||Order included in the class Arachnida. The members of this order (mites and ticks) are very tiny organisms with an unsegmented abdomen and generally four pairs of unjointed legs.
||A species of less commercial value than the principal species but sometimes useful in assisting the latter and liable to influence the method of treatment to some degree.
||The establishment of a tree crop on an area from which it has always, or for very long, been absent. Where such establishment fails and is repeated, the latter may properly be termed reafforestation.
||Of a forest, crop, or stand that contains trees of all, or almost all, age classes, including those of exploitable age.
||De tous âges
||A place where many kinds of trees and shrubs are grown for scientific and educational purposes.
||Phylum of invertebrate animals that possess an exoskeleton and a segmented body with jointed appendages (legs). Arthropods include crustaceans, spiders and insects.
||Birds, in particular, all the birds of a given site: the avifauna of a marsh, a prairie, etc.
||Single-celled organisms that have no nucleus; Plural of bacterium.
||Applying pesticides and/or fertilizers in a linear strip on or along crop rows rather than over the entire ground area.
||Pulvérisation en bandes
||The collection of life on earth; the natural patterns that form from all the species of life (species diversity), the genes that each of them possess (genetic diversity), as well as the ecosystems which these species form (ecosystem diversity).
|Biological pest control methods
||The application of whole organisms or portions of organisms as biologically sound alternatives to broad-spectrum chemical pesticides.
||Méthodes de lutte biologique contre les ravageurs
||The portion of the earth comprising the lower atmosphere, the seas, and the land surface (mantle rock) in which living organisms exist.
||As defined in the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, the application of science and engineering in the direct or indirect use of living organisms, or parts or products of living organisms, in their natural or modified forms. It refers to the techniques through which organisms such as plants, fungi, or microorganisms can be used to provide products or services.
||One of three main forest zones in the world (see also tropical forest, temperate forest) located in northern regions and is characterized by the predominance of conifers (such as pine, spruce, larch and fir) and some deciduous (such as poplar and birch). The boreal forest (singular) is a colloquial term often used to refer to the overall forested area within the boreal zone, and sometimes to refer to the boreal zone itself because forests dominate this landscape. Boreal forests (plural) is the preferred term for the forested areas within the boreal zone.
||A band of forest left relatively undisturbed so as to protect some element of the environment, such as a streambank from erosion.
||Forest certification is a market-based instrument aimed at promoting sustainable forest management that takes into account environmental, economic and social issues. It involves the independent assessment of forest management according to internationally (or nationally) accepted standards, and the tracking and monitoring of the supply of forest products to the market place. If the forest management is in compliance with a set of specified standards, and the timber from this forest has been tracked and accounted for through all stages of the production process, then it can be given a label which is recognized in the market place.
||A single DNA molecule encoding a portion or all of a living organism’s genetic information; threadlike and located in the cell’s nucleus in higher organisms, circular in bacteria. Each species has a characteristic number of chromosomes.
||Taxonomic level between Phyllum and Order. Eg, class Insecta
|Climate change adaptation
||An adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli.
||Adaptation au changement climatique
|Climate change mitigation
||Human intervention to reduce the effects of climate change.
||Atténuation du changement climatique
|Coarse woody debris
||The standing and downed dead wood in a forest.
||Débris ligneux grossier
||Forest land that is able to grow commercial timber within an acceptable time frame and is designated for such a purpose.
||Forêt d'intérêt commercial
||The management of forest lands using strategies and practices that increase the productivity of both timber and non-timber resources.
||Creating plantations in one area in order to replace, in part or whole, a loss of growing stock elsewhere.
||Reboisement de compensation
||In ecology, principle (also known as Gause’s principle) that states no two species can occupy exactly the same fundamental niche indefinitely in a habitat where they are competing for the same essential resource, and that one species will crowd out the other.
||A device for collecting cones from a standing tree; it is lowered from a helicopter, over the crown of a tree. Cones or cone-bearing branches are removed and retrieved by the device.
