||Stress induced by the non-living component of the environment.
||An additive used in pesticide spray formulations which enhances adherence to plants.
||Young trees under existing stands capable of becoming the next crop. Regeneration established before logging that has survived the logging operation.
||Foliar disease characterized by reduced growth of some portions of the lobes and by the development of necrotic lesions between the veins and on the leaf margins; these lesions may spread to the entire leaf and then the buds and, in extreme cases, the twigs.
||Chemical substance capable of preventing the development of micro-organisms.
||Capable of killing fungi or impeding their development.
||Renewal of a tree crop by direct seeding or by planting seedlings or cuttings.
||Describes an organ or part of a body that is reduced in size, rudimentary.
||An organism capable of synthesizing the organic nutrients it needs from the mineral compounds present in nature. Plants and many bacteria are autotrophs or producers. Autotrophs do not need to obtain their nutrients from other living organisms. By contrast, heterotrophs cannot make their own food and so they feed on the tissues of other organisms.
||Applying a chemical or other substance to the bole of a tree in the form of a band.
||A treatment consisting of forcing a liquid or an encapsulated herbicide into the basal portion of a tree.
||Injection à la base de la tige
||A technique for determining the effectiveness of a substance by measuring its effects on animals, tissues or organisms and comparing them to the effects of a standard preparation.
||The collection of life on earth; the natural patterns that form from all the species of life (species diversity), the genes that each of them possess (genetic diversity), as well as the ecosystems which these species form (ecosystem diversity).
|Biological pest control methods
||The application of whole organisms or portions of organisms as biologically sound alternatives to broad-spectrum chemical pesticides.
||Méthodes de lutte biologique contre les ravageurs
||A pesticide derived from natural sources such as fungi and bacteria or created to closely resemble or be identical to a chemical produced in nature such as a pheromone. Typically a biopesticide is target-specific and has little or no impact on non-target organisms and the environment.
||Thin, flat part of a leaf.
||Circular bulge caused by the excessive growth of cells in part of a leaf, often with fungal cells mixed in.
||A single DNA molecule encoding a portion or all of a living organism’s genetic information; threadlike and located in the cell’s nucleus in higher organisms, circular in bacteria. Each species has a characteristic number of chromosomes.
||Taxonomic level between Phyllum and Order. Eg, class Insecta
||A root that does not elongate beyond the confines of the original rooting volume within a container, even when outplanted with the container removed.
||1. Natural: Removal or decadence of lateral live crown by wind, abrasion, reduced light, etc.
2. Cultural: Mechanical removal of branch ends to shape crowns for aesthetic appeal, e.g., for Christmas trees, bonsai, etc.
||Taille en cime
||Timber produced from dead standing trees.
More commonly, timber in dead standing trees.
||Micro-organisms that break down, digest and metabolize organic wastes, such as dead leaves, dropped fruits, wood and dead animals.
||The removal of all or most of a plant’s leaves by natural disturbance agents (e.g., insects) or through the actions of humans (e.g., the application of herbicides).
||Change in the normal colour of wood following infection by a micro-organism.
||Alteration of the normal functions of a whole plant or part of it, caused by a living or dead agent. The main agents involved in the initiation of disease are pollution, animals, fungi and other plants.
||Harmful deviation from normal functioning of physiological processes, generally pathogenic or environmental in origin.
||In tree injection, a method of banding that uses a tight waterproof bandage packed with a chemical, either dry or in paste form.
||Injection à sec
||A general term referring to the litter and humus layers of the forest floor.
||External parasite that lives permanently on the body of a vertebrate or in accessible openings, such as the nose or ears. They are obligate parasites during part of or their entire life cycle. This type of parasite lives on the outside of its host's body without entering it or killing it.
||A loosely defined type of habitat that occurs at the boundary between two different habitat types. Typically, edge habitats share characteristics with both adjacent habitat types and have particular transitional characteristics that are important to wildlife.
||Habitat de lisière
||Species that are threatened with imminent extinction; includes species whose numbers or habitats have been reduced to critical levels.
||Espèce en voie de disparition
||Organism that lives inside and feeds on a single host, which dies after the parasitoid has completed its larval development.
A shoot arising from a dormant or adventitious bud on the stem or branch of a woody plant.
||Refers to the local extinction of a species that is no longer found in a locality or country, but exists elsewhere in the world.
||A nursery, generally not permanent, established in or near the forest rather than near an administrative or executive headquarters. Also referred to as satellite nursery in Ontario and in the Prairies.
||Ecology: Generally, an ecosystem characterized by a more or less dense and extensive tree cover. More particularly, a plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, growing more or less closely together.
||Ecosystem that generally covers a large area and is composed of woody vegetation dominated by trees growing in a relatively dense pattern.
||Care for the health of the forest, particularly by sanitation cutting.
||Generally, a profession embracing the science, business, and art of creating, conserving, and managing forests and forest lands for the continuing use of their resources, material or other.
||Feeding on fungi.
||Relates to an organism that induces the formation of galls and feeds on their tissues.
|Genetically modified organism (GMO)
||An organism that has had its DNA sequence altered through genetic engineering, a natural process, or the action of mutagens.
