménagement forestier durable
||Management of forested area in order to provide wood products in perpetuity, soil and watershed integrity, persistence of most native species and maintenance of highly sensitive species or suitable conditions.
|Sustainable Forestry Initiative
||A forest certification program run by a multi-stakeholder (environment, industry, government, academic groups, etc.) board of directors. The SFI standard is a comprehensive system of principles, objectives and performance measures that combines the perpetual growing and harvesting of trees with the long-term protection of wildlife, plants, and soil and water quality.
||Sustainable Forestry Initiative
||The yield of defined forest products of specific quality and in projected quantity that a forest can provide continuously at a given intensity of management.
||The yield of defined forest products of specific quality and in projected quantity that a forest can provide continuously at a given intensity of management.
||Foresterie à rendement soutenu
||see slit planting
||Bêchage en T
||The raising of a forest crop in conjunction with a temporary agricultural crop.
||Plantation en taungya
||One of three main forest zones in the world (see also boreal forest, tropical forest). The woodland of rather mild climatic areas; composed mainly of deciduous trees.
||Generally, any operation carried out for the benefit of a forest crop or an individual thereof, at any stage of its life; covers operations both on the crop itself, e.g., thinnings and improvement cuttings, and on competing vegetation.
||An operation comprising cleanings and thinnings.
||A partial cutting or spacing operation made in an immature forest stand to accelerate the growth of the remaining trees.
||The time interval between thinnings in the same stand.
||The severity of low thinning based on the crown classes removed, ranging from very light (Grade A) to very heavy (Grade E).
||A measure of the combined effect of thinning weight and thinning frequency, in terms of the volume removed during any succession of thinnings, sometimes expressed as an average annual stand depletion.
||Removal of seedling or sapling in excess in a young stand in order to favor residual tree development.
||A term comprising the type, degree, and frequency of thinning for a given area, generally along with the year of commencement and sometimes termination.
||Two or more adjacent forest plots that are thinned differently (e.g., to different thinning grades), essentially so as to compare the increment of individual stems.
||Groupe d’éclaircies comparées
||In contour furrowing and trenching, a narrow strip of ground left unexcavated so as to break the horizontal continuity of the trenching and thus contain and properly distribute any precipitation.
||A general term for forest crops and stands, and sometimes for any lesser aggregation of such trees.
||Multiple rows of trees planted to provide environmental benefits (including wind protection, soil conservation, and wildlife corridors) and the opportunity for woody biomass production for conversion into bioenergy and other bioproducts. It can also act as an agroforestry system for the production of agricultural or forest-derived crops.
||A plough in which the leading edge of the landside is extended forward and downward as a tine-bearing replaceable sock.
||Charrue à éperon
||A tree beneath the main canopy which by its shading and/or abrasive action hastens the natural pruning or improves the form of some other tree.
||A seedling that has been replanted one or more times in a nursery to improve its size and growth potential characteristics. Also a tree that is moved from one place to another.
||A simple device having regularly spaced slots for the individual plants so as to ensure proper spacing and lining out in the new bed.
||Planche à repiquer
||An implement used to line out transplants in a nursery.
||A plough used in the nursery to open trench for the roots of plants being lined out, while simultaneously backfilling it.
||Any class into which the trees forming a crop or stand may be divided for a variety of purposes.
||Privately owned woodland in which the production of wood fibre is a primary management goal, as distinct from a tree nursery, fruit orchard, or landscape business.
||Propriété forestière de production
||The deliberate introduction, by pressure or simple absorption of a chemical -- generally a water-soluble salt in solution -- into the sapstream of a living tree.
||A specially designed tool used to inject a solution into a living tree.
||Selection and indication, usually by marking with paint on the stem, of trees to be felled or retained.
||A machine designed to shake a tree in order to dislodge its fruits for collection from the ground.
||Hydraulic accessory attached to a machine used for transplanting landscape stock.
||Pelle hydraulique à arbres
||The care and repair of trees valued for amenity.
||Chirurgie des arbres
||Setting out young trees in a shallow trench or a continuous slit.
||Plantation en sillon
||In a planting machine, a metal shoe behind the share, which makes the trench for the plant roots.
||Site preparation technique creating a more or less continuous furrow, with surface debris, duff, and low vegetation scattered to one side, using shaping devices pulled or often hydraulically powered by a prime mover.
