Forestry glossary

Term Definition French
-3/2 power law of self-thinning Dense populations that have reached a size at which mortality occurs demonstrate a negative relationship between log mean plant weight and log stand density; this generally has a slope of -3/2. Relation à la puissance -3/2 de l’éclaircie naturelle
Abiotic stress Stress induced by the non-living component of the environment. Stress abiotique
Aboriginal land Lands within Aboriginal reserves or Aboriginal settlements. Terres autochtones
Aboriginal peoples The descendants of the original inhabitants of North America. The Canadian Constitution recognizes three groups of Aboriginal people—Indians, Métis and Inuit. These are three separate peoples with unique heritages, languages, cultural practices and spiritual beliefs. Peuples autochtones
Aboriginal rights Rights that some Aboriginal peoples of Canada hold as a result of their ancestors’ long-standing use and occupancy of the land. The rights of certain Aboriginal peoples to hunt trap and fish on ancestral lands are examples of Aboriginal rights. Aboriginal rights will vary from group to group depending on the customs, practices and traditions that have formed part of their distinctive cultures. Droits des Autochtones
Aboriginal title A legal term that recognizes the interest of Aboriginals in the land. It is based on their long-standing use and occupancy of the land as descendants of the original inhabitants of Canada. Titre ancestral
Acari (Acarian) Order included in the class Arachnida. The members of this order (mites and ticks) are very tiny organisms with an unsegmented abdomen and generally four pairs of unjointed legs. Acarien
Accessory species A species of less commercial value than the principal species but sometimes useful in assisting the latter and liable to influence the method of treatment to some degree. Essences auxiliaires
Accessory systems Any silvicultural system derived from one or more of the basic systems and not dependent on any particular method of regeneration. Traitement combiné
Acid precipitation Rain, snow, sleet, hail or fog, usually with acidity below pH 5.6. Acidic precipitation is primarily the result of emissions of gases of sulphur and nitrogen oxides which are transformed into sulphuric acid and nitric acid respectively as they are transported over distances of hundreds to thousands of kilometres from their source. Précipitation acide
Acorn Hard fruit of the oak tree, which contains the seed. Gland
Adaptive management A dynamic approach to forest management in which the effects of treatments and decisions are continually monitored and used, along with research results, to modify management on a continuing basis to ensure that objectives are being met. Gestion adaptative
Adaptive management area Stands or forest types that require similar management practices and are grouped as one unit for the purposes of silviculture management. Aire de gestion adaptée
Adjuvant An additive used in pesticide spray formulations which enhances adherence to plants. Adjuvant
Advance regeneration Young trees under existing stands capable of becoming the next crop. Regeneration established before logging that has survived the logging operation. Régénération préexistante
Afforestation The establishment of a tree crop on an area from which it has always, or for very long, been absent. Where such establishment fails and is repeated, the latter may properly be termed reafforestation. Boisement
Age class A distinct group of trees or portion of growing stock recognized on the basis of age. Classe d’âge
Age gradation An age class of one or at the most a few years. Sous-classe d’âge
Agrobacterium A genus of naturally occurring soil bacteria used to transfer genes into plants. Agrobacterium
Agroforestry The deliberate integration, in space or time, of woody perennials with herbaceous crops and/or animals on the same land management unit. Agroforesterie
Air pruning Limiting extension of a root system beyond a container by exposure to air. Élagage aérien
All-aged Of a forest, crop, or stand that contains trees of all, or almost all, age classes, including those of exploitable age. De tous âges
Allele One of the possible alternative forms of a gene or of any DNA sequence occupying a specific position along a chromosome. The specific combination of alleles in an individual forms its genotype. Allèle
Allelopathy The negative influence of a plant, other than a microorganism, upon another plant, through chemical exudate during their metabolism. Allélopathie
Allowable annual cut (AAC) The amount of timber that is permitted to be cut annually from a particular area. AAC is used as the basis for regulating harvest levels to ensure a sustainable supply of timber. Possibilité annuelle de coupe (PAC)
Allowable cut The volume of wood that may be harvested, under management, for a given period. Possibilité de coupe
Amino acids A group of 20 organic compounds, combinations of which are bonded together in long chains to make proteins. Acide aminé
Ammoniacal copper quaternary A wood preservative used to replace a preservative (chromated copper arsenic) that contains arsenic. Cuivre ammoniacal quaternaire
Anchor chains Heavy chains, often with spikes welded to the links, used in drag scarification. Chaînes d’ancre
Anthophagous Feeding on flowers. Anthophage
Anthophilous Fond of flowers. Organism that has a close relationship with flowers, normally including the collection of pollen or nectar as a food source. Anthophile
Anthracnose Foliar disease characterized by reduced growth of some portions of the lobes and by the development of necrotic lesions between the veins and on the leaf margins; these lesions may spread to the entire leaf and then the buds and, in extreme cases, the twigs. Anthracnose
Anthropogenic emission Emission caused by human activities (for example, burning fossil fuels or setting fires to clear forest land for agricultural purposes). Émission anthropique
Antibiotic Chemical substance capable of preventing the development of micro-organisms. Antibiotique
Antifungal Capable of killing fungi or impeding their development. Antifongique
Antigen A substance that the organism identifies as foreign, hence triggering the release of antibodies as a defence response. Antigène
Apex Tip or top of an animal or plant structure. Apex
Apothecium Cup-shaped ascomatum found in certain ascomycetes fungi and containing the reproductive structures (asci and ascospores). Apothèce
Apterous Wingless. Aptère
Arboreal Pertaining to the culture of trees. Arboricole
Arboretum A place where many kinds of trees and shrubs are grown for scientific and educational purposes. Arboretum
Arboriculture The cultivation, that is, growing and tending, of trees and shrubs, individually or in small groups, generally for ornament, protection, and instruction rather than direct use or profit. Arboriculture
Area ignition The setting of a number of individual fires throughout an area, either simultaneously or in quick succession, and so spaced that they soon coalesce, influence, and support each other to produce a hot, fast-spreading fire throughout the area. Allumage de zone
Area regenerating Includes areas that have been harvested recently (less than 10 years ago), and areas depleted by such natural disturbances as fire, insects and disease. Superficie en régénération
Area-based tenures They allow licensees to harvest timber over a specific land base. Tenure holders are often required to assume forest management responsibilities. Tenures fondées sur la superficie
Arthropoda Phylum of invertebrate animals that possess an exoskeleton and a segmented body with jointed appendages (legs). Arthropods include crustaceans, spiders and insects. Arthropodes
Artificial regeneration Renewal of a tree crop by direct seeding or by planting seedlings or cuttings. Régénération artificielle
Ascomatum Sexual stage of ascomycetes fungi, either an apothecium, a perithecium or a cleistothecium, which contains the asci and ascospores. Ascome
Ascospore Fungus spore produced within an ascus. Ascospore
Ascus Bag-like structure that develops within an ascomata and is made up of a membrane in which ascospores are produced; the ascospores are discharged from the ascus at maturity. Asque
Asexual reproduction Reproduction without fertilization. New individuals may develop from vegetative parts such as tubers, bulbs, or rooted stems, or from sexual parts such as unfertilized eggs or other cells in the ovule. Propagation asexuée
Asymmetrical Having corresponding parts that are irregularly arranged in relation to one another. Opposite of symmetrical. Asymétrique
Atrophied Describes an organ or part of a body that is reduced in size, rudimentary. Atrophié
Auger planting Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole using an auger. Plantation à la tarière
Autotroph An organism capable of synthesizing the organic nutrients it needs from the mineral compounds present in nature. Plants and many bacteria are autotrophs or producers. Autotrophs do not need to obtain their nutrients from other living organisms. By contrast, heterotrophs cannot make their own food and so they feed on the tissues of other organisms. Organisme autotrophe
Avifauna Birds, in particular, all the birds of a given site: the avifauna of a marsh, a prairie, etc. Avifaune
Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.) A biological insecticide developed in Canada. This natural bacterium, which occurs in soils, is sprayed on forests to combat damaging insects. Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t.)
Backlog An administrative term used to classify inadequately stocked forest land that has been denuded (cut over, burned, etc.). Arriéré
Bacteria Single-celled organisms that have no nucleus; Plural of bacterium. Bactérie
Balance of trade The difference between the value of the goods and services that a country exports and the value of the goods and services that it imports. If a country’s exports exceed its imports, it has a trade surplus; if imports exceed exports, the country has a trade deficit. Balance commerciale
Ball planting Setting out trees with their roots left undisturbed in a dug-out clod of soil. Note: if trees are bare-rooted, and roots are enclosed in a rough ball of soil, they are properly termed balled. Plantation en mottes
Band application Applying pesticides and/or fertilizers in a linear strip on or along crop rows rather than over the entire ground area. Pulvérisation en bandes
Band girdling Removing a broad band of bark, from several centimetres to a metre wide, all round a living bole with some sapwood or without, so as to kill (with or without the aid of herbicide), or at least weaken, the tree. Annélation totale
Banding Applying a chemical or other substance to the bole of a tree in the form of a band. Cerclage
Bark The outer covering of trees. Écorce
Bark stripping Removing the bark of a tree in narrow strips. Écorçage
Basal area 1. Of a tree: The area in square metres of the cross section at breast height of the stem. 2. Of a forest, stand, or forest type: The area in square metres per hectare of the cross section at breast height of all trees. Surface terrière
Basal bark treatment A treatment for killing trees and brush in which a herbicide is applied, by sprayer or brush, to a band of bark encircling the basal portion of the stem. Traitement arboricide cortical (à la base de l’arbre)
Basal injection A treatment consisting of forcing a liquid or an encapsulated herbicide into the basal portion of a tree. Injection à la base de la tige
Base of tree Part of the tree consisting of the first 25 cm of trunk. Base de l'arbre
Basic forest management Extensive forest management plus artificial regeneration where necessary. cf. extensive forest management Aménagement forestier de base
Basic silviculture All the silvicultural practices required to achieve free-growing (or established) regeneration of desired species at specified densities and stocking. Sylviculture de base
Basidiospore Fungus spore produced on a basidium. Basidiospore
Basket planting Setting out young trees, etc., in loosely-woven baskets in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed. Plantation en paniers
Beam A horizontal wood support member typically larger in cross-section than a joist. Poutre
Bedding A site preparation procedure in which the soil is mounded mechanically to provide a well-drained ridge on which seedlings are planted or seeds distributed naturally or directly. Billonnage
Billet A product made from composite material that is easier to manufacture in a large size than in many smaller pieces and that is then cut into the desired dimensions for the final product. Bille
Bio-based economy See bioeconomy. Bio-based economy
Bio-oil A volatile liquid produced through pyrolysis of carbon rich substances such as biomass from forestry and agricultural residues. Pyrolysis is the transformation of a carbon-rich substance into one or more substances by heat in the absence of oxygen. It is often referred to a destructive distillation. Bio-huile
Bioassay A technique for determining the effectiveness of a substance by measuring its effects on animals, tissues or organisms and comparing them to the effects of a standard preparation. Bioessai
Biochemicals A range of chemical substances made from forest biomass and typically used in industrial applications. Produits biochimiques
Biocomposites Made of a resin matrix and reinforced with natural fibres. Biocomposites
Biodegradable Capable of being decomposed (broken down into simpler forms of matter) under natural conditions—that is, by the action of insects, other animals, and microorganisms. Materials derived from biological sources, as well as artificial materials sufficiently similar to them, are biodegradable. Biodégradable
Biodiversity The collection of life on earth; the natural patterns that form from all the species of life (species diversity), the genes that each of them possess (genetic diversity), as well as the ecosystems which these species form (ecosystem diversity). Biodiversité
Bioeconomy An economy based on the manufacturing and trade of commodities and services derived from renewable biological resources as well as on the trade of non-timber forest products. Bioéconomie
Bioenergy The kinetic energy released from biomass when it is eaten, burned or converted into fuel, or the potential energy embodied in biomass. Bioénergie
Biofuel A fuel that is derived from plant biomass, by chemical or geological processes. Biocombustible
Biogas A combustible gas and type of biofuel produced by the decomposition of biological materials (for example, forestry residues and municipal waste) through anaerobic digestion (that is, in the absence of oxygen) or fermentation. Typical biogas consists of 50 to 60% methane and carbon dioxide. Biogaz
Biolistics A transformation method in which metal particles coated with one organism’s genetic material are propelled into the cells or tissues of another to allow for the uptake of the genetic material. Biolistique
Biological pest control methods The application of whole organisms or portions of organisms as biologically sound alternatives to broad-spectrum chemical pesticides. Méthodes de lutte biologique contre les ravageurs
Biomass The organic matter (cellulose and lignin) produced by plants. The term forest biomass generally refers to all of the material contained in the trees of a forest, including all their components (roots, branches, leaves, etc.). Biomasse
Biomass The total mass of living organisms of one or more species per unit of area, or all the species in a community. It can be divided into above-ground biomass and below-ground biomass. Biomasse
Biomaterials A range of novel materials made from forest biomass and typically used in industrial applications. Biomatériaux
Biomaterials and Biochemicals A growing and diverse class of forest biomass-based products that are not typical pulp and paper or wood products. Biomatériaux et produits biochimiques
Biome A major biotic community composed of all the plants and animals in a specific geographical region and smaller biotic communities. The smaller communities in a biome possess similarities in gross external appearances and gross climatic conditions. Biome
Biomethanol Methanol produced from biomass instead of the conventional raw material and processes. Biométhanol
Biopesticide A pesticide derived from natural sources such as fungi and bacteria or created to closely resemble or be identical to a chemical produced in nature such as a pheromone. Typically a biopesticide is target-specific and has little or no impact on non-target organisms and the environment. Biopesticide
Bioplastics Plastic-like materials made from renewable, carbon-rich substances such as biomass (carbohydrates, cellulose, etc.). Bioplastique
Biopolymer Any polymer that is produced by a living organism or synthesized from renewable biomass. Naturally occurring biopolymers include proteins and starch (which are composed of amino acid and sugar monomer units, respectively); synthetic biopolymers include bioplastics, biotextiles, and some nanofibres. Biopolymère
Bioprocess A process that uses the processing capability of living cells (for example, yeasts) or their components (for example, enzymes) to create a commercially useful product. Bioprocédé
Bioproduct A consumer or industrial product that is made from biomass. Bioproducts are often made using a bioprocess and include a broad range of commodities intended for markets such as energy, transportation, chemicals, plastics, foods, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. Bioproduit
Bioprospecting The search for compounds within plants and other organisms that, due to their effects on living cells, could lead to new pharmaceuticals and other bioproducts. Bioprospection
Biorefinery The refining or separating of raw materials, such as biomass into their molecular components—mainly cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin—then further refining or transforming these intermediates into further manufactured products such as energy, fuels, chemicals and material. Bioraffinage
Biosphere The portion of the earth comprising the lower atmosphere, the seas, and the land surface (mantle rock) in which living organisms exist. Biosphère
Biotechnology As defined in the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, the application of science and engineering in the direct or indirect use of living organisms, or parts or products of living organisms, in their natural or modified forms. It refers to the techniques through which organisms such as plants, fungi, or microorganisms can be used to provide products or services. Biotechnologie
Biotic Pertaining to life; concerning the living component of the environment. Biotique
Black liquor A liquid solution by-product of the so-called “kraft” wood pulping process, composed of lignin residues, hemicellulose, and the chemicals used in the process. Polluting if discharged into water, black liquor can be recovered and put to good use to create value-added bioproducts. Liqueur noire
Blade Thin, flat part of a leaf. Limbe
Blading Using the straight blade of a crawler tractor or similar equipment to remove coarse woody debris and thick duff off the site to create planting lines or spots. Préparation du terrain par coupe à la cisaille
Blank A relatively large wood product made by gluing together small pieces of wood, which can then be cut to size for different uses and products. Carrelet
Blank area Any forest area in a crop or stand that has remained virtually unstocked, more particularly in plantations. A planting point where the tree has failed or is missing. Manque
Bleached chemi-thermo mechanical pulp (BCTMP) A semi-chemical pulp that has been bleached. Used to produce printing and writing papers, coated papers, packaging and tissue. Pâte chimico-thermomécanique blanchie (PCTMB)
Blight Rapid browning or blackening of leaves, which subsequently die, caused by the deterioration of growing tissues. Brûlure
Blister Circular bulge caused by the excessive growth of cells in part of a leaf, often with fungal cells mixed in. Cloque
Block cutting Removal of the crop in blocks in one or more operations, generally for wildlife management purposes, encouraging regeneration, or protecting fragile sites. Considered in Ontario to be a variation of clearcutting. Coupe par blocs
Blockboard A panel product made by gluing together strips of wood, which can be used as core by covering both surfaces with wooden veneers or used as is for cutting boards and other products. Panneau latté
Blowdown Tree or trees felled or broken off by wind, snow, ice or age. Chablis
Board feet A unit of volume used for softwood and hardwood lumber: one board foot equals 1/12 of a cubic foot. Pied-planche
Boards Softwood lumber of standardized sizes that is typically less than 2 inches thick. Used in manufacturing and carpentry Planche
Boreal forest One of three main forest zones in the world (see also tropical forest, temperate forest) located in northern regions and is characterized by the predominance of conifers (such as pine, spruce, larch and fir) and some deciduous (such as poplar and birch). The boreal forest (singular) is a colloquial term often used to refer to the overall forested area within the boreal zone, and sometimes to refer to the boreal zone itself because forests dominate this landscape. Boreal forests (plural) is the preferred term for the forested areas within the boreal zone. Forêt boréale
Boreal zone The broad circumpolar vegetation zone of the high northern latitudes. Although mainly covered with trees, the boreal zone is more than just forest. It contains lakes, rivers and wetlands, as well as naturally treeless terrain such as alpine areas, heathlands in regions where the climate is influenced by the ocean, and grasslands in drier areas. Zone boréale
Borer Relates to an organism that bores into and feeds on the woody and non-woody portions of plants. Perceur
Box pruning Lateral root pruning on four sides of nursery stock in situ. Previous undercutting is usually implicit. Élagage latéral (des racines)
Boxboard (also known as paperboard) A thick, strong paper material suitable for packaging lighter products, such as cereal or batteries. Carton pour boîtes (aussi appelé carton)
Brachypterous Having reduced wings that are shorter than the abdomen. Brachyptère
Branch Secondary woody stem arising from the trunk of a tree and bearing shoots. Branche
Breast height The standard height, 1.3 m above ground level, at which the diameter of a standing tree is measured. On sloping ground, breast height is usually measured on the uphill side of the tree. Hauteur de poitrine
Broadcast burning Allowing a controlled fire to burn over a designated area within well-defined boundaries, for reduction of fuel hazard, as a silvicultural treatment, or both. Brûlage extensif
Broadcast fertilizing The scattering of fertilizer or other mixture more or less evenly over an area. Fertilisation à la volée
Brush Shrubs and stands of short, scrubby tree species that do not reach merchantable size. Sometimes includes woody and herbaceous plants that impede regeneration or growth of desirable species. Often rated as "brush hazard". Broussailles
Brush blade A blade having scarifier teeth instead of a plain edge, for pushing large objects like tree roots and rocks off a site, leaving smaller stones, soil, etc. in place. Lame à rémanents
Brush chopper An implement with blades mounted on a horizontal power-driven shaft, for reducing the bulk of slash after felling and so facilitating planting. Broyeuse de rémanents
Brushing The removal of undesirable herbaceous and woody vegetation by manual or mechanical means. Débroussaillement
Bud Plant organ containing the immature tissues that will become a leaf, branch or flower. Bourgeon
Bud pruning Removal of lateral buds from a stem to prevent them from developing into branches. Ébourgeonnage
Budding Grafting by inserting a bud, with a small amount of tissue, into a slit or hole made in the bark of a stock plant. After union has formed, the portion of the stock plant above the bud is removed. Écussonnage
Buffer strip A band of forest left relatively undisturbed so as to protect some element of the environment, such as a streambank from erosion. Rideau vert
Buffer zone A strip of land where disturbances are not allowed, or are closely monitored, to preserve aesthetic and other qualities adjacent to roads, trails, waterways and recreation sites. Zone tampon