||Organisme génétiquement modifié (OGM)
||Living in or on the ground.
||The environment in which a population or individual lives; includes not only the place where a species is found, but also the particular characteristics of the place (for example, climate or the availability of suitable food and shelter) that make it especially well suited to meet the life cycle needs of that species.
||Organism harbouring a parasite.
||Living in or on humus or leaf litter.
||Plant obtained by crossing two genetically dissimilar parent plants.
||The offspring of genetically different parents (usually refers to crosses between two species).
||Sexual reproduction using genetically distinct parents, that is, belonging to different populations, varieties, or species.
||Parasitic organism that lives off of another parasite.
||Organism that attacks and lives on another parasitoid.
||Any treatment in a stand during that portion of the rotation not included in the final harvest or regeneration period.
||A root, especially a seedling tap root, having a sharp bend greater than 90, shaped like a J. Frequently introduced by inappropriate planting.
||Racine en J
||Growing in or on wood.
||Uppermost layer of organic debris on a forest floor.
||A rough but convenient index of the ability of a tree's crown to nourish the remaining part of the tree; it is the percentage of length of stem having living branches. L-notch planting [plantation avec fentes en L.
||Taux de cime vivante
|Living modified organism (LMO)
||As defined in the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, a living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology.
||Organisme vivant modifié (OVM)
|Lop and top
||The branches and tops cut from a tree, generally once felled or fallen.
||A microscopic one or multi-celled organism, such as a bacterium, virus, yeast, alga, fungus and protozoan.
||Living organisms (bacteria, microbes, yeasts) that can be seen only with a microscope. Micro-organisms that are likely to cause disease in other living organisms are called pathogens.
||Soil-dwelling micro-organisms (animals) that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Synonym: soil fauna.
||A general term for a unicellular or multicellular microscopic organism. Classifications of microorganisms include algae, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses.
||The ultimate unit of the habitat, i.e., the specific spot occupied by an individual organism. By extension, the more or less specialized relationships existing between an organism and its environment.
||A forest or designated area including forests and woodlands for which an integrated management plan is created and implemented to achieve multiple objectives on a sustainable basis.
||Organism that feeds on a single host, whether plant or animal.
||Death or destruction of forest trees as result of competition, disease, insect damage, drought, wind, fire, old age, and other factors, excluding harvesting.
||Agents that cause a change in the DNA sequence of a cell. These include chemicals, X-rays, and ultraviolet light.
||A change to the DNA sequence of a gene or chromosome; may be expressed or unexpressed by the cell. If a mutation occurs in a gene, it changes the structure, function, or expression of the protein produced.
||Feeding on fungi
||Feeding on fungi.
||A species that occurs naturally in an area.
||Renewal of a tree crop by natural seeding, sprouting, suckering, or layering.
||Feeding on dead or decomposing animal matter.
||Reddening or browning of needles, sometimes leading to premature shedding of foliage.
||A forest management philosophy that attempts to retain characteristics of old-growth stands in managed stands.
||Globulose or elongated mass formed by certain fungi or a mixture of plant and fungal tissues.
||An area set aside for the raising of young trees mainly for planting out. Temporary nurseries, particularly those formed beneath a high canopy of large trees, may be termed bush nurseries.
cf. field nursery
||One of the specially prepared plots in a nursery where seed is sown or into which transplants or cuttings are put.
||The process of healing of cut branch stubs by the cambium of the surrounding stem surface.
||Taxonomic level between Class and Family. In insects, for example, classification in orders is based primarily on wing shape.
||Group of tissues organized to perform a distinct function.
||A seedling, transplant, or cutting ready to be established on an area.
||Plant sur le terrain
||Organism that lives on or in and feeds on a living plant or animal (host). The parasite gradually weakens the host and may or may not kill it.
||An organism that lives at the expense of another (its host); impedes its growth and eventually kills it. Insect parasitoids, which are often very tiny, attack a single organism (plant or animal); from which they derive everything they need for their own growth and reproduction. One way a parasitoid does this is by laying its eggs in the body of the host insect. Parasitoids are being used more and more for biological control of insect pests, thus reducing the need for chemical insecticides. Predators, unlike parasitoids, prey on more than one organism and kill and consume their tissues.
|Particle gun transformation
||Transformation par canon à particules
||A microscopic organism or virus directly capable of causing disease. see thinning: precommercial.
||A parasitic organism directly capable of causing disease.
||The study of disease.
||Study of diseases and the effects they have on plants.
||Incorporating seed in a matrix of fungicide, insecticide, repellent, coloring material or inert carrier, or any combination of these, so as to form a small ball termed a seed pellet.
||Organism that causes serious damage to plants or foodstuffs.
||Any preparation used to control populations of injurious organisms, plant or animal.
||Feeding on the leaves of plants.
||Taxonomic level between Kingdom and Class. Eg, phyllum Arthropoda composed of organisms with a segmented body. The body wall is more or less hardened and forms an exoskeleton.
||Refers to organisms that feed on plants.
||Application of forestry principles to an artificial crop or stand.