||Cueilleur de cônes
|Continuous boreal forest
||Main subarea of the vast boreal zone, which is characterized by relatively dense stands containing primarily boreal coniferous species and shade-intolerant deciduous trees.
||Forêt boréale continue
||Pertaining to organisms that are active during the dim light of dusk or dawn.
||The harvestable vegetation growing on a forest area, more particularly the major woody growth forming the forest crop.
||The preservation of living materials at very low temperatures, often within liquid nitrogen, to protect them against damage.
||A variety of plant cultivated on account of its favourable characteristics for horticulture, forestry or agriculture.
||Timber produced from dead standing trees.
More commonly, timber in dead standing trees.
||Subarea of the northern temperate zone, which is characterized mainly by sugar maple-dominated deciduous forests. This is the subarea with the greatest floristic richness.
||Trees that lose their leaves in the fall, such as birch, maple and basswood, are deciduous species. “Deciduous” means falling off or shed seasonally.
||Espèce arborescente décidue
||Micro-organisms that break down, digest and metabolize organic wastes, such as dead leaves, dropped fruits, wood and dead animals.
||Feeding on detritus, decomposing organic matter.
||Computer-based representation of a mathematical model describing natural phenomena. These models use complex equations to perform essentially mathematical simulations of natural phenomena. They are used to study and test hypotheses about tides, climate change, the changes in an insect population or a forest, and so on.
||Alteration of the normal functions of a whole plant or part of it, caused by a living or dead agent. The main agents involved in the initiation of disease are pollution, animals, fungi and other plants.
||Harmful deviation from normal functioning of physiological processes, generally pathogenic or environmental in origin.
||The relative ability of a tree or plant species to dominate a forest ecosystem, given an opportunity equal to that of its associates.
||Potentiel de dominance
||A general term referring to the litter and humus layers of the forest floor.
||The sum of the plants, animals, environmental influences, and their interactions within a particular habitat.
||A loosely defined type of habitat that occurs at the boundary between two different habitat types. Typically, edge habitats share characteristics with both adjacent habitat types and have particular transitional characteristics that are important to wildlife.
||Habitat de lisière
||Species that are threatened with imminent extinction; includes species whose numbers or habitats have been reduced to critical levels.
||Espèce en voie de disparition
||Part of zoology concerned with the study of insects.
||A process designed to contribute pertinent environmental information to the decision-making process of forest management or other natural resource projects and programs.
|Environmental goods and services
||Benefits humans get directly or indirectly from ecosystem functions. Ecosystem functions are the "…habitat, biological or system properties or processes of ecosystems" (Costanza et al. 1997). They include clean air and water, soil retention, and wildlife habitat, to name a few.
||Biens et services écologiques [ou environnementaux]
||Favorable to the genetic quality of a population.
||The enrichment of water by nutrients, especially compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus, that will accelerate the growth of algae and higher forms of plant life. This enrichment may interfere with the normal ecological balance of the receiving waters.
||An introduced, non-native tree species.
||Refers to the local extinction of a species that is no longer found in a locality or country, but exists elsewhere in the world.
||A general term for all forms of animal life characteristic of a region, period or special environment.
||A type of wildlife management that does not attempt to manage for all species, but selects a few species of particular concern or interest (for example, big game species or endangered species) and aims management programs at them. With respect to habitat, it is generally assumed that providing habitat for these species provides habitat for other species as well.
||Gestion axée sur les espèces
||A nursery, generally not permanent, established in or near the forest rather than near an administrative or executive headquarters. Also referred to as satellite nursery in Ontario and in the Prairies.
||A tree or species of inferior value, retained in thinning or cleaning, in the absence of any better.
||Remplissage (arbre de)
||A general term for all forms of plant life characteristic of a region, period or special environment.
||Ecology: Generally, an ecosystem characterized by a more or less dense and extensive tree cover. More particularly, a plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, growing more or less closely together.