||Scarifiage par sillons
||Setting out young trees in narrow, open-ended cylinders of various materials, in which they have been raised from seed or into which they have been transplanted.
||Plantation de semis en tube
||A plough with two moldboards turning the furrow slices to the same side.
||Charrue à deux socs et versoirs simultanés
||Root-pruning of nursery stock in situ, particularly by horizontal cut.
||Young trees used for underplanting.
||Plant de sous-étage
||Planting young trees under the canopy of an existing stand.
||Plantation en sous-étage
||The lower level of vegetation in a forest. Usually formed by ground vegetation (mosses, herbs and lichens), herbs and shrubs.
||Removal of mature trees while damage to the understory is kept to a minimum.
||Protection du sous-étage
||Species that conflict with or do not contribute to the management objectives.
||Of a forest, stand, or forest type in which intermingling trees differ markedly in age. The differences in age permitted in an uneven-aged stand are usually greater than 10-20 years.
||A silvicultural system in which stands have an uneven-aged structure.
||Of a tree or stand that has not attained sufficient size, quality, and/or volume to make it suitable for harvesting.
||The removal of trees with their roots by detaching or breaking the roots below the ground surface.
||The trees, forests, and associated organisms that grow near buildings and in gardens, green spaces, parks, and golf courses located in village, town, suburban, and urban areas.
||A silvicultural system that follows nature’s model by always retaining part of the forest after harvesting. Standing trees are left in a dispersed or aggregated form to meet objectives such as retaining old-growth structure, habitat protection and visual quality. Variable retention retains structural features (snags, large woody debris, live trees of varying sizes, canopy levels) as wildlife habitat.
||Reproduction by other than sexually produced seed. Includes grafting, budding, rooting of cuttings, and tissue and cell culture, including embryogenesis.
||The diversity in a stand that results from the complexity of the above-ground structure of the vegetation.
||The structure formed by different layers of vegetation in a forest.
||Assumption of the health of a tree based on observation of the foliage.
||Classe de vigueur
||Natural forest, the development of which has been virtually uninfluenced by modern human activity.
||Natural regeneration following site preparation and seeding or planting that could either supplement or completely obscure the trees being planted or seeded on the area.
||The act of dropping suppressants (water or short-term retardant) on a wildfire from an aircraft in flight.
||The area drained by an underground or surface stream, or by a system of streams.
||A modification of the strip shelterwood system in which cuttings begin as narrow, interior, wedge-shaped strips with the apex into the prevailing wind, and are then successively enlarged and advanced; regeneration is mainly natural.
||Mode de régénération par coupes progressives en coin
||Any tree of a species having little or no economic value on the site in question.
||A release treatment in stands during the seedling stage that eliminates or suppresses undesirable vegetation regardless of crown position.
||syn.: wilding, wild seedling
A naturally grown, in contrast to a nursery-raised, seedling, sometimes used in forest planting when nursery stock is scarce.
||Drying out, loss of colour and shape of leaves, then twigs and branches, caused by a lack of water or the presence of toxins.
||A small-scale shelterbelt or other barrier, natural or artificial, maintained against the wind.
||1. A tree or trees thrown down or with their stems broken off or other parts blown down by the wind.
2. Any area on which the trees have been thrown down or broken by the wind.
||Slash, brushwood, etc., concentrated along a line so as to clear the intervening ground between two of them.
||Planting between the two lanes created in windrowing.
||Plantation sur entrandain
||Uprooting by the wind. 2. Tree or trees so uprooted.
||Déracinement par le vent
||A tree, generally overtopping and of poor form, that occupies more growing space than its commercial value warrants.
||A plant tissue composed essentially of lignified fibers of cellulose and hemicellulose. Wood is present in the stems of trees and shrubs where it ensures support and conducts water. (See also cellulose and lignin.)
||An aggregate of forest stands, or forest stand and forest sites, which are grouped for the purpose of applying a common set of silvicultural treatments (also called operational group).
||A one-year-old seedling.
||Semis de l’année
||Tables and graphs illustrating volumes per hectare of stands at a specific age.
normal yield table [table de rendement normal]: Estimated stand volume per age class at normal stocking.
||Table de rendement