Bulb A modified stem, usually underground, consisting of one or more buds surrounded by thick, fleshy, food storage scale leaves. Bulbe
Bullet planting Setting out young trees grown in bullet-shaped rigid plastic tubes, which are injected into the ground by a spring-loaded gun, sometimes into prepared holes. Plantation en cartouches
Butt joint A connection between two pieces of wood by simply gluing together two end surfaces without any additional reinforcements. Joint d’extrémité
Cache A place for storing seedlings close to the planting site. Cache
Callus Thickening and hardening of the cambium tissues which occur as part of a plant's response to a wound. Cal
Cambium Fast-growing tissue that produces wood and phloem (vascular cambium) and bark (cork cambium). Cambium
Canadian Council of Forest Ministers A forum for the federal, provincial and territorial governments to work cooperatively, through their respective ministers, in addressing major areas of common interest concerning Canada’s forests. The Canadian Forest Service of Natural Resources Canada serves as the council’s secretariat. Conseil canadien des ministres des forêts
Canadian Standards Association (CSA) A leading developer of standards and codes, including an internationally recognized forestry certification system. The CSA is a not-for-profit, membership-based association. Association canadienne de normalisation (CSA)
Canker Lesion of the cambium and the living bark of trees that alters and kills these tissues in a localized area. Chancre
Canopy The more or less continuous cover of branches and foliage formed collectively by the crowns of adjacent trees. Couvert forestier
Canopy class syn. canopy cover class, crown class Any class into which crops or stands may be divided on the basis of the degree of closure. Classe de couvert
Canopy density The amount of foliar cover, combining the extent of canopy closure and crown density. Densité du couvert
Capital and repair expenditures Capital expenditures include the cost of procuring, constructing and installing new durable plants, machinery or equipment, whether for replacement of worn or obsolete assets, as additions to existing assets or for lease or rent to others. Repair expenditures include costs to repair and maintain structures, machinery and equipment. Dépenses en immobilisations et réparations
Carbon A chemical element highly abundant in nature and easily capable of forming polymers. Its unique properties make carbon the chemical basis of all biological compounds—and therefore, the chemical basis of life. Carbon is incorporated into biological processes and biomass mainly through plant photosynthesis. (See also carbon dioxide.) Carbone
Carbon budget Comparative evaluation of the amount of carbon stored in natural forests (sinks) and the amount emitted by them (sources), which is undertaken to determine whether the forests are sequestering more carbon than they are emitting to the atmosphere. Carbon budgets can be drawn up on various scales, including global. Bilan de carbone
Carbon dioxide (CO2) A colourless, odourless, non-combustible gas. Humans and all other living organisms give off carbon dioxide in respiration and decomposition. Trees and other plants absorb it and use it during photosynthesis. CO2 also emitted as a by-product of burning fossil fuels. Dioxyde de carbone (CO2)
Carbon footprint The total direct greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions produced by a facility to manufacture a range of products or an individual product. Empreinte carbone
Carbon neutrality When the amount of carbon released into the atmosphere equals the amount sequestered or offset. Neutralité carbonique
Carbon sequestration The uptake and storage of carbon. Trees and plants, for example, absorb carbon dioxide, release the oxygen and store the carbon. Fossil fuels were at one time biomass and continue to store the carbon until burned. Piégeage de carbone
Carbon sink A carbon reservoir that absorbs and stores carbon from another part of the carbon cycle. A sink stores more carbon than it emits to the atmosphere. This store of carbon can also be termed a reservoir or pool. Although a growing forest can be considered a carbon sink, when the forest stops growing and its trees die and start decomposing, it becomes a carbon source, because it emits more carbon than it stores. Puits de carbone
Carpophore Structure bearing the spores of a fungus, often composed of a cap and a stem. Carpophore
Carrier Any material, e.g. sawdust, that is thoroughly mixed with seed, fertilizer, herbicide, etc., to protect it in transit. Support
Casebearer Any of numerous insects that hide under a case, a shelter made by cutting and tying pieces of leaf together with silk; they feed and move around within this shelter. Casebearers are members of the order Lepidoptera . Porte-case
Catch crop A short-term, generally agricultural crop introduced into and at the start of a longer-rotation forest crop, mainly to provide early financial returns. Culture dérobée
Caterpillar Larval form of the immature stage of Lepidopterans. Transforms into a butterfly or moth. Chenille
Catkin A drooping cluster of flowers or fruits on a flexible axis (resembling the tassels on wheat). Chaton
Cell (Entomology) A space in an insect wing partly or completely surrounded by veins. (Cytology) The structural and functional unit of most living organisms. Cellule
Cell The most basic unit of a living organism capable of independent growth and reproduction. Cellule
Cellulose A polymer of glucose molecules, used by plants as a structural supporting material. Paper is made up of cellulose. Cellulose
Cellulose A carbohydrate (sugar-based biopolymer compound) that is the main structural component of green plants. (See also carbon.) Cellulose
Cellulose filaments (CF) An ultra-lightweight ribbonlike material with unique bonding properties. Provides extra strength and improved absorption in products such as facial tissues and paper towels without sacrificing softness. Filaments de cellulose (FC)
Cellulose nanofibrils A nanomaterial commonly processed into a liquid or gel form. Strengthens paper and board products and can also be used in biocomposites, paints and other high-value products. Nanofibrilles de cellulose
Cephalothorax Anterior part of the body consisting of the fused head and thoracic segments. Céphalothorax
Cercus One of a pair of appendages located at the posterior end of the abdomen. Cerque
Certification (forest) Forest certification is a market-based instrument aimed at promoting sustainable forest management that takes into account environmental, economic and social issues. It involves the independent assessment of forest management according to internationally (or nationally) accepted standards, and the tracking and monitoring of the supply of forest products to the market place. If the forest management is in compliance with a set of specified standards, and the timber from this forest has been tracked and accounted for through all stages of the production process, then it can be given a label which is recognized in the market place. Certification forestière
Chain of custody The process of monitoring the production and distribution of goods from the forest to the end-product, i.e., tracing the origin of the product. Continuité de possession
Chaining syn. chain clearing, cabling in British Columbia. A method of reducing or clearing undesirable scrub by dragging through it a heavy chain (generally further weighted by objects such as concrete cylinders or large steel balls). Dragage
Check A crack in the surface of a piece of wood resulting from uneven drying. Gerce
Chelicera The anterior, usually fanglike, pair of appendages in arachnids that are used to chew prey. Chélicère
Chemical pulp Made from wood fibres broken down by chemicals (usually kraft or sulphite) instead of mechanical force. Pâte chimique
Chevron cuts A modification of strip cutting where the strip is angled part way along its length. Coupe par chevrons
Chewing Refers to the modified mouth parts of some insects that comprise a pair of mandibles enabling them to chew and tear up food. Broyeur
Chitin Compound secreted by the epidermis in arthropods and making up the bulk of their cuticle (outer layer of the body). Chitine
Chord An outer or edge component member of a truss. Membrure
Chromated copper arsenic A wood preservative that in most instances has been replaced by ammoniacal copper quaternary. Arséniate de cuivre et de chrome
Chromosome A single DNA molecule encoding a portion or all of a living organism’s genetic information; threadlike and located in the cell’s nucleus in higher organisms, circular in bacteria. Each species has a characteristic number of chromosomes. Chromosome
Chrysalis The pupa of butterfly. Intermediate stage between the larval stage and the adult in lepidopterans. Chrysalide
Class Taxonomic level between Phyllum and Order. Eg, class Insecta Classe
Claviform Club-shaped. Claviforme
Clear wood Knot-free wood formed subsequent to pruning. Bois sans défaut
Clearcut n: An area of forest land from which all merchantable trees have recently been harvested. syn. clearcutting v: To harvest all merchantable trees from an area of forest land. Coupe à blanc
Clearcutting A silvicultural method in which most merchantable trees in a stand are harvested simultaneously, producing a fully exposed microclimate for the development of a new age class. Coupe à blanc
Clearcutting method A method of regenerating an even-aged forest stand in which new seedlings become established in fully exposed microenvironments after removal of most or all of the existing trees. Regeneration can originate naturally or artificially. Mode de régénération par coupe à blanc
Clearing 1. A considerable open space in a forest, which can be natural or artificial. 2. Removal of standing, usually scrubby, vegetation to prepare a site for reforestation. Clairière
Cleistothecium Spherical ascomatum (with no opening) found in certain ascomycetes fungi and containing the reproductive structures (asci and ascospores). Cléistothèce
Climate change An alteration in measured quantities (for example, precipitation, temperature, radiation, wind and cloudiness) within the climate system that departs significantly from previous average conditions and is seen to endure, bringing about corresponding changes in ecosystems and socio-economic activity. Changement climatique
Climate change adaptation An adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli. Adaptation au changement climatique
Climate change mitigation Human intervention to reduce the effects of climate change. Atténuation du changement climatique
Clonal test Evaluation of genotypes by comparing clones in a plantation. Test clonal
Clone All plants reproduced asexually from a common ancestor and having identical genotypes. Named clones are given non-Latin names preceded by the abbreviation "cl". Clone
Cloning In biotechnology, obtaining a group of genetically identical cells from a single cell; making identical copies of a gene. Clonage
Clump The aggregate of stems issuing from the same root, rhizome system, or stool. An isolated, generally dense, group of trees. Bouquet
Cluster Group of flowers or fruits borne on a common axis. Grappe
Co-generation The simultaneous production of electricity and heat from steam. Cogénération
Coarse woody debris The standing and downed dead wood in a forest. Débris ligneux grossier
Cocoon Case of silk in which the pupa is formed. Cocon
Column A vertical support member used mostly in construction. Colonne
Commercial forest Forest land that is able to grow commercial timber within an acceptable time frame and is designated for such a purpose. Forêt d'intérêt commercial
Communications paper The most commonly produced paper in Canada. Includes: Newsprint, groundwood and freesheet. Papier de communication
Compatible management The management of forest lands using strategies and practices that increase the productivity of both timber and non-timber resources. Aménagement compatible
Compensatory planting Creating plantations in one area in order to replace, in part or whole, a loss of growing stock elsewhere. Reboisement de compensation
Competition control A treatment designed to reduce the competitive effect of undesirable vegetation threatening the success of the regeneration of desirable tree species. cf. brushing, cleaning Lutte contre la concurrence végétale
Competitive exclusion In ecology, principle (also known as Gause’s principle) that states no two species can occupy exactly the same fundamental niche indefinitely in a habitat where they are competing for the same essential resource, and that one species will crowd out the other. Exclusion compétitive
Composite wood product A material produced by gluing together wood elements with a synthetic resin. Produit en bois composite
Composition The proportion of each tree species in a stand expressed as a percentage of the total number, basal area, or volume of all tree species in the stand. Composition
Compound fertilizer A mixture of chemical nutrients added to the soil, having a broad array of actions. Fertilisant multiaction
Compound leaf A leaf with two or more leaflets attached to a single leaf stem. Feuille composée
Cone Reproductive structure of conifers consisting of a central axis covered with scales that are tightly pressed together. At maturity, it contains the seeds. Cône
Cone collection Harvesting of cones after seed maturation but before their dispersal. Récolte de cônes
Cone rake A device for collecting cones from a standing tree; it is lowered from a helicopter, over the crown of a tree. Cones or cone-bearing branches are removed and retrieved by the device. Cueilleur de cônes
Cone-feeding Feeding exclusively on the seeds and cones of conifers. Conophage
Conidiophore Specialized hypha upon which one or more conidia are borne. Conidiophore
Conidium Thin-walled spore produced asexually by certain fungi. Conidie
Conifer Member of a group of trees commonly called softwoods or gymnosperms. The word gymnosperm, from the Greek gymnos (naked) and sperma (seed), means "naked-seeded." This refers to the fact that conifer seeds are not contained in fruit tissue. The seeds are instead borne on scales, which are grouped together to form cones. Most conifers have persistent foliage consisting of needles or scales. Conifère
Contained root A root that does not elongate beyond the confines of the original rooting volume within a container, even when outplanted with the container removed. Racine contenue
Container Portable receptacle (pot, bag, or linked spaces) to hold rooting medium for growing planting stock. Récipient
Containerboard Component materials used in the manufacture of shipping containers and other corrugated board products. Carton caisse
Continuous boreal forest Main subarea of the vast boreal zone, which is characterized by relatively dense stands containing primarily boreal coniferous species and shade-intolerant deciduous trees. Forêt boréale continue
Contour furrow Trench made along a contour (i.e., horizontal) line, for the purpose of checking run-off and soil loss, and conserving moisture, in a hillside plantation. Labour de niveau
Contour planting Setting out of young trees along a contour line. Plantation en bandes de niveau
Conversion A change from one silvicultural system to another, also called conversion cut, or from one stand of trees or ecosystem to another, termed species conversion, the silvicultural procedures involved constituting a conversion system. Conversion sylvicole
Coppice Natural regeneration originating from stump sprouts, stool shoots, or root suckers. Taillis
Coppice method A method of regenerating a forest stand in which the cut trees produce sprouts, suckers, or shoots. Régime du taillis
Coppice selection method A coppice method in which only selected shoots of merchantable size are cut at each felling, giving uneven-aged stands. Taillis fureté
Coppice-of-two-rotations method A coppice method in which some of the coppice shoots are reserved for the whole of the next rotation, the rest being cut. Taillis composé
Coppicing Cutting trees close to ground level with a view to their producing coppice shoots. Coupe de rajeunissement
Copse A small woodlot or forest regularly cut over for regrowth. Bosquet de taillis
Corridor planting Setting trees in parallel rows, generally at regular intervals between and in lines, on land either wholly or partially cleared. Plantation en lignes
Coxa The basal leg segment attached to the thorax and the trochanter bearing the femur. Hanche
Crepuscular Pertaining to organisms that are active during the dim light of dusk or dawn. Crépusculaire
Crop The harvestable vegetation growing on a forest area, more particularly the major woody growth forming the forest crop. Peuplement forestier
Crop tree Any tree selected to become or forming a component of the final crop. Arbre du peuplement final
Cross pollination The fertilization of an egg in one plant by a sperm cell found in a pollen grain of another plant. The resulting seed will have the hereditary characteristics from both parents. Pollinisation croisée
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) Large structural panels made of multiple layers of lumber glued together at right angles to each other. Used in walls, floors and roofs; an alternative to concrete and steel systems. Panneau lamellé-croisé (CLT)
Crown The upper part of a tree. Cime
Crown class Trees in a forest with crowns of similar development and occupying a similar position in the canopy; the term applies to groups of trees. Classe de cime
Crown closure class Any interval into which the range of proportions of ground area covered by the vertically projected tree crown areas of a stand is divided for classification and use. Classe de fermeture du couvert
Crown cover The ground area covered by the crowns of trees or woody vegetation as delimited by the vertical projection of crown perimeters and commonly expressed as a percentage of total ground area. Couvert
Crown fire A fire that advances through the crown fuel layer, the upper part of the tree bearing live branches and foliage. Feu de cime
Crown land Public land that is managed by the federal or provincial/territorial government. Terre de la Couronne
Crown pruning 1. Natural: Removal or decadence of lateral live crown by wind, abrasion, reduced light, etc. 2. Cultural: Mechanical removal of branch ends to shape crowns for aesthetic appeal, e.g., for Christmas trees, bonsai, etc. Taille en cime
Crushing The compaction of slash and brush by machinery. In Manitoba, the chopping of slash and provision of microsites are considered important features of this treatment. Écrasage
Cryopreservation The preservation of living materials at very low temperatures, often within liquid nitrogen, to protect them against damage. Cryopréservation
Cull Trees or logs or portions thereof that are of merchantable size but are rendered unmerchantable by defects. In nursery practice, a seedling that does not match the grade or specifications. Rebut
Cultivar A variety of plant cultivated on account of its favourable characteristics for horticulture, forestry or agriculture. Cultivars
Cupping When the edges of a piece of lumber are raised compared to its middle. Bombement
Cuticle (Bionaty) Surface tissue layer of the cap of fungi. (Entomology) Layer of material covering the body of arthropods. This covering is made hard and rigid by the chitin secreted by the epidermis. Cuticule
Cutover An area of forest land from which some or all timber has recently been cut. Coupe totale
Cutting 1. [bouture (n.f.)] A short length cut from a young, living stem, branch, or root, for propagating a whole new plant, in soil or other media. 2. [abattage (n.m.)] The act of cutting down a standing tree. s Abattage
Cutting cycle The planned interval between partial harvests in an uneven-aged stand. Rotation
Cutting regime System of cutting treatments applied to a stand at a defined period. Régime d’exploitation
De-inking A process that removes the inks, coatings and other contaminants from waste papers so that the fibres can be recycled into new products. Désencrage
Deadwood Timber produced from dead standing trees. More commonly, timber in dead standing trees. Bois mort
Decay Decomposition of wood caused by micro-organisms, mostly fungi. The wood generally becomes soft and crumbly, loses density and changes colour. Carie
Deciduous forest Subarea of the northern temperate zone, which is characterized mainly by sugar maple-dominated deciduous forests. This is the subarea with the greatest floristic richness. Forêt décidue
Deciduous species Trees that lose their leaves in the fall, such as birch, maple and basswood, are deciduous species. “Deciduous” means falling off or shed seasonally. Espèce arborescente décidue
Deciduous tree Member of a group of trees commonly called hardwoods or angiosperms. The latter term comes from the Greek "angion (vessel) + "sperma" (seed), denoting the fact that the seed is carried in a fruit. Deciduous trees shed their leaves in autumn. Feuillu
Decline Disease that is characterized by a progressive decline in a tree’s health and in its growth and that may kill it. While the causes of this phenomenon are not known, it is generally believed that a combination of factors is to blame: pollution, soil acidification, drought, freeze-thaw action, etc. Dépérissement
Decomposers Micro-organisms that break down, digest and metabolize organic wastes, such as dead leaves, dropped fruits, wood and dead animals. Décomposeurs
Decurrent Refers to gills, folds, tubes or teeth that run down the stem of fungi. Décurrent
Deep chiseling A surface treatment that loosens compacted soils. In Saskatchewan, termed decompaction. Ameublissement profond
Deeply notched leaf Leaf that has deep sinuses cut into its outer edge. Feuille fortement découpée
Defoliation The removal of all or most of a plant’s leaves by natural disturbance agents (e.g., insects) or through the actions of humans (e.g., the application of herbicides). Défoliation
Defoliator Organism that feeds on the foliage of plants. Eg, insects that feed on and destroy whole leaves or parts of leaves. Défoliateur
Deforestation Permanent removal of forest cover and withdrawal of land from forest use, whether deliberately or circumstantially. Déboisement
Dendrology The study of trees; tree identification. Dendrologie
Desertification The transformation of once-productive arid and semi-arid areas into deserts through prolonged drought or continued mismanagement of land and water resources. Désertification
Desiccation Process of becoming dried out. Dessiccation
Desirable plant species Species that contribute to management objectives. Espèces privilégiées
Detritivorous Feeding on detritus, decomposing organic matter. Détritivore
Diameter diameter at breast height (dbh) [diamètre à hauteur de poitrine (dhp)]: The stem diameter of a tree measured at breast height (1.3 m above ground level). Diamètre
Diameter-limit cutting Removal of all merchantable trees above a specified minimum diameter, which in mixed stands may vary with species. (1) Abattage au diamètre limite
Diapause A period of greatly decreased metabolic activity occurring in arthropods. This period may occur during any of various developmental stages depending on the species. Diapause
Dibble planting Sowing seeds or setting out seedlings in rough holes made with a stick or peg. Also termed dibbling if done with a specially adapted tool such as a dibble. Plantation au bâton
Digital model Computer-based representation of a mathematical model describing natural phenomena. These models use complex equations to perform essentially mathematical simulations of natural phenomena. They are used to study and test hypotheses about tides, climate change, the changes in an insect population or a forest, and so on. Modèles numériques
Dimension lumber Softwood lumber of standardized sizes that is usually 2 inches thick (e.g. 2x4). Used to frame wood buildings like houses. Bois d’échantillon
Dipping The immersion of seedling roots in a solution or water prior to planting. Trempage
Direct employment Persons employed directly in the following industries: forestry and logging (includes timber tract operations, nurseries and logging), industries involved in support activities for forestry (for example, fire prevention/fighting, reforestation, pest control), and paper manufacturing and wood product manufacturing (includes production of lumber and other wood products). Emploi direct