||Ecosystem that generally covers a large area and is composed of woody vegetation dominated by trees growing in a relatively dense pattern.
||Any activities that enhance or recover forest growth or harvest yield (e.g., site preparation, planting, thinning, fertilizing, harvesting, etc.), and road construction or reconstruction within forest lands.
|Forest regions classification
||A process of delineating large geographic areas according to landform and climate, associated with broad variations in overall forest composition.
||Classification des régions forestières
||The forest sector includes governments, conservation and environmental groups, woodlot owners, Aboriginals, urban forestry interests, lumber and pulp and paper producers and value-added industries, forest-reliant communities, the recreation and tourism industries, and other sectors of the economy (including the energy, chemical, and pharmaceutical industries) that derive wealth and well-being from forest resources.
||see forest site type
|Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
||An international certification and labelling system under which forests are certified against strict environmental and social standards, and fibre from certified forests is tracked from the forest to consumers.
||Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
||A group of forested areas or stands of similar composition; forest types are usually separated and identified by species composition and often by height and crown closure classes.
||Generally, a profession embracing the science, business, and art of creating, conserving, and managing forests and forest lands for the continuing use of their resources, material or other.
||Any activity that is carried out on forest land to facilitate the use of forest resources, including, but not limited to, timber harvesting, road construction, silviculture, grazing, recreation, pest control and wildfire suppression.
||The splitting or isolating of patches of similar habitat, typically forest cover, but including other types of habitat. Habitat can be fragmented naturally or from forest management activities, such as clearcut logging.
||Trees with both parents in common. Defined in Manitoba as trees where both parents are known.
||Substance used to kill fungi.
||Any agent used to kill or inhibit the growth of fungi and their spores.
||Products that can inhibit the growth of fungi or kill them. Fungicides are used in agriculture and industrial plantation forestry to protect plants and trees from certain fungal diseases.
||Feeding on fungi.
||A functional portion of a chromosome in which inheritable characteristics are determined by the sequence of nucleotides along the DNA.
||An ex situ conservation facility that stores plant germplasm of various species in the form of pollen, seeds, or tissue culture. Also refers to a database of publicly available DNA sequences.
||Banque de gènes
||The multi-step process in which the coded information in a gene is converted into functional products.
||The movement of alleles among interbreeding individuals belonging to different populations, by means of seed or pollen dispersal or the migration of individuals.
||The genetic variation present in a population or species.
||An individual hereditary constitution derived from its parents and forming a unique combination of genes; sometimes referring to trees having similar genetic constitutions with regard to certain common, identifiable genetic characteristics.
||Living in or on the ground.
||The rise in temperature of the Earth's atmosphere due to the greenhouse effect.
||A method of management by which species are assembled into groups based on similarities in their habitat requirements. One species is selected to indicate the group; conserving the habitat of that particular species ensures the conservation of other members of the guild.
||Gestion par association
||The environment in which a population or individual lives; includes not only the place where a species is found, but also the particular characteristics of the place (for example, climate or the availability of suitable food and shelter) that make it especially well suited to meet the life cycle needs of that species.
||A snag composed primarily of sound wood, generally merchantable.
|Hardwood(s) (broad-leaved trees)
||Trees whose leaves are not persistent and fall off at the end of a defined growing season or during a period of temperature or moisture stress. This is the predominant tree type in deciduous forests. Also refers to the wood produced by these trees.
||Feuillus (arbres à feuilles caduques)
||That portion of the character variance due to hereditary factors as distinct from factors of environment. Heritability is described in one of two ways, depending on the type of investigation.
||A forest managed to harvest forest products and to sustain the natural system, including its bioproductivity, biotic and abiotic diversity. Modern technology, equipment and methods may be used to harvest, restock and tend the forest, with an emphasis on natural restocking, supplemented with artificial restocking of appropriate endemic species.