||Foresterie de plantation
|Pocket of infection
||Area in a stand or plantation where a disease originated.
||Feeding on pollen.
||Feeding on several plant or animal species. Organism that develops on more than one host, eg, the gypsy moth, a polyphagous caterpillar feeds on both deciduous and coniferous trees.
||A group that includes all possible members of a species in a territory at a given time.
||A population that exists within a species and exhibits genetic characteristics distinct from those of the other populations. It is usually an interbreeding unit.
||Living on or in roots. A parasite of roots.
||Renewal of a forest crop by natural, artificial, or vegetative (regrowth) means. Also the new crop so obtained. The new crop is generally less than 1.3 m high.
||Part of the tree that anchors it and absorbs nutrients from the soil.
||Decomposition of the woody tissue in roots causing the death of the cambium or bark of the roots, thus girdling the trees at the root collar and causing their death.
||The trimming of roots by a cutting tool after lifting and prior to outplanting.
||Taille des racines
||Feeding on the roots of plants.
||The total mass or volume of the plant root system divided by the total mass or volume of the shoot system, usually on an oven-dry basis.
||Rapport système racinaire/système foliacé
||Disease caused by a fungus that is parasitic on higher plants and may go through five different developmental stages, usually involving hosts. Following infection, orange pustules appear, possibly followed by premature shedding of foliage, witches' brooms or cankers.
||The exploitation of trees that are dead, dying, or deteriorating (e.g., because overmature or materially damaged by fire, wind, insects, fungi, or other injurious agencies) before their timber becomes economically worthless.
||Coupe de récupération
||The removal of dead, damaged, or susceptible trees, essentially to prevent the spread of pests or pathogens and so promote forest hygiene.
||The removal of dead, damaged, or susceptible trees or their parts, or of vegetation that serves as an alternative host for crop-tree pathogens, to prevent or control the spread of pests or pathogens.
||Refers to organisms that feed on decaying or decayed plant or animal matter.
||Refers to an organism that develops in partially decomposed woody debris.
||Living on rotting wood.
||Feeding on dung or excrement.
||Living in association with dung or excrement.
||A plantation of trees, assumed or proven genetically to be superior, that has been isolated so as to reduce pollination from genetically inferior outside sources, and intensively managed to improve the genotype and produce frequent, abundant, etc.
||Verger à graines
||Forest treated and managed under the selection system.
||Feeding on grain or seeds.
||Group of individuals that possess common characteristics and are capable of producing fertile progeny
||Cell or group of cells capable of producing a new organism.
||Deposit of spores released into the air or onto a surface when a fungus cap is placed gills downwards.
||Circular or nearly circular lesions that appear on a leaf blade. They have a central zone of necrotic (dead, brown) tissue colonized by a pathogen; this zone is surrounded by healthy, coloured tissue.
||Any substance, solid or liquid, that, when added to a pesticide, herbicide, liquid fertilizer, or fire retardant, enables it to spread better over the surfaces on which it is deposited.
||A general term for the process of pulling out stumps by force. Removal of stumps may be done to facilitate scarification or to prevent infection from diseased root systems.
||The living together in intimate association of two dissimilar organisms, so that the cohabitation is mutually beneficial.
||Set of rules governing the classification and naming of species.
||Generally, any operation carried out for the benefit of a forest crop or an individual thereof, at any stage of its life; covers operations both on the crop itself, e.g., thinnings and improvement cuttings, and on competing vegetation.
||Living in the soil or litter.
||A species that is likely to become endangered in Canada if the factors affecting its vulnerability are not reversed.
||The ability of an organism or biological process to subsist under a given set of environmental conditions. The range of these under which it can subsist, representing its limits of tolerance, is termed its ecological amplitude.
||A distinguishable characteristic of an organism.
||Transfer of foreign DNA into the cell of an organism to change its genetic makeup. This is a natural process for many bacteria.
||A seedling that has been replanted one or more times in a nursery to improve its size and growth potential characteristics. Also a tree that is moved from one place to another.
||The deliberate introduction, by pressure or simple absorption of a chemical -- generally a water-soluble salt in solution -- into the sapstream of a living tree.
||A specially designed tool used to inject a solution into a living tree.
||The smallest division of a branch which bears the annual shoot.
||Small, bladder-like structure.
||Assumption of the health of a tree based on observation of the foliage.
||Classe de vigueur
||Measure of a pathogen's ability to multiply in a living organism and harm it.
||Primitive microorganisms that must infect the living cells of animals, plants, or bacteria in order to replicate. When outside the host cells, viruses adopt a form consisting, most of the time, of a RNA or DNA molecule surrounded by a protein matrix.
||Natural regeneration following site preparation and seeding or planting that could either supplement or completely obscure the trees being planted or seeded on the area.
||A species that is considered at risk because it exists in low numbers or in restricted ranges, due to loss of habitat or other factors.
||Excessive proliferation of twigs from one location on a branch or several locations close together. The twigs in a broom are erect and compacted.
||Balai de sorcière
||That feeds on wood.
||Feeding on woody tissues (wood).
||Growing in or living on wood.
||Refers to organisms that feed on animals (including other arthropods).