Discing Scarification technique using disks to break small slash and the organic layer and to cut vegetation, loosening and incorporating these into the soil. Déchaumage
Discoloration Change in the normal colour of wood following infection by a micro-organism. Coloration
Disease Alteration of the normal functions of a whole plant or part of it, caused by a living or dead agent. The main agents involved in the initiation of disease are pollution, animals, fungi and other plants. Maladie
Disease Harmful deviation from normal functioning of physiological processes, generally pathogenic or environmental in origin. Maladie
Dissolving pulp Has a high hemicellulose content and can be made from hardwood or softwood tree species. Used mostly for non-paper applications, such as manufacturing rayon and compounds for food and cosmetics. Pâte à dissoudre
Diurnal Pertaining to organisms that are active during the day. Diurne
DNA - Deoxyribonucleic acid The molecule that encodes genetic information. It is made up of units called nucleotides, each including one of four bases—adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), or thymine (T). The molecule comprises two strands held together by bonds between A and T and between G and C, resulting in a structure often referred to as a double helix. It is found in the nucleus of cells, within bacteria and some viruses, as well as in organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts. ADN - Acide désoxyribonucléique
DNA fingerprinting A method to isolate and create images of DNA sequences. The image created is an identification aid for organisms, similar to that of taking human fingerprints. Analyse des empreintes génétiques
DNA sequence The linear order of the nucleotides along the DNA strand. This sequence determines the unique genetic composition of an organism. Séquence d’ADN
DNA sequencing The process of determining the exact order of the bases in a DNA segment. Séquençage de l'ADN
Dominance potential The relative ability of a tree or plant species to dominate a forest ecosystem, given an opportunity equal to that of its associates. Potentiel de dominance
Downed tree Any tree that is lying on the ground, whether uprooted, stem-broken, or deliberately cut. Arbre abattu
Drag scarification Towing one or more rows of anchor chains, sharkfin barrels, tractor pads, alone or in various combinations, to break up and possibly spread slash and to loosen the forest floor and topsoil or expose mineral soil. Scarifiage par traînage
Drainage Hydrology/engineering: The process of removal of water from soil, particularly by surface runoff and subsurface percolation and artificially by measures for hastening removal, e.g., by ditching. Drainage
Drill seeder A mechanical device for sowing seed in furrowed lines (i.e., in drills). Semoir en ligne
Drupe Fleshy fruit with a central hard core. Drupe
Dry packing In tree injection, a method of banding that uses a tight waterproof bandage packed with a chemical, either dry or in paste form. Injection à sec
Duff layer A general term referring to the litter and humus layers of the forest floor. Litière
Dysgenic Detrimental to the genetic quality of a population and future generations. cf. eugenic. Dysgénique
Ecodistrict A part of an ecoregion characterized by distinctive geologic, soil, water, fauna and land use. Écodistrict
Ecolabeling Process used to determine when a product can display a special seal or mark signifying that it is less harmful to the environment than most other similar products. The two-steps are: establishment of criteria, and certification that a product meets the criteria. Écoétiquetage
Ecoregion A part of an ecozone characterized by distinctive regional ecological factors, including climate, physical geography, vegetation, soil, water, fauna and land use. Écorégion
Ecosystem The sum of the plants, animals, environmental influences, and their interactions within a particular habitat. Écosystème
Ecosystem integrity The quality of a natural unmanaged or managed ecosystem in which the natural ecological processes sustain the function, composition and structure of the system. Intégrité d’un écosystème
Ecosystem-based management Management systems that attempt to simulate ecological processes with the goal of maintaining a satisfactory level of diversity in natural landscapes and their pattern of distribution in order to ensure the sustainability of forest ecosystem processes. Aménagement écosystémique
Ecotourism A type of tourism that focuses on nature-related experiences (for example, bird watching). Écotourisme
Ecotype A race (provenance) adapted to the selective action of a particular environment. Ecotypes are described in terms of the primary environmental influence, e.g., climatic or edaphic. Écotype
Ecozone An area of the Earth's surface representing large and very generalized ecological units characterized by interacting abiotic (non-living) and biotic (living) factors. Écozone
Ectoparasite External parasite that lives permanently on the body of a vertebrate or in accessible openings, such as the nose or ears. They are obligate parasites during part of or their entire life cycle. This type of parasite lives on the outside of its host's body without entering it or killing it. Ectoparasite
Edge habitat A loosely defined type of habitat that occurs at the boundary between two different habitat types. Typically, edge habitats share characteristics with both adjacent habitat types and have particular transitional characteristics that are important to wildlife. Habitat de lisière
Effective seedling Any seedling, whether natural or planted, that has survived in reasonable vigor for some arbitrary time and is so sited that it should make an effective contribution to the crop. Semis établi
Electrophoresis A laboratory procedure that separates large molecules, such as DNA fragments or proteins, on the basis of their electric charge by running them through a gel placed in an electric field. This is one of the steps in DNA fingerprinting. Électrophorèse
Electroporation A transformation method in which a weak electric current induces the formation of transient pores in the membrane of a cell, hence allowing new genes to enter the cell. Électroporation
Elongated leaf Leaf that is a lot longer than it is wide. Feuille allongée
Elytron A scleotized fore wing that covers the hind wing like a sheath. Found in Coleoptera. Élytre
Emergent A tree whose crown at maturity projects well above the level of the highest canopy. Émergent
Emissions Waste substances released into the air or water. Émissions
End grain The surface of wood when it is cut across the growth rings. Veine d’extrémité
Endangered species Species that are threatened with imminent extinction; includes species whose numbers or habitats have been reduced to critical levels. Espèce en voie de disparition
Endoparasitoid Organism that lives inside and feeds on a single host, which dies after the parasitoid has completed its larval development. Endoparasitoïde
Engineered wood products A composite wood product made from glued fibre, lumber and/or veneer to meet specific design criteria. Produits du bois de haute technologie
Entomology Part of zoology concerned with the study of insects. Entomologie
Environmental assessment A process designed to contribute pertinent environmental information to the decision-making process of forest management or other natural resource projects and programs. Évaluation environnementale
Environmental goods and services Benefits humans get directly or indirectly from ecosystem functions. Ecosystem functions are the "…habitat, biological or system properties or processes of ecosystems" (Costanza et al. 1997). They include clean air and water, soil retention, and wildlife habitat, to name a few. Biens et services écologiques [ou environnementaux]
Enzyme A protein produced by a living organism and that speeds up a specific biochemical reaction. Enzymes are necessary to make almost all processes occurring in cells fast enough to sustain life. Enzyme
Epicormic shoot syn. sprout A shoot arising from a dormant or adventitious bud on the stem or branch of a woody plant. Pousse adventive
Epidermis Tissue covering the aerial portions of a plant. Épiderme
Establishment The process of developing a crop to the stage at which the young trees may be considered established, i.e., safe from juvenile mortality and no longer in need of special protection or special tending, but only routine cleaning and thinning. Établissement
Establishment period The time elapsing between the initiation of a new crop and its establishment. Période d’implantation
Eugenic Favorable to the genetic quality of a population. cf. dysgenic. Eugénique
Eutrophication The enrichment of water by nutrients, especially compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus, that will accelerate the growth of algae and higher forms of plant life. This enrichment may interfere with the normal ecological balance of the receiving waters. Eutrophisation
Even-aged Of a forest, stand, or forest type in which relatively small age differences exist between individual trees. The differences in age permitted are usually 10 to 20 years. Équienne
Even-aged (forest) A forest stand or type in which relatively small age differences exist between individual trees (usually 10–20 years). Équienne (forêt)
Even-aged system Silvicultural systems in which stands have an even-aged structure, e.g., clearcutting method, coppice method, seed-tree method. Régime équienne
Ex situ conservation The preservation of a plant or plant part outside of the species normal or original habitat, for example, within a gene bank. Conservation ex situ
Exotic An introduced, non-native tree species. Exotique
Extirpated species Refers to the local extinction of a species that is no longer found in a locality or country, but exists elsewhere in the world. Espèce disparue
Falldown A situation in which second-growth forests provide less timber than the original forests. Exploitation secondaire
Fauna A general term for all forms of animal life characteristic of a region, period or special environment. Faune
Featured-species management A type of wildlife management that does not attempt to manage for all species, but selects a few species of particular concern or interest (for example, big game species or endangered species) and aims management programs at them. With respect to habitat, it is generally assumed that providing habitat for these species provides habitat for other species as well. Gestion axée sur les espèces
Feedstock Raw material, such as forest biomass, used as input in an industrial process to make a product. Matière première
Feller-buncher A self-propelled machine used to fell trees by shearing them off near the ground using a hydraulic apparatus. Some models also strip limbs and bunch the logs for later pickup. Abatteuse-groupeuse
Female flower Part of the plant bearing the female sexual organ (pistil). Fleur femelle
Fermentation Transformation of organic substrates, especially carbohydrates, into chemical intermediates with micro-organisms such as bacteria, yeasts, molds and fungus for the production of energy, fuels, chemicals and materials. Fermentation
Fertilization The union of the nucleus and other cellular constituents of a male gamete (sperm, pollen grain) with those of the female gamete (ovum, egg cell) to form a zygote from which may develop a new organism. Fécondation
Fertilizing The application of chemical or organic fertilizers with the objective of increasing the unit area soil productivity. Fertilisation
Fibre (wood) A material in which the wood is reduced to predominantly individual fibres by mechanical or chemical means, or a combination of the two. Virgin fibre is derived from trees not previously processed into paper; recycled fibre has been reclaimed from a previous product such as old newsprint and reprocessed and incorporated into a new product. Fibre (ligneuse)
Fibre mats Carpet-like mats made from wood-fibre, with a variety of uses, including automotive composite mats and building insulation. Tapis de fibres
Fibre-reinforced composites Multilayer materials of carbon fibre, steel, glass, natural fibres including hemp, cereal straw, flax with binders (resins) moulded or formed into intermediate products such as building materials, automotive parts and machinery, etc. Distinct properties in each layer produce a composite with a combination of properties. Composés renforcés de fibres
Field germination Generally, measure of the percentage, by number, of seeds in a given sample that germinate and produce a seedling, irrespective of subsequent seedling survival. Germination au champ
Field nursery A nursery, generally not permanent, established in or near the forest rather than near an administrative or executive headquarters. Also referred to as satellite nursery in Ontario and in the Prairies. Pépinière volante
Filiform (threadliked) Thread-like. Filiforme
Fill planting The planting of trees in areas of inadequate stocking to achieve the desired level of stocking, either in plantations or areas of natural regeneration. cf. interplanting Regarni
Filler A tree or species of inferior value, retained in thinning or cleaning, in the absence of any better. Remplissage (arbre de)
Final cutting The last of a series of progressive regeneration cuts which removes the last of the original seed trees when the regeneration is considered established. Coupe définitive
Fire hazard reduction Any treatment of fuels that reduces the threat of ignition and spread of fire. Réduction du risque d’incendie
Fire weather index The fire weather index (FWI) is part of an approach that Canadian meteorologists use to estimate the wildfire risk in forest regions. Calculation of the index components is based on consecutive daily observations of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and 24-hour rainfall. Indice forêt-météo
First Nations Generally, "First Nations people" is used to describe both Status and Non-Status Indians. "First Nation" has been adopted by some Indian communities to replace the term "Indian band". A band is defined as a body of Indians for whose collective use and benefit lands have been set apart or money is held by the Crown, or declared to be a band for the purposes of the Indian Act. The term is rarely used as a synonym for "Aboriginal peoples" because it usually doesn't include Inuit or Métis people. Premières nations
Flange An outer structural element used with other connecting members to make engineered wood products. Semelle
Flitch A large rectangular block of wood cut from a log. Quartelet
Flora A general term for all forms of plant life characteristic of a region, period or special environment. Flore
Floricolous Pertaining to an organism that is associated with flowers. Frequenting flowers without harming them (eg, butterflies). Floricole
Flower The reproductive structure of a tree or other plant consisting of the male and/or female parts. Fleur
Foliage All the leaves of a tree. Feuillage
Forest Ecology: Generally, an ecosystem characterized by a more or less dense and extensive tree cover. More particularly, a plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, growing more or less closely together. Forêt
Forest Ecosystem that generally covers a large area and is composed of woody vegetation dominated by trees growing in a relatively dense pattern. Forêt
Forest biomaterial Any novel material derived from forest biomass (particularly wood fibre and cellulosic residues) for industrial use. Forest biomaterials can be blends of natural fibres and polymers (for example, biocomposite building materials) or biopolymers (for example, bioplastics, biotextiles, and nanofibres). Biomatériau forestier
Forest biorefinery A plant that uses renewable forest feedstocks (for example, harvest residues, effluent extracts, and black liquors) to integrate the production of conventional forest products with that of value-added bioproducts and bioenergy. A forest biorefinery aims at maximizing the feedstocks’ value by recovering all of the intermediate and end products, hence yielding minimum waste and pollution. Bioraffinerie forestière
Forest genetics The study of heredity in forest trees. Génétique forestière
Forest hygiene Care for the health of the forest, particularly by sanitation cutting. Hygiène sylvicole
Forest land Land primarily intended for growing, or currently supporting, forest. It includes land not now forested (for example, clearcut lands and northern lands that are forested but not intended for any commercial forestry use) and plantations. Terres forestières
Forest management That branch of forestry concerned with the overall administrative, economic, legal and social aspects and with the essentially scientific and technical aspects, especially silviculture, protection and forest regulation. Aménagement forestier
Forest management unit An area of forest land managed as a unit for fiber production and other renewable resources. This unit can be the entire province or territory, a provincial forest management subdivision, an industrial timber limit, etc. Unité d’aménagement forestier
Forest model A computer-based simulation that, within definable parameters, forecasts the development of a forest. Modèle de forêt
Forest practices Any activities that enhance or recover forest growth or harvest yield (e.g., site preparation, planting, thinning, fertilizing, harvesting, etc.), and road construction or reconstruction within forest lands. Pratiques forestières
Forest regions classification A process of delineating large geographic areas according to landform and climate, associated with broad variations in overall forest composition. Classification des régions forestières
Forest sector The forest sector includes governments, conservation and environmental groups, woodlot owners, Aboriginals, urban forestry interests, lumber and pulp and paper producers and value-added industries, forest-reliant communities, the recreation and tourism industries, and other sectors of the economy (including the energy, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries) that derive wealth and well-being from forest resources. Secteur forestier
Forest site see forest site type Site forestier
Forest site classification Grouping of forest sites using either the composition or the productivity of the vegetation as well as soil and topographic position. Classification de station forestière
Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) An international certification and labelling system under which forests are certified against strict environmental and social standards, and fibre from certified forests is tracked from the forest to consumers. Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
Forest tree breeding The genetic manipulation of trees, usually involving selection, testing, and controlled mating, to solve some specific problem or to produce a specially desired product. Amélioration génétique des arbres forestiers
Forest tree improvement The control of parentage combined with other silvicultural activities (such as site preparation or fertilizing) to improve the overall yield and quality of products from forest lands. Amélioration générale des arbres forestiers
Forest tree species Group of individuals that possess common characteristics and are capable of producing fertile progeny Essences forestières
Forest type A group of forested areas or stands of similar composition; forest types are usually separated and identified by species composition and often by height and crown closure classes. Type forestier
Forest value chain The "chain" of steps in forestry and the manufacturing of forest products from seed to final consumer product. Chaîne de valeur forestière
Forest-dependent community A community that depends on a forest region for at least 50 percent of its total economy. Collectivité dépendante de la forêt
Forested tundra Subarea of the vast boreal zone characterized by a mosaic of stands of variable density and by tundra consisting mainly of shrubs and lichens. This plant formation is located at the tree line, and marks the division between the boreal zone and the arctic zone. Toundra forestière
Forestry Generally, a profession embracing the science, business, and art of creating, conserving, and managing forests and forest lands for the continuing use of their resources, material or other. Foresterie
Forestry practices Any activity that is carried out on forest land to facilitate the use of forest resources, including, but not limited to, timber harvesting, road construction, silviculture, grazing, recreation, pest control and wildfire suppression. Pratiques forestières
Form General shape of a tree. Port
Formation All the operations contributing to the creation of a new forest cover up to the stage where it is considered established. Période d’établissement
Forwarder A self-propelled machine, usually self-loading, that transports trees or logs by carrying them completely off the ground. Porteur
Fossil fuel Solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel formed in the ground over millions of years from fossilized plant and animal remains exposed to high temperatures and pressures. Petroleum (crude oil), natural gas, and coal are fossil fuels. Fossil fuel reserves are being used much faster than they can rebuild and therefore, are non-renewable resources. The high rate of combustion of fossil fuels in industrialized societies contributes to global warming because natural processes have a limited capacity to absorb the carbon dioxide emitted. (See also carbon sequestration.) Combustible fossile
Fossil fuels Oil, gas, coal and other fuels that were formed under the Earth's surface from the fossilized remains of plants and tiny animals that lived millions of years ago. Combustible fossile
Four-sided Geometric shape with four sides. Quadrangulaire
Fragmentation The splitting or isolating of patches of similar habitat, typically forest cover, but including other types of habitat. Habitat can be fragmented naturally or from forest management activities, such as clearcut logging. Fragmentation
Freesheet Made from at least 80% chemical pulp, and can be bleached or unbleached and coated or not, depending on desired characteristics. Uses include office paper for printing and copying. Papier fin non couché et couché
Frill girdling Girdling by making a series of downward, more or less overlapping incisions, generally for the introduction of herbicide. Spaced incisions are termed frill cuts. A double series of such incisions is referred to as double-frill girdling. Annélation en encoches
Frugivorous Feeding on fruit or the reproductive structures of plants. Carpophage
Fruit Reproductive organ of plants that results from fertilization of the flower and contains the seeds. Fruit
Fruit body A reproductive structure on or in which spores of a fungus are produced. Fructification
Fuel plantation syn. fuelwood plantation Setting out young trees to be hogged for burning. Plantation énergétique
Fuelwood Trees used for the production of firewood logs or other wood fuel. Bois de chauffage
Full seed Seed showing apparently complete embryo and endosperm or megagametophyte structures, irrespective of actual viability. Graine pleine
Full-sibs Trees with both parents in common. Defined in Manitoba as trees where both parents are known. Pleins germains
Functional food According to Health Canada, any food or food component demonstrated to have a compound that provides physiological benefits and/or reduces the risk of chronic disease beyond its basic nutritional functions. Functional foods are similar in appearance to or may be conventional foods and are consumed as part of a usual diet. Aliment fonctionnel
Fungicide Substance used to kill fungi. Fongicide
Fungicide Any agent used to kill or inhibit the growth of fungi and their spores. Fongicide
Fungicides Products that can inhibit the growth of fungi or kill them. Fungicides are used in agriculture and industrial plantation forestry to protect plants and trees from certain fungal diseases. Fongicides
Fungivorous Feeding on fungi. Fongivore
Fusiform Spindle-shaped. Fusiforme
Gall-forming Relates to an organism that induces the formation of galls and feeds on their tissues. Galligène
Gall-inhabiting Pertaining to an organism that lives in a gall made by a different insect. Gallicole