||A partial harvest removing only the most valuable species, or trees of desirable size and quality, without regard for the condition of the residual stand.
||Living in or on humus or leaf litter.
||A general term for the more or less decomposed (plant and animal) residues in the soil, litter therefore being excluded.
||Plant obtained by crossing two genetically dissimilar parent plants.
||The offspring of genetically different parents (usually refers to crosses between two species).
||Sexual reproduction using genetically distinct parents, that is, belonging to different populations, varieties, or species.
||Parasitic organism that lives off of another parasite.
||Organism that attacks and lives on another parasitoid.
|Integrated pest management
||The use of a mix of techniques and/or strategies to control pests, as opposed to the application of a single method.
||Lutte intégrée contre les ravageurs
|Integrated resource management
||A holistic approach to resource management that entails the management of two or more resources (for example, water, soil, timber, pasture, wildlife, and recreation) and that integrates the values of the community into the design of policies or projects to use and sustain these resources in perpetuity.
||Gestion intégrée des ressources
||A survey of a forest area to determine data such as area, condition, timber, volume and species for a specific purpose, such as planning, purchasing, evaluating, managing or harvesting.
||Organism consisting of a fungus (mycellium) and an alga (green alga cells) living in association. Lichens have a high tolerance for cold, drought and heat. They should not be confused with mosses, which are chlorophyll-containing plants.
||An algae and a fungus growing in symbiotic association on solid surfaces such as rocks or tree bark.
||Growing in or on wood.
||Main component of wood.
||Also known as methyl alcohol or wood alcohol. It is formed in the destructive distillation of wood or made synthetically, and used especially as an alternative fuel, a gasoline additive, a solvent, an antifreeze, or a denaturant for ethyl alcohol.
||Uppermost layer of organic debris on a forest floor.
|Lop and top
||The branches and tops cut from a tree, generally once felled or fallen.
||In regular crops or stands, that portion of the growing stock retained after an intermediate cutting.
||Four-legged vertebrate of the class Mammalia, characterized by females that produce milk with which to feed their young.
||A snag that is of sufficient quality and/or volume to make it suitable for harvesting.
||A microscopic one or multi-celled organism, such as a bacterium, virus, yeast, alga, fungus and protozoan.
||Living organisms (bacteria, microbes, yeasts) that can be seen only with a microscope. Micro-organisms that are likely to cause disease in other living organisms are called pathogens.
||Soil-dwelling micro-organisms (animals) that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Synonym: soil fauna.
||A general term for a unicellular or multicellular microscopic organism. Classifications of microorganisms include algae, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses.
||The ultimate unit of the habitat, i.e., the specific spot occupied by an individual organism. By extension, the more or less specialized relationships existing between an organism and its environment.
||A forest of high elevation that occurs along the foggy windward shores of continents and islands.
||Forêt de brouillard
||Subarea of the northern temperate zone, which is dominated by mixed forests encompassing both coniferous boreal species and more southerly deciduous species.
||A stand composed of two or more species in which less than 80% of trees in the main crown canopy are of a single species.
The threshold in Manitoba and New Brunswick is 75%.
cf. pure stand
||Trees belonging to either of the botanical groups Gymnospermae or Angiospermae that are substantially intermingled in stands.
||In vitro techniques that are rapid, efficient, and precise in obtaining novel gene combinations in living organisms. Most modern biotechnologies focus on organisms at the genetic level. (See also traditional biotechnology.)
||1. General: Cultivation of a single crop or product without using the land for other purposes.
2. Biology: Extensive areas of land occupied or dominated by plant species that are closely related genetically.
||Organism that feeds on a single host, whether plant or animal.
|Montréal Criteria and Indicators Process
||This global initiative was so named because the first meeting sponsored by the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe was held in Montreal. Currently, 12 countries representing 90% of the world's boreal and temperate forests have agreed to collaborate to develop national C&I for the conservation and sustainable management of all boreal and temperate forests.
||Processus de Montréal sur les critères et les indicateurs
||Death or destruction of forest trees as result of competition, disease, insect damage, drought, wind, fire, old age, and other factors, excluding harvesting.
||Visible reproductive part of any of various fungi.
||Champignon de sol
||Agents that cause a change in the DNA sequence of a cell. These include chemicals, X-rays, and ultraviolet light.
||A change to the DNA sequence of a gene or chromosome; may be expressed or unexpressed by the cell. If a mutation occurs in a gene, it changes the structure, function, or expression of the protein produced.
|National forest strategy
||An overarching national vision and framework for Canada’s forests developed by the Council of Canadian Forest Ministers. The first strategy appeared in 1981.
||Stratégie nationale sur la forêt
||A species that occurs naturally in an area.
||A forest management philosophy that attempts to retain characteristics of old-growth stands in managed stands.
||The unique environment used to sustain the existence of an organism or species.
|Non-timber forest products
||Any commodity obtained from the forest that does not necessitate harvesting trees. It includes game animals, fur-bearers, nuts and seeds, berries, mushrooms, oils, foliage, medicinal plants, peat, fuelwood, forage, etc.
||Produit forestier non ligneux (PFNL)
||A value within the forest other than timber that includes, but is not limited to, biological diversity, fisheries, wildlife, minerals, water quality and quantity, recreation and tourism, cultural heritage values, and wilderness and aesthetic values.
||Valeurs non ligneuses
||A dead or downed log that fosters tree seedlings by protecting them from such environmental factors as wind, insolation, or frost, or by providing appropriate soil and microclimate.
||An area set aside for the raising of young trees mainly for planting out. Temporary nurseries, particularly those formed beneath a high canopy of large trees, may be termed bush nurseries.
cf. field nursery
||One of the specially prepared plots in a nursery where seed is sown or into which transplants or cuttings are put.
||Mineral or organic substances (elements or chemical compounds) that plants and animals require for normal growth and activity. Plants and trees obtain nutrients primarily from the soil by absorbing them through their roots.
||An old growth forest differs significantly from younger stands in structure, ecological function and species composition with respect to canopy closure, age class structure, accumulation of woody debris and the presence of species and functional processes that are representative of the potential natural community.
||Forêt anciennne / vieille forêt
||Proposed name for the natural forest commonly found in northern Canada. This forest is a mixture of wetlands and small trees, occasionally interspersed with highly productive forests.
||In even-aged management, those trees or stands past the mature stage.
|Particle gun transformation
||Transformation par canon à particules
||Organism that causes serious damage to plants or foodstuffs.
||Species that are the first to colonize a new site or a new ecosystem. They are generally shade intolerant and need a lot of sunlight in order to grow. Poplars and birches are pioneer species.
||A species adapted to early stages of natural forest succession or growth on newly available sites.
||Application of forestry principles to an artificial crop or stand.
||Foresterie de plantation
||A stand containing a preponderance of good phenotypes, but not necessarily plus trees.
||A phenotype judged (but not proved by testing) to be unusually superior in some quality or qualities.
|Pocket of infection
||Area in a stand or plantation where a disease originated.
||The simultaneous cultivation of a number of crops as opposed to stands composed of a single species.
||Feeding on several plant or animal species. Organism that develops on more than one host, eg, the gypsy moth, a polyphagous caterpillar feeds on both deciduous and coniferous trees.
||The species to which the silviculture of a mixed forest is primarily directed, either for its (or their) economic or protective value.
||The offspring of a particular tree or a combination of one female and one male tree.
||All forest land managed primarily to exert beneficial influence on soil, water, landscape, or for any other purpose when production of merchantable timber, if any, is incidental.
||Forêt de protection
||Single-celled animal-like microorganisms whose cells have a nucleus. Protozoa play an important role in the ecology of aquatic and soil environments, where they are omnipresent.
||1. The geographical area and environment to which the parent trees, etc., are native and within which their genetic constitution has been developed through natural selection.