Gap dynamics The change in space and time in the pattern, frequency, size, and successional processes of forest canopy gaps caused by the fall or death of one or more canopy trees. Dynamique des trouées
Gasification Conversion of a carbon-rich feedstock (usually solid) to a gas using high temperatures and a limited amount of oxygen. Gazéification
Gene A functional portion of a chromosome in which inheritable characteristics are determined by the sequence of nucleotides along the DNA. Gène
Gene bank An ex situ conservation facility that stores plant germplasm of various species in the form of pollen, seeds, or tissue culture. Also refers to a database of publicly available DNA sequences. Banque de gènes
Gene expression The multi-step process in which the coded information in a gene is converted into functional products. Expression génétique
Gene flow The movement of alleles among interbreeding individuals belonging to different populations, by means of seed or pollen dispersal or the migration of individuals. Flux génique
Gene stacking Combining desired traits, for example, pest resistance and herbicide tolerance, in a genetically modified organism. Empilement de gènes
Genetic code A universal correspondence rule between a three-nucleotide DNA sequence and a specific amino acid that is used when genes are translated into proteins. Code génétique
Genetic diversity The genetic variation present in a population or species. Diversité génétique
Genetic engineering A method used to directly transfer DNA from one organism into another that results in a genetically engineered organism, one form of genetically modified organism. Génie génétique
Genetic map A representation of the relative locations of genes along a chromosome marked with probes and/or genetic markers. Carte génétique
Genetic marker A DNA fragment of known location on the genome that is used to mark specific genes or traits. Marqueur génétique
Genetically modified organism (GMO) An organism that has had its DNA sequence altered through genetic engineering, a natural process, or the action of mutagens. Organisme génétiquement modifié (OGM)
Genome The complete genetic material in a particular organism. In animals, this includes the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA; in plants, this includes the nuclear, mitochondrial, and chloroplast's DNA. Génome
Genomics The study of an organism’s DNA sequence and the location of genes on its chromosomes (structural genomics) and of the function of an organism’s genes in relation to their products under particular environmental conditions (functional genomics). Génomique
Genotype An individual hereditary constitution derived from its parents and forming a unique combination of genes; sometimes referring to trees having similar genetic constitutions with regard to certain common, identifiable genetic characteristics. Génotype
Geographic Information System (GIS) An organized collection of computer hardware, software and geographic data designed for capturing, storing, updating, manipulating, analyzing and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information. Système d'information géographique (SIG)
Geophilous Living in or on the ground. Géophile
Germination test A test made to determine the viability of seeds, spores, or pollen grains in a given sample. Essai de germination
Germinative capacity The percentage of seeds, spores, or pollen grains in a given sample that actually germinate, irrespective of time. In any batch of seeds, the percentage that is pure (of the species required) multiplied by the germinative capacity. Faculté germinative
Germinative energy The percentage of seeds, spores, or pollen grains in a given sample germinating within a given period e.g., 7 or 14 days, under optimum or stated conditions. Vigueur germinative
Germplasm The total set of genes of an individual representing a variety or species that may be used for conservation purposes. Matériel génétique
Gill Plate-shaped membrane located under the cap of a fungus; all of the gills together form the hymenium. Lamelle
Girdling Destruction of tissue (water conducting system) in a ring around a tree. Anneler
Girdling 1. Silviculture: Making more or less continuous incisions around a living stem, through at least both bark and cambium, generally with the object of killing the trees. Annélation
Glabrous Lacking hairs or down. Glabre
Global Positioning System (GPS) A system of satellites and receiving devices used to compute positions on the Earth. Système de positionnement global (GPS)
Global warming The rise in temperature of the Earth's atmosphere due to the greenhouse effect. Réchauffement climatique
Glue-laminated timber (Glulam) A structural product made of multiple pieces of lumber glued together in a desired form. Used in non-residential structural applications, often as part of architectural or aesthetic design. Bois lamellé-collé
Glued wood Smaller boards glued or joined together to make larger or longer pieces of wood for structural and non-structural uses. Bois collé
Graded The assignment of products into different categories based on standard visual appearance characteristics or factors that limit strength . Classification
Graft n: A plant that has been grafted. v: To place a detached cutting or branch tip (scion) in close cambial contact with a rooted plant (understock) in such a manner that scion and rootstock unite. Greffe
Grain The direction in which the majority of cells in wood are oriented; wood has different properties "with" or "against" the grain. Grain
Granite bedrock Geological formation that dates back more than 450 million years and is characterized by vast expanses of granite of volcanic origin. The Canadian Shield is made up largely of granite bedrock. Since granite has little capacity to neutralize acid rain, the forest ecosystems in these regions are fairly vulnerable to the effects of acid deposition. Assise granitique
Granivorous Feeding on seeds. Granivore
Grapple A handling tool suspended from the end of the boom, consisting of a downward-turned clamp that is opened to pick up the stems or logs and then closed to lift and deposit them further away. Grappin
Green chemistry Chemical processes, products, and technologies that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of substances hazardous to human health and the environment and that incorporate energy efficient methods, the use of renewable feedstocks, and other such considerations in their design. Chimie verte
Green manuring Increasing the fertility of soil by raising suitable herbaceous crops on it, particularly Fabaceae, but also Cruciferae and Gramineae, and digging or ploughing them while succulent, with or without supplementary fertilizers. Engrais vert
Green tree cut Harvesting that retains live trees of a specific species and size on the area to be cut to achieve a site-specific objective. Coupe avec réserves
Greenhouse effect The warming of the Earth's atmosphere caused by increasing levels of carbon dioxide and other gases in the air, which trap the sun's heat within the atmosphere. Effet de serre
Greenhouse gas (GHG) A gas—such as water vapour, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, and ozone—that is transparent to incoming solar radiation but less so to the infrared radiation reflected back by the Earth’s surface, hence trapping part of the solar energy and warming the planet’s surface enough to sustain life. The build-up of greenhouse gases from industrial activities enhances the natural “greenhouse effect” and is partly responsible for global warming. Gaz à effet de serre (GES)
Greenhouse gas sinks Any process, activity or mechanism that removes greenhouse gases or their precursors from the atmosphere. The principal natural mechanism is photosynthesis. Puits de gaz à effet de serre
Greenhouse gas source Any process or activity (for example, forest fires or conversion of forest land to agricultural or urban uses) that releases greenhouse gases or precursors of those gases into the atmosphere. As trees and forest products decompose or burn, they release carbon in the form of carbon dioxide. Source de gaz à effet de serre
Gross domestic product (GDP) The total value of all goods and services produced within Canada during a given year. Produit intérieur brut (PIB)
Groundwood Made from at least 20% mechanical pulp, and can be bleached or unbleached and coated or not, depending on desired characteristics. Uses include higher quality coloured printing and magazines. Papier de pâte mécanique non couché et couché
Group method A shelterwood system in which the canopy is opened, by group cutting, so as to create fairly evenly distributed gaps which are enlarged by subsequent cuttings. Système des coupes progressives par trouées
Group planting Setting out young trees in groups. Plantation par bouquets
Group-selection method A method of regenerating and maintaining uneven-aged stands in which trees are removed in small groups. Jardinage par bouquets
Growing stock All the trees growing in a forest or in a specified part of it, generally expressed in terms of number or volume. Matériel sur pied
Growth promoter Any agent present or provided as a supplement to the plant or its environment to activate growth. Déclencheur de croissance
Guild management A method of management by which species are assembled into groups based on similarities in their habitat requirements. One species is selected to indicate the group; conserving the habitat of that particular species ensures the conservation of other members of the guild. Gestion par association
Gymnosperm See conifer. Gymnosperme
Habitat The environment in which a population or individual lives; includes not only the place where a species is found, but also the particular characteristics of the place (for example, climate or the availability of suitable food and shelter) that make it especially well suited to meet the life cycle needs of that species. Habitat
Haltere Small knobbed structure representing the hind wings in dipterans. Haltère
Hamuli Series of small hooks found in some insects that anchor the hind wings to the fore wings during flight. Hamule
Hand weeding Removing the undesirable species inhibiting the growth of valued species manually. Désherbage manuel
Hard seed Seed having coats that resist cracking or breaking and may be more or less impermeable to water. Graine dure
Hard snag A snag composed primarily of sound wood, generally merchantable. Chicot dur
Hardening off Preparing seedlings or rooted cuttings for planting by gradually reducing water, nutrients, or day length, or by increasing light intensity and thus inducing changes in shoots that make them more resistant to exposure to full sunlight. Endurcissement
Hardwood(s) (broad-leaved trees) Trees whose leaves are not persistent and fall off at the end of a defined growing season or during a period of temperature or moisture stress. This is the predominant tree type in deciduous forests. Also refers to the wood produced by these trees. Feuillus (arbres à feuilles caduques)
Header A short beam over a structural opening such as a door or window. Linteau
Heeling in Temporary storage of seedlings by burial of root systems in a trench. Mise en jauge
Hematophagous Feeding on blood. Hématophage
Hemicellulose-based One of the main components of wood, hemicellulose is a sugar that can be used as fuel or converted into other bioproducts, including sweeteners. Produits à base d’hémicellulose
Hemimetabolism Incomplete metamorphosis in which there is no pupal stage. The larvae, also called nymphs, are inactive and resemble the adults. Hémimétabole
Herbicide Any chemical preparation used to kill or inhibit the growth of forbs, grasses, woody plants, and their seeds. Herbicide
Herbicide tolerant Capable of surviving and recovering from the application of herbicides. Tolérant aux herbicides
Heritability That portion of the character variance due to hereditary factors as distinct from factors of environment. Heritability is described in one of two ways, depending on the type of investigation. Héritabilité
Heritage forest A forest managed to harvest forest products and to sustain the natural system, including its bioproductivity, biotic and abiotic diversity. Modern technology, equipment and methods may be used to harvest, restock and tend the forest, with an emphasis on natural restocking, supplemented with artificial restocking of appropriate endemic species. Forêt patrimoniale
Heteroconophagous Feeding occasionally on seeds and cones, but usually lives and feeds on stems and needles. Hétéroconophage
Hibernaculum A place or material in which young insect larvae hide during the winter. Hibernacle
Hibernation Sleeplike stage in which an organism's metabolism is reduced to its lowest level. Hibernation
High forest Crops and stands of trees, generally of seedling origin, that normally develop a high closed canopy. A term originally used to differentiate the natural, essentially seedling forest of long rotation from the artificial. Futaie
High grading A partial harvest removing only the most valuable species, or trees of desirable size and quality, without regard for the condition of the residual stand. Écrémage
High-forest systems Silvicultural systems in which the crops are normally of seedling origin, natural and/or artificial, and the rotation is, traditionally at least, long. Régime de la futaie
High-forest-with-reserves system An accessory system in which selected trees of the old crop, scattered or in groups, are retained after regeneration is completed, for the whole or a part of the next rotation. Futaie avec sur-réserves
Hogging Reducing wood to coarse chips, for fuel or the manufacture of wood pulp and wood chipboard. Déchiquetage
Hole planting Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole or pit. Roots separated on either side of a wedge or saddle of earth left in situ when the hole was dug is termed saddle planting. Plantation sur potets
Holistic approach Broad brush approach based on a theory according to which a whole cannot be analyzed without considering the sum of its parts or reduced to discrete elements. Approche globale
Holometabolism Complete metamorphosis in which a pupal stage occurs between the larval stage and the adult form. The pupa is inactive and looks very different from the adult. Holométabole
Home range The area in which an animal lives, hunts, and mates throughout its life. Domaine vital
Host Organism harbouring a parasite. Hôte
Household and sanitary paper Made for various uses around the home and for industrial and commercial purposes. Household papers include facial tissues, toilet paper, hand towels and napkins. Sanitary papers include products like baby diapers, adult incontinence products and sanitary napkins. Papier à usage domestique et sanitaire
Humicolous Living in or on humus or leaf litter. Humicole
Humus A general term for the more or less decomposed (plant and animal) residues in the soil, litter therefore being excluded. Humus
Hybrid Plant obtained by crossing two genetically dissimilar parent plants. Hybride
Hybrid The offspring of genetically different parents (usually refers to crosses between two species). Hybride
Hybridization Sexual reproduction using genetically distinct parents, that is, belonging to different populations, varieties, or species. Hybridation
Hyperparasite Parasitic organism that lives off of another parasite. Hyperparasite
Hyperparasitoid Organism that attacks and lives on another parasitoid. Hyperparasitoïde
Hypha One of many filaments that make up the mycelium or body of a fungus. Hyphe
Hypovirulence Reduced virulence in a micro-organism caused by genetic mutation or the presence of a virus. Hypovirulence
I-beams Structural wood products joined in the shape of an I. An alternative to dimension lumber in floor joists (supports) and roof rafters that uses 50% less wood. Poutre en I
Imago The adult sexually mature stage in the life cycle of an insect after metamorphosis. Imago
Immature In even-aged management, those trees or stands that have grown past the regeneration stage but are not yet mature. In uneven-aged management, established trees too young for commercial harvest. Jeune
Impeder An individual of any value actually impeding the development of another individual of higher grade. Inhibiteur
Improvement cutting A cutting made in a stand past the sapling stage, primarily to improve composition and quality through the removal of less desirable trees of any species. Coupe d’amélioration
In vitro Within an artificial environment, such as a test tube, as opposed to in vivo. In vitro
In vivo Within a natural environment, such as a living organism, as opposed to in vitro. In vivo
Increment The increase in diameter, basal area, height, volume, quality, or value of individual trees or stands during a given period. (5) Accroissement
Industrial plantation forestry Tree cultivation using methods of intensive silviculture: plantations made up of genetically improved stock, fertilization, drainage, phytosanitary treatments, release of higher quality stems, etc. Ligniculture
Innovation The use of a new idea, material or technology to produce new goods or services or to change the way in which goods or services are produced or distributed. Innovation can include improved managerial systems, new production techniques, new technology, the results of research and development, or the application of information technologies. Innovation
Insect Invertebrate animal that has six legs. Insecte
Insecticide Any chemical or biological preparation used to kill or disrupt the development of insects. Insecticide
Integrated landscape management (ILM) The integrated planning and assessment of land uses and human activities over whole landscapes to ensure the long-term economic, social and environmental sustainability of ecosystems and their resources. It is applied at appropriate temporal and spatial scales necessary to achieve multiple management objectives. Aménagement intégré du paysage (AIP)
Integrated pest management The use of a mix of techniques and/or strategies to control pests, as opposed to the application of a single method. Lutte intégrée contre les ravageurs
Integrated resource management A holistic approach to resource management that entails the management of two or more resources (for example, water, soil, timber, pasture, wildlife, and recreation) and that integrates the values of the community into the design of policies or projects to use and sustain these resources in perpetuity. Gestion intégrée des ressources
Intensive silviculture Application of cultural measures which, in addition to simply maintaining the forest cover, will allow an increase in the value or volume of the cut. Sylviculture intensive
Intercropping An agroforestry system involving the cultivation of agricultural crops or forest-derived crops that require full sun between rows (or other arrangements) of trees or shrubs. (See also sun system.) Culture intercalaire
Intermediate treatments Any treatment in a stand during that portion of the rotation not included in the final harvest or regeneration period. cf. tending Traitement intermédiaire
Interplanting Planting young trees among existing natural regeneration or previously planted trees of similar age. Plantation intercalaire
Inventory (forest) A survey of a forest area to determine data such as area, condition, timber, volume and species for a specific purpose, such as planning, purchasing, evaluating, managing or harvesting. Inventaire forestier
Irregular shelterwood system see shelterwood cutting Système des coupes progressives irrégulières
Irregular stocking see stocking: partially stocked Matériel relatif irrégulier
J-root A root, especially a seedling tap root, having a sharp bend greater than 90, shaped like a J. Frequently introduced by inappropriate planting. Racine en J
Joinery The fabrication of connections between wooden elements by woodworking techniques or the use of metal connectors. Menuiserie
Joist A horizontal support member typically smaller in cross-section than a beam; often uses dimension lumber or I-beams. Solive
Juices Organic liquid contained in certain plant and animal structures, eg, plant sap. Suc
Juvenile wood An inner layer of xylem surrounding the pith, in which the cells are smaller and/or less structurally developed than those of the outer xylem. The period during which it is formed is termed the juvenile period; it varies between individuals Bois de jeunesse
Kiln A chamber having controlled air flow, temperature and relative humidity, which is used for drying lumber, veneer and other wood products. Séchoir à bois
L-notch planting Special form of slit planting involving two slits at right angles with the seedling placed at the apex of the L. plantation avec fentes en L
Labels Have an adhesive on one side and are often coated on the other, for uses such as weight and price labels at grocery store. Étiquette
Ladder fuels Fuels that provide vertical continuity between the surface fuels and crown fuels in a forest stand, thus contributing to the ease of torching and crowning, for example, tall shrubs, small-sized trees, bark flakes, tree lichens. Combustible étagé
Laminated beam A beam consisting of two or more layers of wood, glued, nailed or otherwise bonded together, with the grain going in the same direction. Poutre lamellée
Laminated veneer lumber (LVL) A structural material made of multiple layers of veneer glued together under heat and pressure. A substitute for dimension lumber. Bois en placage stratifié (LVL)
Lammas shoots Extra leader growth extension late in the growing season. Pousse d’été
Landscape Areas of land that are distinguished by differences in landforms, vegetation, land use, and aesthetic characteristics. Paysage
Larva Immature stage (between the egg and the pupa) in insects that undergo complete metamorphosis before becoming adults. Larve
Larvarium Tube or sheath made by a larva as its shelter. Larvarium
Lay-up The placement of prepared elements into the desired form before pressing. Drapage
Layering The rooting of an undetached branch, lying on or partially buried in the soil, or surrounded by moist fiber sealed in a plastic wrap (air layering), termed a layer, which is capable of independent growth after separation from the parent plan. Marcottage
Layering method Regeneration of a forest stand using layerings. Méthode du marcottage
Leaching Process in which soluble substances in the soil are removed by the movement of water. Lessivage
Leaf Organ in plants that has various forms (needles, scales, etc.) and that carries on photosynthesis, producing energy for life. Feuille
Leaf-fall Normal shedding of leaves in the fall. Défeuillaison
Leaffolder Insect that folds a leaf in two to make a shelter for hiding or feeding. Plieuse
Leafroller Organism that hides and feeds inside a leaf or the tip of a leaf that it has rolled-up into a cigar-shaped tube. Enrouleuse
Leaftier Organism that ties two or more leaves together with silk threads, forming a tube in which to hide and feed. Lieuse
Leave strip A strip of timber left standing between two clearcut areas. Rideau d’arbres
Leave tree A tree (marked to be) left standing in an area where other trees are felled. Arbre marqué en réserve
Lichen Organism consisting of a fungus (mycellium) and an alga (green alga cells) living in association. Lichens have a high tolerance for cold, drought and heat. They should not be confused with mosses, which are chlorophyll-containing plants. Lichens
Lichen An algae and a fungus growing in symbiotic association on solid surfaces such as rocks or tree bark. Lichen
Lifting Loosening and removing a plant from the ground as typically practised in nurseries. Arrachage
Lifting the canopy Removing the lower constituents of a canopy, e.g., the lowest undergrowth, shrubs, and small trees in a multistoried forest, mainly to assist the main crop, particularly for regeneration, but also for readier access. Élagage de dégagement
Light framing lumber Lumber that is 5 to 10 cm thick and 5 to 10 cm wide. It is used in a large variety of general construction applications. Bois à charpente légère
Lignicolous Growing in or on wood. Lignicole
Lignin Main component of wood. Lignine
Lignin A complex and relatively hydrophobic biopolymer present in the secondary cell walls of vascular plants—and particularly abundant in wood—that gives rigidity to plant stems and allows them to conduct water efficiently. Lignine
Lining out Transplanting seedlings or rooted cuttings in rows in a nursery bed. Repiquage en ligne
Liquid alcohols Also known as methyl alcohol or wood alcohol. It is formed in the destructive distillation of wood or made synthetically, and used especially as an alternative fuel, a gasoline additive, a solvent, an antifreeze, or a denaturant for ethyl alcohol. Alcools liquides
Litter Uppermost layer of organic debris on a forest floor. Litière
Live burning The burning of green slash progressively as it is cut. Brûlage immédiat
Live-crown ratio A rough but convenient index of the ability of a tree's crown to nourish the remaining part of the tree; it is the percentage of length of stem having living branches. L-notch planting [plantation avec fentes en L. Taux de cime vivante
Living modified organism (LMO) As defined in the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, a living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology. Organisme vivant modifié (OVM)
Lobe Large division of a leaf. Lobe
Logging damage General term comprising wounds resulting from cutting, breakage, or crushing of trees that resulted from the felling and the removal of trees designated for cutting. May also include scoring of site and soil leading to exposure Dommage de coupe
Logs Trunk or large limbs of a felled tree. Used for log homes, solid wood and pulp products. Bille
Lop and top The branches and tops cut from a tree, generally once felled or fallen. Résidus d’ébranchage-façonnage
Lopping Chopping branches, tops, and small trees after felling into lengths such that the resultant slash will lie close to the ground. Ébranchage
Lower Arctic Subarea of the arctic zone characterized by the absence of trees, continuous permafrost and tundra vegetation consisting of shrubs, herbaceous plants (mainly grasses), mosses and lichens. Bas-Arctique
Lower Canada The southern part of present-day Québec, existing as a separate British province from 1791 to 1840. Bas-Canada
Lumber Wood processed in a sawmill. Bois d'œuvre
Lumber products Wood of different sizes for different end-uses. Produits de bois d’oeuvre
Machine stress rated (MSR) Softwood dimension lumber mechanically tested for strength. Used for engineered wood products such as roof trusses. Bois classé par contrainte mécanique
Maggot Whitish larva that resembles a worm and has no legs (example : fly larva). Asticot
Main crop In regular crops or stands, that portion of the growing stock retained after an intermediate cutting. Peuplement principal
Male flower Part of the plant bearing the male sexual organ (stamen). Fleur mâle
Mammal Four-legged vertebrate of the class Mammalia, characterized by females that produce milk with which to feed their young. Mammifère
Management plan A predetermined course of action and direction to achieve a set of results, usually specified as goals, objectives and policies. Plan d'aménagement
Manure Commonly the dung of farm animals. Also natural or artificial food material for plants and trees, supplying nitrogen, phosphates, and potash and other essential nutrients. Fumier
Marking hammer syn. marking axe, marking cog. A light hammer having a die for stamping letters, figures, or other distinctive devices. Marteau forestier
Marking rule Means of standardizing marking practice among individuals and for various areas of the same forest type, commonly for thinning purposes. Règle de marquage
Mature In even-aged management, those trees or stands that are sufficiently developed to be harvestable and that are at or near rotation age (includes overmature trees and stands for which an overmature class has not been recognized. Mûr
Maturity class Trees or stands grouped according to their stage of development, from establishment to suitability for harvest. A maturity class may comprise one or more age classes. Classe de maturité
Mechanical planting Setting out young trees by means of a machine specially designed for this operation. Plantation mécanique
Mechanical pulp Made from wood fibres ground into very fine particles. Used to make newsprint and some other communications papers. Pâte mécanique
Medium density fibreboard (MDF) A wood-based composite material that uses wood fibre rather than particles, strands or veneers to produce board or sheet products. It is made by combining wood fibre with a synthetic resin or other bonding system and applying pressure and heat to create a compressed fibreboard with a density ranging from 0.60 to 0.80 g/cm3. MDF is increasingly used in areas such as furniture manufacture, cabinetry, joinery, shelving, craftwork and flooring. Panneau de fibres à densité moyenne (MDF)
Merchantable Of a tree or stand that has attained sufficient size, quality, and/or volume to make it suitable for harvesting. Does not imply accessibility, economic or otherwise. Marchand
Merchantable snag A snag that is of sufficient quality and/or volume to make it suitable for harvesting. Chicot marchand
Metabolite Starting, intermediate, or product compound in a chemical reaction that involves the breaking down of a molecule or the joining of molecules by an enzyme. Métabolite
Metamorphosis All of the changes that an insect undergoes from the egg stage to adult form. Métamorphose
Micro-organism A microscopic one or multi-celled organism, such as a bacterium, virus, yeast, alga, fungus and protozoan. Micro-organisme
Micro-organisms Living organisms (bacteria, microbes, yeasts) that can be seen only with a microscope. Micro-organisms that are likely to cause disease in other living organisms are called pathogens. Micro-organismes
Microbe See microorganism. Microbe
Microfauna Soil-dwelling micro-organisms (animals) that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Synonym: soil fauna. Microfaune
Microinjection A genetic engineering technique that uses a fine-tipped glass needle to inject DNA into a cell. Microinjection
Microorganism A general term for a unicellular or multicellular microscopic organism. Classifications of microorganisms include algae, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses. Microorganisme
Micropropagation In vitro asexual reproduction of a plant from a fragment of plant tissue. This technique creates multiple copies of progeny that are genetically identical to the parent (clones). Micropropagation
Microsite The ultimate unit of the habitat, i.e., the specific spot occupied by an individual organism. By extension, the more or less specialized relationships existing between an organism and its environment. Niche (écologique)
Mine Gallery excavated by a larva in plant tissues, such as a leaf or bark. Mine
Miner Organism that feeds inside the blade of a leaf, between the epidermal layers, or beneath the bark of plants, by first excavating a mine into these tissues. Mineuse
Mist forest A forest of high elevation that occurs along the foggy windward shores of continents and islands. Forêt de brouillard
Mist propagation An irrigation technique for rooting cuttings where water, with or without fertilizers, is sprayed in minute drops on the plants. Brumisation
Mite Acarian that feeds on plant or animal matter. Mite
Mixed forest Subarea of the northern temperate zone, which is dominated by mixed forests encompassing both coniferous boreal species and more southerly deciduous species. Forêt mélangée
Mixed stand A stand composed of two or more species in which less than 80% of trees in the main crown canopy are of a single species. The threshold in Manitoba and New Brunswick is 75%. cf. pure stand Mélangé
Mixedwoods Trees belonging to either of the botanical groups Gymnospermae or Angiospermae that are substantially intermingled in stands. Peuplement mixte
Mixing Site preparation technique involving rotating tillers or other devices that mix soil and surface organic material with fine debris. Mélange
Model forest A forest or designated area including forests and woodlands for which an integrated management plan is created and implemented to achieve multiple objectives on a sustainable basis. Forêt modèle
Modern biotechnology In vitro techniques that are rapid, efficient, and precise in obtaining novel gene combinations in living organisms. Most modern biotechnologies focus on organisms at the genetic level. (See also traditional biotechnology.) Biotechnologie moderne
Molecular marker See genetic marker. Marqueur moléculaire
Monoculture 1. General: Cultivation of a single crop or product without using the land for other purposes. 2. Biology: Extensive areas of land occupied or dominated by plant species that are closely related genetically. Monoculture
Monophagous Organism that feeds on a single host, whether plant or animal. Monophage
Montréal Criteria and Indicators Process This global initiative was so named because the first meeting sponsored by the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe was held in Montreal. Currently, 12 countries representing 90% of the world's boreal and temperate forests have agreed to collaborate to develop national C&I for the conservation and sustainable management of all boreal and temperate forests. Processus de Montréal sur les critères et les indicateurs
Mop-up (fire) The act of extinguishing a fire after it has been brought under control. Extinction (feu)
Morphology Form and structure of living organisms. Morphologie
Mortality Death or destruction of forest trees as result of competition, disease, insect damage, drought, wind, fire, old age, and other factors, excluding harvesting. Mortalité
Moulding Shaped lengths of wood or composite material used in decorative applications, such as crown moulding where walls meet ceilings, or baseboard moulding where walls meet floors. Moulure
Moult Process whereby arthropods shed their old cuticle (external covering) and replace it with a new one. Mue
Mound planting Setting out young trees on raised microsites. Plantation sur butte
Mulch Any loose covering on the surface of the soil, whether natural, like litter, or deliberately applied, like organic residues, crushed gravel, or artificial material like plastic, glass-wool, metal foil, and paper, used to reduce competing vegetation. Mulch
Multiple forest use A system of resource use where the forest resources in a given land unit serve more than one user. Utilisation intégrée de la forêt
Mushroom Visible reproductive part of any of various fungi. Champignon de sol
Mutagens Agents that cause a change in the DNA sequence of a cell. These include chemicals, X-rays, and ultraviolet light. Mutagènes
Mutation A change to the DNA sequence of a gene or chromosome; may be expressed or unexpressed by the cell. If a mutation occurs in a gene, it changes the structure, function, or expression of the protein produced. Mutation
Mycelium Vegetative part of a fungus, which is composed of a mass of hyphae and distinct from the fruiting body. Mycélium
Mycetophagous Feeding on fungi Mycétophage
Mycophagous Feeding on fungi. Mycophage
Nanocrystalline cellulose Nano structures made from pure cellulose used in coating, papermaking, drug delivery, biocide dispersion, composite products, etc. Cellulose nanocristalline
Nanotechnology The manufacture of materials and structures with dimensions that measure up to 100 nanometers (billionths of a metre). Nanotechnologie
National forest strategy An overarching national vision and framework for Canada’s forests developed by the Council of Canadian Forest Ministers. The first strategy appeared in 1981. Stratégie nationale sur la forêt
Native (indigenous) A species that occurs naturally in an area. Indigène
Natural regeneration Renewal of a tree crop by natural seeding, sprouting, suckering, or layering. Régénération naturelle
Necrophagous Feeding on dead or decomposing animal matter. Nécrophage
Necrosis Alteration of tissues caused by the death of cells. Nécrose
Nectar Sweet liquid produced by special glands in flowers (called nectaries) to attract insects. Nectar
Nectarivorous Feeding on nectar. Nectarivore
Needle Long, narrow reduced leaf found in conifers. Aiguille
Needle cast Reddening or browning of needles, sometimes leading to premature shedding of foliage. Rouge
Needle-feeding Living in and feeding on needles. Acicole
Needles borne in clusters (or bundles) Group of needles joined together at the base Aiguille en faisceau
Nest planting Setting out a number of seedlings or seeds close together in a prepared hole, pit, or spot. Plantation en nids
Nesting Relates to an organism that spins a silk nest or tent in order to hide or feed. Nid tissé
New forestry A forest management philosophy that attempts to retain characteristics of old-growth stands in managed stands. Nouvelle foresterie
New investments All expenditures made on buildings, engineering, construction, machinery and equipment (including imports of used machinery and equipment) for the current time period. Investment in buildings includes transfer costs on the sale of existing assets (for example, real estate commissions). Nouveaux investissements
Newsprint Made from mechanical pulp. Used mostly to make newspapers. Papier journal
Niche environment The unique environment used to sustain the existence of an organism or species. Niche écologique
Nodule Globulose or elongated mass formed by certain fungi or a mixture of plant and fungal tissues. Nodule
Non-commercial tree species A tree species for which there is currently no market. Essence forestière non commerciale
Non-status Indians People who consider themselves Indians or members of a First Nation but whom the Government of Canada does not recognize as Indians under the Indian Act. Indiens non inscrits
Non-tariff barrier An economic, political, administrative or legal impediment to trade other than a duty, tax or import quota. Barrières non tarifaires
Non-timber forest products Any commodity obtained from the forest that does not necessitate harvesting trees. It includes game animals, fur-bearers, nuts and seeds, berries, mushrooms, oils, foliage, medicinal plants, peat, fuelwood, forage, etc. Produit forestier non ligneux (PFNL)
Non-timber value A value within the forest other than timber that includes, but is not limited to, biological diversity, fisheries, wildlife, minerals, water quality and quantity, recreation and tourism, cultural heritage values, and wilderness and aesthetic values. Valeurs non ligneuses
Northern bleached hardwood kraft (NBHK) Made from northern hardwood species. Used to make a wide variety of products, from communication papers to tissue and paper towels. Pâte kraft blanchie de feuillus de l’hémisphère Nord (NBHK)
Northern bleached softwood kraft (NBSK) Made from northern softwood species that grow in temperate forests. Used to make a wide variety of products, from communication papers to packaging and tissue and towel products. Pâte kraft blanchie de résineux de l’hémisphère Nord (NBSK)
Nucleotides The building blocks of DNA (and RNA), each containing one nitrogenous base—adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine (uracil in RNA)— a phosphate molecule, and a sugar molecule (deoxyribose in DNA or ribose in RNA). Nucléotides
Nucleus A complex spherical body found in most plant, animal, and fungal cells; it is enclosed by a membrane and contains chromosomes. Noyau
Nurse log A dead or downed log that fosters tree seedlings by protecting them from such environmental factors as wind, insolation, or frost, or by providing appropriate soil and microclimate. Grume-abri
Nursery An area set aside for the raising of young trees mainly for planting out. Temporary nurseries, particularly those formed beneath a high canopy of large trees, may be termed bush nurseries. cf. field nursery Pépinière
Nursery bed One of the specially prepared plots in a nursery where seed is sown or into which transplants or cuttings are put. Planche
Nutlet Fruit, small nut. Nucule
Nutraceutical According to Health Canada, a product isolated or purified from foods (including from specific forest-based foods) that is demonstrated to have a physiological benefit or provide protection against chronic disease. Nutraceuticals are usually sold in medicinal forms, not as foods, and are generally considered part of the vitamin and pharmaceutical market. Produit nutraceutique
Nutrients Mineral or organic substances (elements or chemical compounds) that plants and animals require for normal growth and activity. Plants and trees obtain nutrients primarily from the soil by absorbing them through their roots. Nutriments
Nymph Synonym of the pupa or chrysalis stage found in insects with complete metamorphosis. The nymph is the final instar before the adult form. Nymphs are inactive and do not feed. Synonym of the larva in insects that go through incomplete metamorphosis. The nymph changes directly into the adult without going through a pupal stage; the nymph feeds and moves around. The term nymph is also used to describe the immature stages of acarians. Nymphe
Occlusion The process of healing of cut branch stubs by the cambium of the surrounding stem surface. Occlusion
Old field An area of cleared open land no longer used for cultivation or pasture which may be in the process of reverting to forest. Champ abandonné
Old growth A stand of mature or overmature trees relatively uninfluenced by human activity. Première venue, de
Old-growth forest An old growth forest differs significantly from younger stands in structure, ecological function and species composition with respect to canopy closure, age class structure, accumulation of woody debris and the presence of species and functional processes that are representative of the potential natural community. Forêt anciennne / vieille forêt
Ombrophilous Able to thrive in areas of abundant rainfall. Ombrophile
Open forest Proposed name for the natural forest commonly found in northern Canada. This forest is a mixture of wetlands and small trees, occasionally interspersed with highly productive forests. Forêts claires
Opening up Considerable reduction of canopy density, e.g., by lopping, felling, or herbicidal treatment of selected trees, or naturally through pests, disease, or drought mortality. Ouverture du couvert
Opportunity wood Potential woody biomass resources available for salvage following natural disturbances—for example, wood damaged by insect pests such as the mountain pine beetle, by disease, or by fire or wind — or forestry activities — for example, small-diameter or other trees left standing. In some cases, harvesting and construction residues are also viewed as opportunity wood. Bois d’occasion
Order Taxonomic level between Class and Family. In insects, for example, classification in orders is based primarily on wing shape. Ordre
Organ Group of tissues organized to perform a distinct function. Organe
Oriented strand board (OSB) A structural panel made of strands or flakes of wood glued and pressurized together and oriented in different directions to achieve desired properties. Used as a load-bearing component in residential buildings. Panneau de copeaux orientés (OSB)
Oriented strandboard (OSB) A panel made from wood strands oriented in the face layers and normally cross-oriented in the core layer, combined under heat and pressure with a water-resistant binder. Orienting the strands greatly increases the bending stiffness and strength of the panels. Panneau de particules orientées
Outplant A seedling, transplant, or cutting ready to be established on an area. Plant sur le terrain
Overmature In even-aged management, those trees or stands past the mature stage. Suranné
Overstorey The uppermost continuous layer of a vegetation cover, for example the tree canopy in a forest ecosystem or the uppermost layer of a shrub stand. Étage dominant
Overstory removal A final harvest in which the cutting releases advance regeneration. Suppression de l’étage dominant
Ovoid Egg shaped. Ovoïde
Ozone layer A form of oxygen (O3) formed naturally in the upper atmosphere by a photochemical reaction with solar ultraviolet radiation and a major agent in the formation of smog. Couche d'ozone
Packaging paper Thicker and stronger paper sheets used to wrap or contain materials and goods for storage and transport. Emballage
Paint gun A low-pressure hand tool for squirting a distinctive mark of paint on trees and timber. Pistolet marqueur
Panels Sheets of wood or fibres glued together under heat and pressure. Panneaux
Paper Sheets of material produced from wood pulp. Has many uses, including for writing or printing on and packaging. Papiers
Parasite Organism that lives on or in and feeds on a living plant or animal (host). The parasite gradually weakens the host and may or may not kill it. Parasite
Parasitoid An organism that lives at the expense of another (its host); impedes its growth and eventually kills it. Insect parasitoids, which are often very tiny, attack a single organism (plant or animal); from which they derive everything they need for their own growth and reproduction. One way a parasitoid does this is by laying its eggs in the body of the host insect. Parasitoids are being used more and more for biological control of insect pests, thus reducing the need for chemical insecticides. Predators, unlike parasitoids, prey on more than one organism and kill and consume their tissues. Parasitoïde
Parthenogenesis Form of reproduction in which an organism develops from an unfertilized egg. Parthénogenèse
Partial cutting Removal of only part of a stand for purposes other than regenerating a new age class. Coupe partielle
Partial harvest Any cutting in which only part of the stand is harvested. Coupe partielle
Particle (wood) A small element produced mechanically from wood. Particles can be further subdivided based on their geometry into categories or types such as chips, flakes, shavings, sawdust and slivers. Particle dimensions are typically 25 mm or less along the grain direction and of varying widths and thicknesses. Particules de bois
Particle gun transformation See biolistics. Transformation par canon à particules
Particleboard A panel made from wood particles, which are often the residue from other wood processing operations, combined under heat and pressure with a water-resistant binder. It differs from fibreboard in that the wood particles are larger than fibres. Panneau de particules
Patch burning Burning felling debris, grass, etc. in patches for the purpose of preparing sites for group planting or sowing. Brûlage par placettes
Patch cutting A silvicultural system that creates openings less than one hectare in size and is designed to manage each opening as a distinct even-aged opening. Coupe par trouées
Patch logging A modification of the clearcutting system developed in the Pacific Coast region of North America, whereby patches of about 5 to 200 ha are logged as single units, separated for as long as practicable. Exploitation par blocs
Patch scarifier A mechanized implement used to expose patches of mineral soil in a systematic pattern. Scarificateur de placeaux
Pathogen A microscopic organism or virus directly capable of causing disease. see thinning: precommercial. Pathogène
Pathogen Living or dead agent that alters the normal functions of a whole plant or part of a plant. Agent pathogène
Pathogenic A parasitic organism directly capable of causing disease. Pathogène
Pathology The study of disease. Pathologie
Pathology Study of diseases and the effects they have on plants. Pathologie
Pedology Scientific discipline that is concerned with all aspects of soils. Pédologie
Pelleting Incorporating seed in a matrix of fungicide, insecticide, repellent, coloring material or inert carrier, or any combination of these, so as to form a small ball termed a seed pellet. Enrobage
Periodic block The part(s) of forest allocated for regeneration (the regeneration block) or other treatment during a specified period. (3) Affectation de régénération
Perithecium Flask-shaped ascomatum found in certain ascomycetes fungi and containing the reproductive structures (ascus and ascospores). Périthèce
Permafrost Permanently frozen ground comprised of an active layer of soil overlying a layer of ice that varies in thickness. Permafrost is completely impervious to water because it does not thaw, although the active layer does thaw seasonally. Pergélisol
Permafrost A perennially frozen soil horizon. Pergélisol
Persistent foliage Characteristic of evergreen trees, that is, trees that do not shed their leaves in the fall. Feuillage persistant
Pest Any organism, whether insect, pathogen, mammal, or competing vegetation, capable of causing damage to a forest crop. Nuisible
Pest Organism that causes serious damage to plants or foodstuffs. Ravageur
Pest resistance A heritable trait that enables an organism (e.g., a tree) to be less damaged by pests compared to its non-resistant relatives. Résistance aux ravageurs