2. The geographical source, i.e., place of origin.
||A population that exists within a species and exhibits genetic characteristics distinct from those of the other populations. It is usually an interbreeding unit.
||Forest that occurs in an area of high rainfall. Rainforests are usually found near the sea or in mountainous regions that receive a great deal of rain. Tropical forests are generally rainforests.
||syn. reafforestation Successful renewal of a forest crop by planting or direct seeding.
||Création de forêt
||An inventory of the quantity and quality of regeneration over a given area.
||Relevé de la régénération
||The capacity of a community or ecosystem to maintain or regain normal function and development following disturbance.
||At a large scale, it is the band of forest that has a significant influence on a stream ecosystem or is significantly affected by the stream. At a smaller scale, it is the forest at the immediate water’s edge, where some specialized plants and animals form a distinct community.
||A strip of land of variable width adjacent to and influenced by a body of fresh water.
||A quantitative and qualitative approach to determining the hazardous capacity of a new product. This involves the identification and characterization of hazards, an assessment of exposure to the product, and a final risk characterization of the product.
||Évaluation des risques
|Second growth forest
||The forest growth that has developed (naturally or artificially) following the removal of the original forest.
||Forêt de seconde venue
||A species of inferior quality and/or size, and of lesser silvicultural value, associated with the principal species.
cf. accessory species
||Herbaceous plants that have narrow leaves with sharp edges, flowers that are grouped into spikes and fruit (achenes) enclosed in small sacs. Sedges grow in tufts at the water’s edge and in wetlands.
||A place in which seeds of rare plant or obsolete varieties are stored, usually vacuum-packed and under cold conditions, to prolong their viability.
||Banque de semences
||A plantation of trees, assumed or proven genetically to be superior, that has been isolated so as to reduce pollination from genetically inferior outside sources, and intensively managed to improve the genotype and produce frequent, abundant, etc.
||Verger à graines
||The locality where a seed lot was collected usually defined on an eco-geographic basis by distance, elevation, precipitation, latitude, etc.
||Origine des graines
||A tree selected, and often reserved, for seed collection or provision of seed for natural regeneration.
||Choosing individuals with desired qualities to serve as parents for the next generation.
||Forest treated and managed under the selection system.
||Environmental influences on an organism that determine its likelihood of being preferentially selected among its co-habitants, that is, having a better survival and/or reproduction.
||Reproduction that involves the fusion of genetic material from two distinct entities.
||An agroforestry system involving the planting of trees or shrubs whose canopy provides the appropriate level of shade to grow shade-requiring (perennial) crops.
||Système de production sous couvert forestier
||A strip of living trees and/or shrubs maintained mainly to provide shelter for open land from wind, desiccation, snow-drift, etc.
||The study of the life history and general characteristics of forest trees and stands, with particular reference to locality factors as a basis of silviculture.
||An agroforestry system where trees and livestock are produced together.
||An agroforestry practice involving the compatible combination of tree growing with forage and livestock production in order to maximize both ecological and economic benefits.
||A land area based on its climatic, physiographic, edaphic, and biotic factors that determine its suitability and productivity for particular species and silvicultural alternatives.
||The residue left on the ground after felling and tending and/or accumulating there as a result of storm, fire, girdling, or treatment with herbicide. It includes unutilized logs, uprooted stumps, broken or uprooted stems.
||A standing dead tree from which the leaves and most of the branches have fallen.
||A snag composed primarily of wood in advanced stages of decay and deterioration, particularly in the sapwood portion.
||A process by which clones are produced by cell growth from a seed embryo.
||Group of individuals that possess common characteristics and are capable of producing fertile progeny
||A community of trees possessing sufficient uniformity in composition, age, arrangement, or condition to be distinguishable from the forest or other growth on adjoining areas, thus forming a silvicultural or management entity.