Pesticide Any preparation used to control populations of injurious organisms, plant or animal. Pesticide
Petri dish In bacteriology, a shallow, flat-bottomed, transparent vessel that consists of two round rimmed plates one overlapping the other as a cover, for micro-organisms and tissue cells culture. Boîte de Pétri
Petrochemical A chemical made from petroleum, natural gas, or other fossilized hydrocarbons. (See also fossil fuel.) Produit pétrochimique
Phenolic compound A highly complex organic compound that exists in every plant in various mixes, ratios and concentrations. Phenols include, for example, many plant pigments. Composés phénoliques
Phenology The study of timing of periodic phenomena, such as flowering, growth initiation, growth cessation, etc., especially as related to seasonal changes in temperature, photoperiod, etc. Phénologie
Phenotype An organism as observed, i.e., as judged by its visually perceptible characters resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment. Identical phenotypes do not necessarily breed alike. Phénotype
Pheromones A chemical substance released by animals, including insects, that influences the behaviour or development of other individuals of the same species, for example, sexual attractants. Phéromones
Phloem The part of the tree that is produced through the growth of cambium cells in an outward direction. It may also be called secondary phloem. The sap produced by the leaves travels through the phloem tissue downwards in the tree. Compared with the xylem (wood) the phloem occupies a very small part of the tree. Phloème
Photosynthesis Formation of carbohydrates in the chlorophyll-containing tissues of plants exposed to light. Photosynthèse
Phyllophagous Feeding on the leaves of plants. Phyllophage
Phyllum Taxonomic level between Kingdom and Class. Eg, phyllum Arthropoda composed of organisms with a segmented body. The body wall is more or less hardened and forms an exoskeleton. Embranchement
Phytophagous Refers to organisms that feed on plants. Phytophage
Piedmont The area of foothills at the edge of a range of mountains, which represents the transition between mountain and plain. The Foothills of Alberta are an example of a piedmont. Piedmont (ou piémont)
Piercing-sucking Relates to an organism that has specialized mouthparts for sucking the fluids from plants, thereby causing deformities or killing the affected plant sections. Piqueur-suceur
Piling Slash disposal whereby coarse woody debris are gathered into windrows or isolated piles. Mise en andain
Pioneer species Species that are the first to colonize a new site or a new ecosystem. They are generally shade intolerant and need a lot of sunlight in order to grow. Poplars and birches are pioneer species. Espèce pionnière
Pioneer species A species adapted to early stages of natural forest succession or growth on newly available sites. Essences transitoires
Pit One of many cavities or depressions on the fruiting body of morels. Alvéole
Pit planting Setting out young trees in small depressions, natural or excavated, with a view to collecting and conserving moisture. Plantation sur trous
Planer shavings Thin pieces of wood generated when dried lumber is planed smooth prior to shipping. Particule de rabotage
Planetary wave A wave in the atmospheric circulation, in one of the principal zones of the westerly winds, characterized by a great length and a significant amplitude. Onde planétaire
Planing An operation consisting of giving a uniform width and thickness to sawn wood while removing as much as possible any surface irregularities caused by previous operations. Rabotage
Plant tray A flat, box-type container in which plants are raised. Caissette
Plant with novel traits (PNT) In accordance with the Seeds Regulations, Part V related to the Seeds Act administered by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, a plant variety possessing a characteristic that is intentionally selected or created through a specific genetic change and is either not previously associated with a distinct and stable population of the plant species in Canada or expressed outside the normal range of a similar existing characteristic in the plant species. Végétal à caractères nouveaux (VCN)
Plantation forest Forest stands established by planting and/or seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestation which are either of introduced species (all planted stands) or intensively managed stands of indigenous species, which meet all the following criteria: one or two species at plantation, even age class, regular spacing. Plantation forestière
Plantation forestry Application of forestry principles to an artificial crop or stand. Foresterie de plantation
Planting Establishing a forest by setting out seedlings, transplants, or cuttings in an area. Plantation
Planting auger A motorized auger used to create planting holes. Tarière
Planting bar A long-handled, tapered spade used to make narrow, deep holes for young plants of tap-rooted tree species. Bêche à planter
Planting gun Special devices of varying complexity which make holes by compression and either set or shoot a containerized seedling into the soil. Plantoir à pistolet
Planting machine Specially designed machine that cuts a narrow trench through the soil in which seedling roots are inserted and then held in place by closing of the trench. Planteuse
Planting spot The exact spot where a young tree has been set out. Emplacement des semis
Planting stock Seedlings, transplants, cuttings, and occasionally wildlings, for use in planting. Matériel de reproduction
Plasmid A small circle of bacterial DNA that is used as a vector to transfer genes from one organism to another. Plasmids have the ability to replicate independently within a host. Plasmide
Platform-frame The typical residential construction method in North America, using wood for both vertical and horizontal support; stacks each floor on the completed floor beneath it for support. Charpente à plate-forme
Ploughing Operation designed to loosen compacted soils and/or to pull the roots of unwanted plants out of the ground by means of single- or double-moldboard ploughs or special shaping devices pulled by a tractor, bulldozer, or similar equipment. Labourage
Plug transplant A small container seedling which is to be planted and raised as a bare-root seedling. Plant fiche
Plurinucleate Containing several nuclei. Plurinucléé
Plus stand A stand containing a preponderance of good phenotypes, but not necessarily plus trees. Peuplement plus
Plus tree A phenotype judged (but not proved by testing) to be unusually superior in some quality or qualities. Arbre plus
Plywood A structural panel made of multiple layers of wood veneers glued together with the grain of each layer perpendicular to that of the next. Used as a structural, load-bearing component of buildings. Contreplaqué
Pocket of infection Area in a stand or plantation where a disease originated. Foyers d'infection
Pole A tree between a sapling and small sawtimber size. Size varies by region, e.g., for boreal and eastern forests 12-20 cm dbh. Perche
Pollard system The systematic harvest cutting of pollard shoots, with due provision for replacing exhausted or defective pollards. Taillis sur têtards
Pollarding Cutting back the crown of a tree (removal of dead, diseased or unwanted branches). Émondage
Pollination Transfer of pollen from the anther of a flower to the stigma of a flower of the same species, resulting in fertilization. Pollinisation
Pollinivorous Feeding on pollen. Pollinivore
Polyculture The simultaneous cultivation of a number of crops as opposed to stands composed of a single species. Polyculture
Polymer Any natural or synthetic compound of high molecular weight composed of numerous repeated simple subunits (monomers) sharing pairs of electrons. Examples include plastics and high-strength fibres. (See also biopolymer.) Polymère
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) A laboratory procedure that provides the conditions for rapid replication of a specific DNA segment, resulting in a very high number of copies of that segment. PCR makes a DNA segment easier to analyze for genetic research, forensics, the diagnosis of diseases, or other applications. Réaction en chaîne de la polymérase (PCR)
Polyphagous Feeding on several plant or animal species. Organism that develops on more than one host, eg, the gypsy moth, a polyphagous caterpillar feeds on both deciduous and coniferous trees. Polyphage
Population A group that includes all possible members of a species in a territory at a given time. Population
Post A vertical support member of a minimum 5½ inches in its cross-section dimension. Poteau
Post-and-beam A traditional method of creating structures using precisely fitted and joined timbers, usually secured by wooden pegs. Poteau et poutre
Pot planting Setting out young trees in pot-shaped receptacles having a closed or only perforated end and made of various materials, in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed. Plantation en pot
Pre-commercial thinning Cutting in an immature crop or stand to improve crop spacing and to accelerate the diameter increment of favoured trees, and/or improve the average form of the trees that remain. Does not yield trees of commercial value. Éclaircie précommerciale
Precommercial thinning Silvicultural treatment that consists in freeing trees that have good growth potential from competition by cutting the lower quality stems that are competing with them. Éclaircie précommerciale
Predator Organism that hunts, captures and kills several types of prey (insects and acarians) over the course of its development. Prédateur
Predominant A tree whose crown has grown above the general level of the upper canopy. Prédominant
Pregermination The germination of seed, generally to the stage when the radicle is just emerging, before sowing in the field or nursery. Germination physiologique
Preparatory cutting Removing trees near the end of a rotation so as to permanently open the canopy and enlarge the crowns of seed bearers, with a view to improving conditions for seed production and natural regeneration, as typically in shelterwood systems. Coupe préparatoire
Prepupa Larval stage before pupation during which the insect stops eating and prepares for the pupal stage by making a cocoon, a shelter or attaching itself to an object with silk threads. Prépupe
Prescribed burning The knowledgeable application of fire to a specific land area to accomplish predetermined forest management or other land use objectives. Brûlage dirigé
Principal species The species to which the silviculture of a mixed forest is primarily directed, either for its (or their) economic or protective value. Essences principales
Probe A short DNA fragment, radioactively or otherwise labeled, used to locate a specific complementary sequence of DNA or RNA. Sonde
Proboscis Tube-shaped mouthpart used by insects to suck nectar from flowers or suck other liquid food. Proboscis
Productivity The rate of production of wood of given specifications, by volume or weight, for a given area. cf. site capability Productivité
Progeny The offspring of a particular tree or a combination of one female and one male tree. Descendance
Progeny test A test in which the genetic constitution of an individual is evaluated from the performance of its progeny produced by some specific mating system. Test de descendance
Protected area A geographically defined area which is designated or regulated and managed to achieve specific conservation objectives. Zone / aire protégée
Protection forest All forest land managed primarily to exert beneficial influence on soil, water, landscape, or for any other purpose when production of merchantable timber, if any, is incidental. Forêt de protection
Protein A functional organic macromolecule assembled from amino acids linked with peptide bonds; a product of gene expression. Protéine
Protocol A legally binding sub-agreement of a framework convention or treaty. Protocole
Protozoa Single-celled animal-like microorganisms whose cells have a nucleus. Protozoa play an important role in the ecology of aquatic and soil environments, where they are omnipresent. Protozoaire
Provenance 1. The geographical area and environment to which the parent trees, etc., are native and within which their genetic constitution has been developed through natural selection. 2. The geographical source, i.e., place of origin. Provenance
Provenance test An experiment, usually replicated, comparing trees grown from seed or cuttings collected from many parts of a species, natural range. Test de provenance
Pruning 1. The removal of live branches from standing trees, termed green pruning; or of dead branches, dry pruning. 2. Removal of live or dead branches from ground level to as high as a person's reach (2.0-2.5 m) in a young stand. Élagage
Pruning Removal of branches from a tree, particularly beneath the crown. Élagage
Pruning saw A saw specially designed to prune standing trees. Scie à élaguer
Pulp Wood chips that have been ground mechanically into fibres and are used for the production of inexpensive paper, such as newsprint, or that have been chemically treated to remove the lignin and are used to manufacture higher quality papers. Pâte
Pulp-moulded products Papermaking pulp moulded into packaging materials that snugly fit or separate fragile articles. Used for products such as egg cartons, domestic and utility trays, and bottle protectors. Produits moulés en pâte et papier
Pupal Pertaining to the stage between the larval stage and the adult in insects. Pupal
Pupation Process whereby a larva tranforms into a pupa and later emerges as a mature insect. Nymphose
Pycnidium Spherical or flask-shaped structure (resembles a perithecium, but is asexual) within which conidia are formed. Pycnide
Quadrat A small, clearly demarcated sample area of known size on which observations are made. Quadrat
Quincunx planting Setting out four young trees to form the corners of a square with a fifth tree at its center. Plantation en quinconces
Race A population that exists within a species and exhibits genetic characteristics distinct from those of the other populations. It is usually an interbreeding unit. Race
Radicicolous Living on or in roots. A parasite of roots. Radicicole
Rafter A sloped structural member of either dimension lumber on edge or timber, used as part of a roof support. Chevron
Rainforest Forest that occurs in an area of high rainfall. Rainforests are usually found near the sea or in mountainous regions that receive a great deal of rain. Tropical forests are generally rainforests. Forêt pluviale
Raking Site preparation technique using a bulldozer or similar equipment with a blade having teeth instead of a plain edge, for pushing large, coarse woody debris and rocks off a site and leaving smaller stones, soil, and small finer slash. Râtelage
Ramicorns Abnormally large branches that project at sharp acute angles from the bole and are persistent (often associated with previous weevil attack). Ramicorne
Recombinant DNA DNA constructed by joining DNA segments from two or more organisms. (See genetic engineering.) ADN recombinant
Recycled pulp Made from paper and packaging material. Used to manufacture new communication papers, packaging and paper towels. Pâte recyclée
Reforestation syn. reafforestation Successful renewal of a forest crop by planting or direct seeding. Création de forêt
Regeneration Renewal of a forest crop by natural, artificial, or vegetative (regrowth) means. Also the new crop so obtained. The new crop is generally less than 1.3 m high. Régénération
Regeneration area The area selected, normally in a working plan or working scheme, for regeneration generally with a specified period of time in view. Quartier de régénération
Regeneration class The area, and the young trees in the area, being managed during the regeneration interval in the shelterwood silvicultural system. In this interval, old and young trees occupy the same area, the young being protected by the old. Classe de régénération
Regeneration cut Any removal of trees intended to assist regeneration already present or to make regeneration possible. Coupe de régénération
Regeneration initiation The year in which the new crop is deemed to be started at an acceptable stocking level, whether by planting, natural or artificial seeding, or by vegetative means. Début de la régénération
Regeneration interval The period between the seed cutting and the final cutting on a particular area under one of the shelterwood systems. Durée de régénération
Regeneration period The time between the initial regeneration cut and the successful reestablishment of a stand by natural or artificial means. Période de régénération
Regeneration survey An inventory of the quantity and quality of regeneration over a given area. Relevé de la régénération
Regrowth A term used in reference to coppice, as well as recovery of vegetation from treatment designed to impede or control its growth. Recrû
Research and development (R&D) Set of activities directed toward improving and innovating products and processes from a technological point of view and not from a commercial point of view. Encompasses basic research, applied research and development. Recherche et développement (R-D)
Reserve cutting See seed-tree method. Coupe à blanc avec réserves
Resilience The capacity of a community or ecosystem to maintain or regain normal function and development following disturbance. Résilience
Resin blister Swelling containing resin, a sticky gum-like substance. Vésicule de résine
Resinous See conifer. Résineux
Resins Viscous (liquid or semi-liquid) substances derived from forest biomass and used as adhesives in industrial applications. Résines
Retention harvesting A silvicultural system designed to retain individual trees or groups of trees to maintain structural diversity over the area of the cutblock. Coupe à rétention variable
Ribonucleic acid (RNA) Molecule found in the cells of living organisms, where it plays an important role in protein synthesis; in some viruses it is the carrier of genetic information. Acide ribonucléique (ARN)
Ridge planting Setting out young trees on a long, narrow crest of excavated soil, generally on a slice thrown up by a plough. Plantation sur bourrelet
Ring Ring structure around the base of some fungi. Anneau
Ring-barking Removing a narrow strip of bark (only), all around a living stem, in order to stimulate flowering or to girdle it; or a felled stem or a log, for under-bark diameter measurement. Annélation partielle
Riparian forest At a large scale, it is the band of forest that has a significant influence on a stream ecosystem or is significantly affected by the stream. At a smaller scale, it is the forest at the immediate water’s edge, where some specialized plants and animals form a distinct community. Forêt riveraine
Riparian forest buffer A strip of forested land of variable width adjacent to a flowing body of fresh water, which it influences and is affected by. Prone to flooding, a riparian forest buffer can be integrated into an agroforestry system and help counter stream bank erosion, protect water quality, and regularize water flow. Bande riveraine
Riparian zone A strip of land of variable width adjacent to and influenced by a body of fresh water. Zone riveraine
Ripper A toothed blade or set of heavy tines mounted at the front or rear of a vehicle for breaking up soft rock and hard ground, and tearing out stumps and boulders. Also a vehicle so equipped. Défonceuse
Ripper plough A V-shaped plough mounted with a ripper blade used for scarification on frozen soil. Charrue défonceuse
Ripping The mechanical penetration and shearing of range soils to depths of 3-7 cm for the purpose of breaking hardpan layers to facilitate penetration of plant roots, water, organic matter, and nutrients. Ripage
Risk assessment A quantitative and qualitative approach to determining the hazardous capacity of a new product. This involves the identification and characterization of hazards, an assessment of exposure to the product, and a final risk characterization of the product. Évaluation des risques
Root Part of the tree that anchors it and absorbs nutrients from the soil. Racine
Root collar Transition point between the roots and the trunk. Collet
Root pruning The act of reducing one or more roots considered to be superfluous, usually at some stage before outplanting, in order to improve the shape and size of a root system. Élagage des racines
Root puddling The act or treatment of immersing, sometimes several times in close succession, the root systems of bare-root planting stock in a clay slurry with the aim of improving outplant performance. Pralinage des racines
Root rake An implement, either mounted on the front of a dozer, skidder or forwarder, or trailed, having tines for collecting stumps and slash. Râteau
Root rot Decomposition of the woody tissue in roots causing the death of the cambium or bark of the roots, thus girdling the trees at the root collar and causing their death. Pourridié
Root stripping 1. The accidental removal of roots during lifting, handling, and planting, especially when caused by improper practices. 2. The removal of bark from roots. Dépouillement des racines
Root sucker See sucker Drageon racinaire
Root trimming The trimming of roots by a cutting tool after lifting and prior to outplanting. Taille des racines
Root wad The mass of roots, soil and rocks that remains intact when a tree, shrub, or stump is uprooted. Motte racinaire
Root-feeding Feeding on the roots of plants. Radicivore
Root-to-shoot ratio The total mass or volume of the plant root system divided by the total mass or volume of the shoot system, usually on an oven-dry basis. Rapport système racinaire/système foliacé
Rostrum Rigid or segmented projection on the anterior part of some insect head bearing the mouth parts. Rostre
Rotary tiller A site preparation machine using hammers, teeth, tines, or flails mounted on a horizontal drum or horizontal or vertical shaft revolving at high speed. Laboureur à lames rotatives
Rotation The planned number of years between the formation or regeneration of a crop or stand and its final cutting at a specified stage or maturity. Révolution
Rotation burning Prescribed burning applied at regular intervals on a specific site as a means of pest control. Brûlage cyclique
Round leaf Leaf of variable shape whose length is nearly the same as its width. Feuille ronde
Roundwood Sections of tree stems, with or without bark. May include logs, bolts, posts and pilings. Bois ronds
Rust Disease caused by a fungus that is parasitic on higher plants and may go through five different developmental stages, usually involving hosts. Following infection, orange pustules appear, possibly followed by premature shedding of foliage, witches' brooms or cankers. Rouille
Rutting The resulting depressions in the soil due to the repeated passage of a logging machine’s wheels at the same place. Orniérage
Salvage cutting The exploitation of trees that are dead, dying, or deteriorating (e.g., because overmature or materially damaged by fire, wind, insects, fungi, or other injurious agencies) before their timber becomes economically worthless. Coupe de récupération
Salvage harvesting The removal—after the main logging—of the rest of the timber, with a view to supplying a different class of product. Coupe de récupération
Samara A winged, one-seeded fruit. Samare
Sanitation cutting The removal of dead, damaged, or susceptible trees, essentially to prevent the spread of pests or pathogens and so promote forest hygiene. Coupe d’assainissement
Sanitation measures The removal of dead, damaged, or susceptible trees or their parts, or of vegetation that serves as an alternative host for crop-tree pathogens, to prevent or control the spread of pests or pathogens. Mesures sanitaires
Sap-feeding Feeding on plant sap. Succivore
Sapling A general term for a young tree no longer a seedling but not yet a pole, about 1-2 m high and 2-4 cm in dbh, typically growing vigorously and without dead bark or more than an occasional dead branch. Gaule
Saprophagous Refers to organisms that feed on decaying or decayed plant or animal matter. Saprophage
Saproxylophagous Refers to an organism that develops in partially decomposed woody debris. Saproxylophage
Saproxylophilous Living on rotting wood. Saproxylophile
Sawfly Insect in the order Hymenoptera; the female has a sawlike structure that it uses for egg-laying. Mouche à scie
Sawnwood Wood produced by sawing logs into smaller parts for further processing. Bois scié
Sawtimber Trees that will yield logs suitable in size and quality for the production of lumber. Bois de sciage
Scale (Botany) One of the small overlapping plate-like parts that make up the modified leaf of cedars. (Entomology) Tiny, overlapping plates covering the wings of butterflies. Écaille
Scaling An activity consisting of measuring, by calculation or any other scientific means, the real or apparent volume. Mesurage
Scalping Paring off low and surface vegetation, with most of its roots, to expose a weed-free soil surface, generally preparatory to sowing or planting thereon. If done by chemicals, termed chemical screefing. Dégazonnement
Scatophagous Feeding on dung or excrement. Scatophage
Scatophilous Living in association with dung or excrement. Scatophile
Science (forest) The study of the material universe or physical reality in order to understand it. This is done by making observations and collecting data about natural events and conditions, then organizing and explaining them with hypotheses, theories, models, laws and principles. Science forestière
Science and technology (S&T) Systematic activities that are closely concerned with the generation, advancement, dissemination and application of scientific and technical knowledge in all fields of science and technology, including such activities as research and development (R&D), scientific and technical education and training, and scientific and technological services. Sciences et technologie (S et T)
Scion An aerial plant part, often a branchlet, that is grafted onto another root-bearing plant (stock, rootstock). Greffon
Sclerotin Cuticular protein that has been hardened and darkened. Sclérotine
Sclerotized Part of integument hardened through the excretion of calcium (crustaceans) or the deposition of sclerotin. Sclérifié
Scribe A tool for marking trees or round timber by scoring the outer surface. Rainette
Second growth The forest growth that has developed (naturally or artificially) following the removal of the original forest. Seconde venue, de
Second growth forest The forest growth that has developed (naturally or artificially) following the removal of the original forest. Forêt de seconde venue
Secondary species A species of inferior quality and/or size, and of lesser silvicultural value, associated with the principal species. cf. accessory species Essences secondaires
Secondary succession Process whereby one stand or plant community supplants another; it is triggered by a major disturbance in a forest ecosystem. Successions secondaires
Secondary wood products Use of panels or lumber to create higher-value manufactured products, such as flooring, decking, furniture and cabinets. Produits de la transformation secondaire du bois
Sedge Herbaceous plants that have narrow leaves with sharp edges, flowers that are grouped into spikes and fruit (achenes) enclosed in small sacs. Sedges grow in tufts at the water’s edge and in wetlands. Carex
Seed Fertilized ovule that contains an embryo and has the capacity to produce a new individual. Graine
Seed bank A place in which seeds of rare plant or obsolete varieties are stored, usually vacuum-packed and under cold conditions, to prolong their viability. Banque de semences
Seed bearer 1. Any tree producing seed. 2. Any tree retained to provide seed for natural regeneration, e.g., during seed cuttings. Porte-graines
Seed collection area A forest stand that exhibits good characteristics of growth, form, and vigor and that is not managed for cone production, but from which seed is collected, usually at the time of harvest. Zone de récolte de semences
Seed cutting Removing trees in a mature stand so as to effect permanent opening of its canopy (if there was no preparatory cutting to do this) and so provide conditions for securing regeneration from the seed of trees retained for that purpose. Coupe d’ensemencement
Seed orchard A plantation of trees, assumed or proven genetically to be superior, that has been isolated so as to reduce pollination from genetically inferior outside sources, and intensively managed to improve the genotype and produce frequent, abundant, etc. Verger à graines
Seed source The locality where a seed lot was collected usually defined on an eco-geographic basis by distance, elevation, precipitation, latitude, etc. Origine des graines
Seed spot syn. seedspot A prepared, limited space, e.g., a small, cultivated patch, within which (tree) seeds are sown. Placeau
Seed trap A device for catching the seeds falling on a small area of ground, from trees or shrubs. Used for determining the amount of seedfall and the time, period, rate, and distance of dissemination. Piège à semences
Seed tree A tree selected, and often reserved, for seed collection or provision of seed for natural regeneration. Semencier
Seed year The year in which a tree species produces, either as an individual or a crop, an adequate amount of seed; applies to any species but particularly to those with irregular or infrequent seed production. Année semencière
Seed-feeding Feeding on seeds. Cléthrophage
Seed-tree method A method of regenerating a forest stand in which all trees are removed from the area except for a small number of seed-bearing trees that are left singly or in small groups. Mode de régénération par coupe avec réserve de semenciers
Seedbed In natural regeneration, the soil or forest floor on which seed falls. In nursery practice, and also in the field, a prepared area over which seed is sown. Lit de germination
Seeding aerial [ensemencement aérien]: Broadcast seeding of seeds or seed pellets from aircraft. broadcast [ensemencement à la volée]: The sowing of seeds more or less evenly over a whole area. Ensemencement
Seedling Young plant that has grown from a seed. Semis
Selection Choosing individuals with desired qualities to serve as parents for the next generation. Sélection
Selection cutting Annual or periodic cutting of trees chosen individually or by groups, in an uneven-aged stand, in order to recover the yield and develop a balanced uneven-aged stand structure, while providing the cultural measures required for tree growth. Coupe de jardinage
Selection differential The average phenotypic value of the selected individuals, expressed as a deviation from the population mean. Différentiel de sélection
Selection forest Forest treated and managed under the selection system. Forêt jardinée
Selection method A method of regenerating a forest stand and maintaining an uneven-aged structure by removing some trees in all size classes either singly or in small groups or strips. Jardinage
Selection pressure Environmental influences on an organism that determine its likelihood of being preferentially selected among its co-habitants, that is, having a better survival and/or reproduction. Pression sélective
Semi-chemical pulp Made from wood fibres broken down by both chemical and mechanical processes. Pâte semi-chimique
Seminivorous Feeding on grain or seeds. Séminivore
Serotinous Coming late; particularly applied to plant species or individuals with cones that remain on the tree without opening for one or more years (e.g., Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana). Marcescent
Sexual reproduction Reproduction that involves the fusion of genetic material from two distinct entities. Reproduction sexuée
Shade system An agroforestry system involving the planting of trees or shrubs whose canopy provides the appropriate level of shade to grow shade-requiring (perennial) crops. Système de production sous couvert forestier
Shakes and shingles Thin, tapered pieces of wood (usually cedar) used for roofing. Shakes are split from a block of wood. Shingles are sawn and more precisely milled. Bardeaux de fente et bardeaux
Shark-fin barrel A mechanical site preparation device consisting of pairs of metal barrels on which are welded steel fins along opposing spiral lines. Rouleau nageoire-de-requin
Shearing 1. A method of harvest using mechanical shears. 2. The shaping of a tree crown, particularly with respect to Christmas trees or ornamentals, by removing part of the leader and/or the ends of live branches to comply with a desired crown for Abattage à la cisaille (mécanique)
Shelterbelt A strip of living trees and/or shrubs maintained mainly to provide shelter for open land from wind, desiccation, snow-drift, etc. Rideau-abri
Shelterwood cutting Any regeneration cutting in a more or less regular and mature crop, designed to establish a new crop under the protection (overhead or side) of the old, or where the resultant crop will be more or less regular. Coupes progressives
Shield Large area of Crystalline Precambrian rock that forms the core of continents. Bouclier
Shoot pruning Cutting away undesirable shoots to favor survival and growth of selected shoots. Élagage des rejets
Shortwood harvesting Felling and cross-cutting on the spot, i.e. transporting the logs from the cutting, not the whole bole or tree. Exploitation en bois courts
Shrub A perennial plant differing from a perennial herb in its persistent and woody stem(s), and less definitely from a tree in its lower stature and the general absence of a well-defined main stem. Arbrisseau
Side grain The surface of wood when it is cut parallel to the growth rings. Bois de fil
Silvics The study of the life history and general characteristics of forest trees and stands, with particular reference to locality factors as a basis of silviculture. Écologie forestière
Silvicultural efficacity The capacity of a herbicide indirectly to promote positive growth responses in crop trees. Efficacité sylvicole
Silvicultural regime A series of stand tending (thinning, pruning, etc.) treatments applied after regeneration to achieve a specific stand management objective. Traitement sylvicole
Silvicultural system A process that applies silvicultural practices, including tending (thinning, pruning, etc.), harvesting, and replacement, to a stand in order to produce a crop of timber and other forest products. Note: the system is named by the cutting Régime sylvicole
Silviculture The theory and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, growth, and quality of forest stands to achieve the objectives of management. Sylviculture
Silviculture Practices aimed at ensuring wise harvesting of forest resources : conservation, regeneration, reforestation, cutting, etc. Sylviculture
Silvipasture An agroforestry system where trees and livestock are produced together. Système sylvopastoral
Silvopasture An agroforestry practice involving the compatible combination of tree growing with forage and livestock production in order to maximize both ecological and economic benefits. Sylvopastoralisme
Simple coppice system A coppice system in which the crop is clearcut and regenerated by stool shoots, stump sprouts, or root suckers, giving even-aged stands; rotation is relatively short. Taillis simple
Single tree selection A method of regenerating uneven-aged stands in which individual trees are removed more or less uniformly throughout the stand. Jardinage par arbre
Single-moldboard plough A plough with one moldboard, generally right-hand, turning the whole furrow slice to one side of the furrow. Charrue à versoir simple
Site A land area based on its climatic, physiographic, edaphic, and biotic factors that determine its suitability and productivity for particular species and silvicultural alternatives. Site
Site capability The mean annual increment in merchantable volume which can be expected for a forest area, assuming it is fully stocked by one or more species best adapted to the site, at or near rotation age. Expressed in cubic metres per he Potentiel de station
Site class Any interval into which the site index range is divided for purposes of classification and use. Classe de station
Site classification Application of analytical techniques based on macroclimate, soil, land form, and vegetation, to predict yield. Classification de station
Site factor An ecological term referring to a physical or biological parameter used to describe and distinguish sites. Facteur de station
Site improvement Modifications to a given site in order to improve growing conditions for a specific species or mixture of species. Amélioration de la station
Site index An expression of forest site quality based on the height, at a specified age, of dominant and codominant trees in a stand. May be grouped into site classes. Expressed in metres. Usually refers to a particular species. Indice de station
Site quality The productive capacity of a site; usually expressed as volume production of a given species per unit area (cubic metres per hectare) or per unit of time (cubic metres per year). Qualité de station
Size classes Ranges in tree sizes representing stages in the development of a tree or stand. Classe de dimension
Skeletonizer Organism that devours the upper layer of leaves but not the veins. Squeletteuse
Skidder A self-propelled logging machine with an articulated frame, used for hauling operations. Débardeur
Slash The residue left on the ground after felling and tending and/or accumulating there as a result of storm, fire, girdling, or treatment with herbicide. It includes unutilized logs, uprooted stumps, broken or uprooted stems. Rémanents
Slash burning Intentional burning of debris resulting from timber harvesting operations, where the fuel has not been piled or windrowed, allowing the fire to spread freely over the entire harvested area. Brûlage à plat
Slit planting Prying open a cut made by a spade, mattock, or planting bar (termed bar planting), inserting a young tree, then closing the cut on the latter by pressure. Plantation en fente
Slope of grain The angle made between the long axis of wood cells (the grain direction) and the length of a piece of wood. Pente de fil
Smog Mixture of polluting particles and water drops in the atmosphere that forms a thick fog in industrial regions. Smog
Smouldering fire A fire burning without flame and barely spreading. Feu couvant
Snag A standing dead tree from which the leaves and most of the branches have fallen. Chicot
Snagging Removing or cutting away snags, on land or in water. Arasement des chicots
Snail-feeding Pertaining to an organism that feeds on snails. Héliciphage
Soft snag A snag composed primarily of wood in advanced stages of decay and deterioration, particularly in the sapwood portion. Chicot pourri
Somatic embryogenesis A process by which clones are produced by cell growth from a seed embryo. Embryogenèse somatique
Sowing brick A prepared, sometimes fertilized, block or ball of loam, peat, plastic foam, etc., into which one or more seeds are pressed, so that, on planting out, the emergent seedling can have a better start in an unfavorable environment. Motte à semis
Spacing The distance between trees in a plantation, a thinned stand, or a natural stand. v: see thinning: spacing Espacement
Specialty paper A variety of distinctive papers designed and produced for particular uses, such as: Thermal paper and labels. Papier de spécialité
Specialty wood product Any forest commodity made of wood and not intended for the high-volume conventional forest sector, thus excluding lumber, fibreboard, and pulp and paper. Examples include carvings, canoes, snowshoes, bowls, utensils, toys, jewellery, decorative boxes, and musical instruments. Specialty wood products often enhance the value of residual wood from forest harvesting (for example, tree stumps, knotted trees, and blue-stained wood attacked by the mountain pine beetle) or of shrub and tree species with a unique wood grain pattern (for example, bird’s eye maple). Produit du bois spécialisé
Species Group of individuals that possess common characteristics and are capable of producing fertile progeny Espèce
SPF (spruce-pine-fir) Canadian woods of similar characteristics that are grouped as one lumber type for production and marketing purposes. EPS (épinette-pin-sapin)
Spore Cell or group of cells capable of producing a new organism. Spore
Spore print Deposit of spores released into the air or onto a surface when a fungus cap is placed gills downwards. Sporée
Spot Circular or nearly circular lesions that appear on a leaf blade. They have a central zone of necrotic (dead, brown) tissue colonized by a pathogen; this zone is surrounded by healthy, coloured tissue. Tache
Spot planting Setting out young trees in small, prepared patches. Plantation sur placeaux
Spot scarifier A scarification implement enabling site preparation on patches. Scarificateur sur placeaux
Spot weeding Removing undesirable vegetation from patches. Désherbage localisé
Spreader Any substance, solid or liquid, that, when added to a pesticide, herbicide, liquid fertilizer, or fire retardant, enables it to spread better over the surfaces on which it is deposited. Dispersant
Sprout Generally, any shoot arising from a plant. More particularly, a shoot arising from the base of a plant, from the stool (stool shoot) or from the root (sucker). Rejet de taillis
Square edged When each of the four edges of a piece of lumber form a clean 90-degree angle with no wane. Avivé
Squared timber A large, squared piece of a log at least 5.5 inches wide. Used to form post-and-beam style buildings. Bois équarri
Stage Distinct period separating the successive moults that occur during larval development. Period or phase in the life cycle of anthropods. Eg, egg stage, larval stage, pupal stage and adult stage. Stade
Stagnant Describes condition of stands whose growth and development have all but ceased due to poor site and/or excessive stocking. Bloqué
Stand A community of trees possessing sufficient uniformity in composition, age, arrangement, or condition to be distinguishable from the forest or other growth on adjoining areas, thus forming a silvicultural or management entity. Peuplement
Stand condition The descriptive measurement of a stand by the criteria of composition, health, age, size, volume, or spatial arrangement. État d’un peuplement
Stand density A quantitative measurement of tree stocking, expressed in terms of number of trees, total basal area, or volume, per unit of area. More precisely, a measure of the degree of crowding of trees within a stand. Densité de peuplement
Stand model A mathematical model that forecasts the development of a forest stand, usually in terms of mean stand attributes, e.g., mean diameter, height. Modèle de peuplement
Stand table A summary table showing the number of trees per unit area by species and diameter classes, for a stand or type. The data may also be presented in the form of a frequency distribution of diameter classes. Table de peuplement
Standard A tree selected to remain standing, after the rest of the stand has been felled over a younger or a new crop, for some special purpose, e.g., shelter, seeding, production of a special quality or size of timber. Réserve
Status Indians People who are entitled to have their names included on the Indian Register, an official list maintained by the federal government. Status Indians are entitled to certain rights and benefits under the law. Indiens inscrits
Sterile tree Tree incapable of reproducing sexually. Arbre stérile
Stewardship The science, art and skill of responsible and accountable management of resources. Intendance
Stock table A summary table showing the volume of trees per unit area by species and diameter classes, for a stand or type. Table de stock
Stocked forest land Land supporting tree growth. In this context, tree growth includes seedlings and saplings. Terrain forestier boisé
Stocked quadrat In regeneration surveys, a quadrat having at least one live tree seedling or regrowth. The criteria for what constitutes a "stocked" area vary with species, site, country, etc. Parcelle régénérée
Stocking A qualitative expression of the adequacy of tree cover on an area, in terms of crown closure, number of trees, basal area, or volume, in relation to a preestablished norm. Densité relative
Stocking guide Reference level for the optimum proportion of an area actually occupied by trees, expressed in terms of stocked quadrats or percentage of canopy closure. Guide de stocking
Stoma Microscopic opening, many of which are found on the underside of plant leaves, permitting transpiration and gaseous exchanges (pl. stomata). Stomate
Stool 1. Silviculture: A living stump capable of producing sprouts or shoots. 2. Propagation: A living stump maintained to produce cuttings, layers, etc. Souche-mère
Storied high forest A crop of trees in which the canopy can be differentiated into one or more layers, the dominant species in natural forest generally differing in each layer. Futaie pluriétagée
Story A horizontal stratum or layer in a plant community; in forests, appearing as one or more canopies. A forest having more than two stories is called multistoried. A forest having one story (the main story) is called single-storied. Étage
Strand (wood) A specialized knife-cut wood flake of controlled thickness and a length along the grain orientation of at least twice and usually many times its width. Copeau long
Stratification The storage of seeds under defined conditions of environment (temperature, moisture, gas exchange, medium, etc.) for specified periods in order to overcome passive or active inhibition of germination. Stratification
Stressed-skin panel An insulated building panel made from a rigid insulation core (like styrofoam) and covered by two sheets of structural panel material. Panneau sandwich
Strip cropping Crop planting in which strips of heavy-rooted plants are alternated with loose-rooted plants which serve as barriers to wind and water erosion. Plantation en lisières
Strip cutting Removal of the crop in strips in more than one operations, generally for encouraging natural regeneration or protecting fragile sites. Considered to be a variation of clearcutting. Coupe par bandes
Strip planting Setting trees, generally in two or more parallel lines, in a long narrow area of land that has been wholly or partially cleared. Plantation en bandes
Structural lumber Wood suitable for framing and load-bearing structures essentially by virtue of its strength. Bois de charpente
Structural panel A wide, flat material used as a load-bearing component in wooden construction (such as floors, wall sheathing, roof sheathing) or to make ncrete forms. Panneau structural
Structure The distribution of trees in a stand or group by age, size, or crown classes (e.g., all-aged, even-aged, uneven-aged, regular, and irregular structures). Structure
Stub The broken or cut base of a branch projecting from a tree stem. Chicot
Stud A vertical structural member used in construction of walls—typically 92 5/8 inches tall. Montant
Stump Part of trunk with roots remaining after a tree has been cut down. Souche
Stump extraction A general term for the process of pulling out stumps by force. Removal of stumps may be done to facilitate scarification or to prevent infection from diseased root systems. Dessouchage
Stump treatment Application of herbicides to or near hardwood stumps to prevent coppicing. Also, fungicides or paint can be applied to prevent fungal infection. Badigeonnage de souches
Stumpage fee The fee paid by an individual or company for the timber they harvest from public forests or privately owned forest land. Droit de coupe
Stunted Characteristic of a plant that has not developed normally and resembles a bonsai. Rabougris
Stylet Sharp, stiff structure in the mouth parts of certain piercing-sucking insects and barb in bees and wasps. Stylet
Substantial equivalence A principle for safety assessment that compares a genetically modified product to a traditional non-modified product of the same species with a long history of safe use. A genetically modified product is substantially equivalent to the non-modified one if it is as safe to the environment and human health. Équivalence en substance
Succession The gradual supplanting of one community of plants by another, the sequence of communities being termed a sere and each stage seral. Succession
Sucker A shoot or tree originating from adventitious buds on roots. Drageon
Sucking Pertains to an organism that has mouth parts modified for sucking food, by means of a tube or proboscis (beak). Suceur
Sucking (lapping) Pertains to an organism that has mouth parts designed for collecting flower nectar. Lécheur