|Storied high forest
||A crop of trees in which the canopy can be differentiated into one or more layers, the dominant species in natural forest generally differing in each layer.
||The storage of seeds under defined conditions of environment (temperature, moisture, gas exchange, medium, etc.) for specified periods in order to overcome passive or active inhibition of germination.
||The distribution of trees in a stand or group by age, size, or crown classes (e.g., all-aged, even-aged, uneven-aged, regular, and irregular structures).
||The broken or cut base of a branch projecting from a tree stem.
||A principle for safety assessment that compares a genetically modified product to a traditional non-modified product of the same species with a long history of safe use. A genetically modified product is substantially equivalent to the non-modified one if it is as safe to the environment and human health.
||Équivalence en substance
||An agroforestry system involving the planting of trees or shrubs with agricultural crops or forest-derived crops that require full sun. As the trees/shrubs grow, the canopy closes, and the level of shade increases, a sun system may become a shade system or another agroforestry system. (See also intercropping.)
||Système de production à découvert
||The capacity of forests, ranging from stands to ecoregions, to maintain their health, productivity, diversity, and overall integrity, in the long run, in the context of human activity and use. The concept of producing a biological resource under management practices that ensure replacement of the part harvested, by regrowth or reproduction, before another harvest occurs.
|Sustainable Forestry Initiative
||A forest certification program run by a multi-stakeholder (environment, industry, government, academic groups, etc.) board of directors. The SFI standard is a comprehensive system of principles, objectives and performance measures that combines the perpetual growing and harvesting of trees with the long-term protection of wildlife, plants, and soil and water quality.
||Sustainable Forestry Initiative
||The living together in intimate association of two dissimilar organisms, so that the cohabitation is mutually beneficial.
||Set of rules governing the classification and naming of species.
||One of three main forest zones in the world (see also boreal forest, tropical forest). The woodland of rather mild climatic areas; composed mainly of deciduous trees.
||A species that is likely to become endangered in Canada if the factors affecting its vulnerability are not reversed.
||A general term for the cultivation of plant or animal tissues in a controlled artificial environment on defined media under aseptic conditions.
||Culture de tissus
||A distinguishable characteristic of an organism.
||Transfer of foreign DNA into the cell of an organism to change its genetic makeup. This is a natural process for many bacteria.
||One of three main forest zones in the world (see also boreal forest, temperate forest). A tropical woodland with an annual rainfall of a least 250 cm; marked by broad-leaved evergreen trees forming a continuous canopy.
||The lower level of vegetation in a forest. Usually formed by ground vegetation (mosses, herbs and lichens), herbs and shrubs.
||Species that conflict with or do not contribute to the management objectives.
||Of a forest, stand, or forest type in which intermingling trees differ markedly in age. The differences in age permitted in an uneven-aged stand are usually greater than 10-20 years.
||The trees, forests, and associated organisms that grow near buildings and in gardens, green spaces, parks, and golf courses located in village, town, suburban, and urban areas.
||A silvicultural system that follows nature’s model by always retaining part of the forest after harvesting. Standing trees are left in a dispersed or aggregated form to meet objectives such as retaining old-growth structure, habitat protection and visual quality. Variable retention retains structural features (snags, large woody debris, live trees of varying sizes, canopy levels) as wildlife habitat.
||Specifically within forestry, any clone or product of breeding given a separate name.
||Subdivision of species, a group of individuals that have common characteristics (example : The different varieties of apples).
||The structure formed by different layers of vegetation in a forest.
||Natural forest, the development of which has been virtually uninfluenced by modern human activity.
||Bringing forth living, fully formed individuals that are capable of feeding. Said of producing bulbils on young plants, instead of and in place of flowers.
||A species that is considered at risk because it exists in low numbers or in restricted ranges, due to loss of habitat or other factors.
||Dead and decomposing wood of various sizes.
||Feeding on woody tissues (wood).
||Growing in or living on wood.