Sun system An agroforestry system involving the planting of trees or shrubs with agricultural crops or forest-derived crops that require full sun. As the trees/shrubs grow, the canopy closes, and the level of shade increases, a sun system may become a shade system or another agroforestry system. (See also intercropping.) Système de production à découvert
Sustainability The capacity of forests, ranging from stands to ecoregions, to maintain their health, productivity, diversity, and overall integrity, in the long run, in the context of human activity and use. The concept of producing a biological resource under management practices that ensure replacement of the part harvested, by regrowth or reproduction, before another harvest occurs. Durabilité
Sustainable development Sustainable development in forestry expands the principle of sustained timber yield by including wildlife and fish habitats, watersheds and hydrological cycles, as well as gene pools and species diversity. Développement durable
Sustainable forest development The development of forests to meet current needs without prejudice to their future productivity, ecological diversity or capacity for regeneration. Développement durable des forêts
Sustainable forest management Management that maintains and enhances the long-term health of forest ecosystems for the benefit of all living things while providing environmental, economic, social and cultural opportunities for present and future generations. Aménagement forestier durable
Sustainable forestry Management of forested area in order to provide wood products in perpetuity, soil and watershed integrity, persistence of most native species and maintenance of highly sensitive species or suitable conditions. Foresterie durable
Sustainable Forestry Initiative A forest certification program run by a multi-stakeholder (environment, industry, government, academic groups, etc.) board of directors. The SFI standard is a comprehensive system of principles, objectives and performance measures that combines the perpetual growing and harvesting of trees with the long-term protection of wildlife, plants, and soil and water quality. Sustainable Forestry Initiative
Sustained yield The yield of defined forest products of specific quality and in projected quantity that a forest can provide continuously at a given intensity of management. Rendement soutenu
Sustained-yield forestry The yield of defined forest products of specific quality and in projected quantity that a forest can provide continuously at a given intensity of management. Foresterie à rendement soutenu
Symbiotic association The living together in intimate association of two dissimilar organisms, so that the cohabitation is mutually beneficial. Association symbiotique
Synthesis gas A mixture of gases resulting from reacting carbon rich substances with steam in a reduced oxygen environment (partial oxidation), which contains mostly carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The organic source materials can be biomass, natural gas, methane, naphtha, heavy petroleum oils and coke (coal). Gaz de synthèse
T-notching see slit planting Bêchage en T
Taiga Subarea of the extensive boreal zone characterized by open coniferous forest with lichens. Taïga
Tall oil An oily liquid by-product of the so-called “kraft” pulping process (particularly of pine wood), composed of a mixture of rosins, fatty acids, and other substances. Soaps, emulsifiers, adhesives, and lubricants are only a few of the many value-added bioproducts that can be made from recovered tall oil. Résine liquide
Tariff An import tax or a list of articles and the import tax that must be paid on items on that list. A protective tariff is meant to protect local businesses from foreign competition; a retaliatory tariff is in response to a foreign country's tax on goods from your country; and an antidumping tariff is to prevent foreign countries from selling their goods in the importing country at a lower price than the goods sell for the foreign country or at a price lower than the manufacturing cost. Tarif
Taungya plantation The raising of a forest crop in conjunction with a temporary agricultural crop. Plantation en taungya
Taxonomy Set of rules governing the classification and naming of species. Taxinomie
Temperate forest One of three main forest zones in the world (see also boreal forest, tropical forest). The woodland of rather mild climatic areas; composed mainly of deciduous trees. Forêt tempérée
Tending Generally, any operation carried out for the benefit of a forest crop or an individual thereof, at any stage of its life; covers operations both on the crop itself, e.g., thinnings and improvement cuttings, and on competing vegetation. Soins culturaux
Tending felling An operation comprising cleanings and thinnings. Coupe d’entretien
Tenure The terms under which a forest manager or owner possesses the rights, and assumes the responsibilities, to use, harvest or manage one or more forest resource in a specified forest area for a specified period of time. Forest tenures of public land in Canada fall into two main categories: area-based and volume-based. Tenure
Terricolous Living in the soil or litter. Terricole
Thallus Vegetative plant body that is not differentiated into root, stem and leaves, although some analogous structures may be present. Thalle
Thermal paper Coated with a chemical that changes colour when exposed to heat. Used in thermal printers, cash registers and credit card terminals. Papier thermosensible
Thermochemical conversion Thermal and chemical processes by which carbon-rich substances are converted to intermediate chemicals for the production of energy, fuels, chemicals and materials. Conversion thermochimique
Thermoplastics The most commonly used material in plastics processing. Softens with heat and solidifies when cooled. Thermoplastiques
Thicket A dense growth of small trees or bushes. Fourré
Thinning A partial cutting or spacing operation made in an immature forest stand to accelerate the growth of the remaining trees. Éclaircie
Thinning cycle The time interval between thinnings in the same stand. Cycle d’éclaircie
Thinning grade The severity of low thinning based on the crown classes removed, ranging from very light (Grade A) to very heavy (Grade E). Dosage d’éclaircie
Thinning intensity A measure of the combined effect of thinning weight and thinning frequency, in terms of the volume removed during any succession of thinnings, sometimes expressed as an average annual stand depletion. Intensité d’éclaircie
Thinning out Removal of seedling or sapling in excess in a young stand in order to favor residual tree development. Dépressage
Thinning regime A term comprising the type, degree, and frequency of thinning for a given area, generally along with the year of commencement and sometimes termination. Système d’éclaircie
Thinning series Two or more adjacent forest plots that are thinned differently (e.g., to different thinning grades), essentially so as to compare the increment of individual stems. Groupe d’éclaircies comparées
Threatened species A species that is likely to become endangered in Canada if the factors affecting its vulnerability are not reversed. Espèce menacée
Thrips Any of numerous insects in the order Thysanoptera that are of minute size, have fringed wings (if winged) and feed mostly on plant juices. Thrips
Tick Parasitic acarian that feeds on animal blood. Tique
Tie ridge In contour furrowing and trenching, a narrow strip of ground left unexcavated so as to break the horizontal continuity of the trenching and thus contain and properly distribute any precipitation. Cloisonnement
Timber A general term for forest crops and stands, and sometimes for any lesser aggregation of such trees. Bois
Timberbelt Multiple rows of trees planted to provide environmental benefits (including wind protection, soil conservation, and wildlife corridors) and the opportunity for woody biomass production for conversion into bioenergy and other bioproducts. It can also act as an agroforestry system for the production of agricultural or forest-derived crops. Haie brise-vent
Tine plough A plough in which the leading edge of the landside is extended forward and downward as a tine-bearing replaceable sock. Charrue à éperon
Tissue culture A general term for the cultivation of plant or animal tissues in a controlled artificial environment on defined media under aseptic conditions. Culture de tissus
Tolerance The ability of an organism or biological process to subsist under a given set of environmental conditions. The range of these under which it can subsist, representing its limits of tolerance, is termed its ecological amplitude. Tolérance
Tongue-and-groove A method of connecting two pieces of a wooden product by shaping a ridge on one piece that fits into a slot on an adjacent piece (the connection hides the gap between the two pieces). Assemblage à rainure et languette
Traditional biotechnology Specifically within forestry, this involves the selection of trees with desirable traits and breeding them to produce improved offspring. (See also modern biotechnology.) Biotechnologie traditionnelle
Trainer A tree beneath the main canopy which by its shading and/or abrasive action hastens the natural pruning or improves the form of some other tree. Dominé élagueur
Trait A distinguishable characteristic of an organism. Caractère
Transformation Transfer of foreign DNA into the cell of an organism to change its genetic makeup. This is a natural process for many bacteria. Transformation
Transgenic Genetically engineered to contain DNA from an external source, such as another species or a different variety. Many transgenic plants are more herbicide tolerant, are resistant to insect or viral pests, or produce modified versions of fruit or flowers. Transgénique
Transplant A seedling that has been replanted one or more times in a nursery to improve its size and growth potential characteristics. Also a tree that is moved from one place to another. Plant repiqué
Transplanting board A simple device having regularly spaced slots for the individual plants so as to ensure proper spacing and lining out in the new bed. Planche à repiquer
Transplanting machine An implement used to line out transplants in a nursery. Repiqueuse mécanique
Transplanting plough A plough used in the nursery to open trench for the roots of plants being lined out, while simultaneously backfilling it. Charrue planteuse
Treaty A legally binding agreement, often between two parties. Traité
Tree class Any class into which the trees forming a crop or stand may be divided for a variety of purposes. Classe d’arbre
Tree farm Privately owned woodland in which the production of wood fibre is a primary management goal, as distinct from a tree nursery, fruit orchard, or landscape business. Propriété forestière de production
Tree injection The deliberate introduction, by pressure or simple absorption of a chemical -- generally a water-soluble salt in solution -- into the sapstream of a living tree. Injection d’arbres
Tree injector A specially designed tool used to inject a solution into a living tree. Injecteur
Tree marking Selection and indication, usually by marking with paint on the stem, of trees to be felled or retained. Marquage
Tree shaker A machine designed to shake a tree in order to dislodge its fruits for collection from the ground. Secoueuse mécanique
Tree spade Hydraulic accessory attached to a machine used for transplanting landscape stock. Pelle hydraulique à arbres
Tree surgery The care and repair of trees valued for amenity. Chirurgie des arbres
Trench planting Setting out young trees in a shallow trench or a continuous slit. Plantation en sillon
Trencher In a planting machine, a metal shoe behind the share, which makes the trench for the plant roots. Soc planteur
Trenching Site preparation technique creating a more or less continuous furrow, with surface debris, duff, and low vegetation scattered to one side, using shaping devices pulled or often hydraulically powered by a prime mover. Scarifiage par sillons
Trim Shaped lengths of wood or composite material used in decorative applications such as around door or window frames (moulding is often used for trim). Boiserie
Tropical forest One of three main forest zones in the world (see also boreal forest, temperate forest). A tropical woodland with an annual rainfall of a least 250 cm; marked by broad-leaved evergreen trees forming a continuous canopy. Forêt tropicale
Trunk Part of the tree that is generally straight and vertical, located between the root collar and the branches (crown). Tronc
Trusses Structural frames with a triangular arrangement of webs and chords to transfer loads to reaction points. Used as a structural support in residential and non-residential roof structures. Ferme
Tube planting Setting out young trees in narrow, open-ended cylinders of various materials, in which they have been raised from seed or into which they have been transplanted. Plantation de semis en tube
Tubes Cylindrical structures beneath the fungus cap constituting the hymenium in certain fungi. A tubular opening made by a worm or another animal. Tubes
Tubicolous Dwelling in a tube, eg pine tube moth. Tubicole
Tubular Tube-shaped. Tubulaire
Twig The smallest division of a branch which bears the annual shoot. Rameau
Twisting A type of warp that results in the four corners of a piece of lumber no longer being in the same plane. Torsion
Two-furrow plough A plough with two moldboards turning the furrow slices to the same side. Charrue à deux socs et versoirs simultanés
Undercutting Root-pruning of nursery stock in situ, particularly by horizontal cut. Cernage
Underplant Young trees used for underplanting. Plant de sous-étage
Underplanting Planting young trees under the canopy of an existing stand. Plantation en sous-étage
Understorey The lower level of vegetation in a forest. Usually formed by ground vegetation (mosses, herbs and lichens), herbs and shrubs. Sous-étage
Understory protection Removal of mature trees while damage to the understory is kept to a minimum. Protection du sous-étage
Undesirable species Species that conflict with or do not contribute to the management objectives. Essences indésirables
Uneven-aged Of a forest, stand, or forest type in which intermingling trees differ markedly in age. The differences in age permitted in an uneven-aged stand are usually greater than 10-20 years. Inéquienne
Uneven-aged system A silvicultural system in which stands have an uneven-aged structure. Régime inéquienne
Univoltine Having only one generation per season. Univoltin
Unmerchantable Of a tree or stand that has not attained sufficient size, quality, and/or volume to make it suitable for harvesting. Non marchand
Uprooting The removal of trees with their roots by detaching or breaking the roots below the ground surface. Déracinage
Urban forest The trees, forests, and associated organisms that grow near buildings and in gardens, green spaces, parks, and golf courses located in village, town, suburban, and urban areas. Forêt urbaine
Value-added product A product that has had value added to it through further processing. Examples include windows, doors, kitchen cabinets, flooring and mouldings. Value-added pulp and paper products include items such as packaging, diapers, coated papers, tissue, business papers, stationery and other consumer paper products. Produit à valeur ajoutée
Variable-retention A silvicultural system that follows nature’s model by always retaining part of the forest after harvesting. Standing trees are left in a dispersed or aggregated form to meet objectives such as retaining old-growth structure, habitat protection and visual quality. Variable retention retains structural features (snags, large woody debris, live trees of varying sizes, canopy levels) as wildlife habitat. Rétention variable
Variety Specifically within forestry, any clone or product of breeding given a separate name. Variété
Variety Subdivision of species, a group of individuals that have common characteristics (example : The different varieties of apples). Variété
Vector Any DNA-containing structure that is used to transfer DNA into an organism. The most commonly used vectors are plasmid DNA and bacteriophages or other viruses. Vecteur
Vegetative propagation Reproduction by other than sexually produced seed. Includes grafting, budding, rooting of cuttings, and tissue and cell culture, including embryogenesis. Multiplication végétative
Venation Distribution of veins on the wings of an insect or on a leaf. Nervation
Veneer A thin layer of wood prepared by peeling or slicing a log. Used to overlay other wood products like cabinets, doors and furniture. Placage
Vertical diversity The diversity in a stand that results from the complexity of the above-ground structure of the vegetation. Diversité verticale
Vertical structure The structure formed by different layers of vegetation in a forest. Structure verticale
Vesicle Small, bladder-like structure. Vésicule
Vestigial Organ that is diminished in size and often nonfunctional. Vestigial
Viability Of a seed, spore, or pollen grain, its capacity to germinate and develop, under given conditions. Viabilité
Vigor class Assumption of the health of a tree based on observation of the foliage. Classe de vigueur
Virgin forest Natural forest, the development of which has been virtually uninfluenced by modern human activity. Forêt vierge
Virulence Measure of a pathogen's ability to multiply in a living organism and harm it. Virulence
Viruses Primitive microorganisms that must infect the living cells of animals, plants, or bacteria in order to replicate. When outside the host cells, viruses adopt a form consisting, most of the time, of a RNA or DNA molecule surrounded by a protein matrix. Virus
Viviparous Bringing forth living, fully formed individuals that are capable of feeding. Said of producing bulbils on young plants, instead of and in place of flowers. Vivipare
Volume-based tenures They allow licensees to harvest specific volumes of timber from a broadly defined area. Several licensees can hold such rights within the same area. The provincial regulatory agency is usually responsible for management planning, but tenure holders may be obliged to assume forest management responsibilities. Tenures fondées sur le volume
Volunteer growth Natural regeneration following site preparation and seeding or planting that could either supplement or completely obscure the trees being planted or seeded on the area. Régénération subséquente
Volva Cup-like sheath surrounding the stem base in some fungi, eg, Amanita; it is a remnant of the universal veil. Volve
Vulnerable species A species that is considered at risk because it exists in low numbers or in restricted ranges, due to loss of habitat or other factors. Espèce vulnérable
Wane The presence of bark or the absence of wood along the edges of a piece of lumber resulting from the curved outer surface of the log as it is broken down into straight-edged lumber. Flache
Warp When the edge or surface of lumber no longer remains straight because of uneven shrinkage along the length of a piece of lumber. Gauchissement
Water bombing The act of dropping suppressants (water or short-term retardant) on a wildfire from an aircraft in flight. Arrosage aérien
Watershed The area drained by an underground or surface stream, or by a system of streams. Bassin hydrographique
Web A connecting and strengthening component used to join other structural elements in products such as I-beams. Âme
Webworm Organism that spins a silk shelter in which to hide or feed. Tisseuse
Wedge system A modification of the strip shelterwood system in which cuttings begin as narrow, interior, wedge-shaped strips with the apex into the prevailing wind, and are then successively enlarged and advanced; regeneration is mainly natural. Mode de régénération par coupes progressives en coin
Weed tree Any tree of a species having little or no economic value on the site in question. Indésirable
Weeding A release treatment in stands during the seedling stage that eliminates or suppresses undesirable vegetation regardless of crown position. Désherbage
Whip 1. A bare-root hardwood planting stock. 2. Any slender tree that the wind causes to lacerate the crowns of its neighbors. Fouet
Wildland Uncultivated land other than fallow. Land currently little influenced by human activity. Friche
Wildland-urban interface The wildland-urban interface broadly refers to the area where forests meet houses and infrastructure that is part of communities. Surface limite entre les terres non défrichées et les zones urbaines
Wildling syn.: wilding, wild seedling A naturally grown, in contrast to a nursery-raised, seedling, sometimes used in forest planting when nursery stock is scarce. Semis naturel
Wilt Drying out, loss of colour and shape of leaves, then twigs and branches, caused by a lack of water or the presence of toxins. Flétrissement
Wind bend Condition of trees having a curved stem as a consequence of wind action or compression due to heavy load on the crown of the tree. cf. windfirm Courbé par le vent
Wind lean Condition of trees having a leaning stem, result of partial uprooting or wind action. cf. windfirm Couché par le vent
Wind rock Movement of tree stems in the wind, which may lead to chafing of the collar and sometimes of the roots, and, in very wet soil, loosening of the ground. Balancement au vent
Windbreak A small-scale shelterbelt or other barrier, natural or artificial, maintained against the wind. Brise-vent
Windfall 1. A tree or trees thrown down or with their stems broken off or other parts blown down by the wind. 2. Any area on which the trees have been thrown down or broken by the wind. Chablis
Windfirm Of trees, able to withstand strong winds, i.e., to resist windthrow, windrocking, and major breakage. Such trees may not remain upright but show wind lean or wind bend or both. Stable au vent
Windrow Slash, brushwood, etc., concentrated along a line so as to clear the intervening ground between two of them. Andain
Windrow planting Planting between the two lanes created in windrowing. Plantation sur entrandain
Windthrow Uprooting by the wind. 2. Tree or trees so uprooted. Déracinement par le vent
Witches' broom Excessive proliferation of twigs from one location on a branch or several locations close together. The twigs in a broom are erect and compacted. Balai de sorcière
Wolf tree A tree, generally overtopping and of poor form, that occupies more growing space than its commercial value warrants. Arbre loup
Wood A plant tissue composed essentially of lignified fibers of cellulose and hemicellulose. Wood is present in the stems of trees and shrubs where it ensures support and conducts water. (See also cellulose and lignin.) Bois
Wood composites Products made from wood waste or residues created in the manufacturing of other wood products. Composites de bois
Wood connection technologies Fastenings (nails, screws, bolts, pressure-applied plates, etc.) that join wood to wood, metal, concrete, plastic or any other solid material. Technologies de fixation du bois
Wood pellets A fuel made from wood shavings, bark, sawdust and chips compressed or bound together. Low moisture content and easily transported over long distances. Granules de bois
Wood-cement composites Produced by mixing small pieces of wood with cement under pressure. Non-structural uses include acoustic ceiling tiles, siding and roadside noise barriers; structural uses include concrete-filled insulating forms. Composites bois-ciment
Wood-plastic composite A mixture or mechanical combination of wood and plastic resins that are solid in a finished state, are mutually insoluble and differ in chemical nature. Composite bois plastique
Woody debris Dead and decomposing wood of various sizes. Débris ligneux
Woody tissue Plant tissue containing lignin, the main component of wood. Ligneux
Working group An aggregate of forest stands, or forest stand and forest sites, which are grouped for the purpose of applying a common set of silvicultural treatments (also called operational group). Section d’aménagement
Worm-like Resembling a worm. Vermiforme
Xylophagous That feeds on wood. Lignivore
Xylophagous Feeding on woody tissues (wood). Xylophage
Xylophilous Growing in or living on wood. Xylophile
Yearling A one-year-old seedling. Semis de l’année
Yield table Tables and graphs illustrating volumes per hectare of stands at a specific age. normal yield table [table de rendement normal]: Estimated stand volume per age class at normal stocking. Table de rendement
Zoophagous Refers to organisms that feed on animals (including other arthropods). Zoophage