|-3/2 power law of self-thinning
||Dense populations that have reached a size at which mortality occurs demonstrate a negative relationship between log mean plant weight and log stand density; this generally has a slope of -3/2.
||Relation à la puissance -3/2 de l’éclaircie naturelle
||Stress induced by the non-living component of the environment.
||Lands within Aboriginal reserves or Aboriginal settlements.
||Rain, snow, sleet, hail or fog, usually with acidity below pH 5.6. Acidic precipitation is primarily the result of emissions of gases of sulphur and nitrogen oxides which are transformed into sulphuric acid and nitric acid respectively as they are transported over distances of hundreds to thousands of kilometres from their source.
||A dynamic approach to forest management in which the effects of treatments and decisions are continually monitored and used, along with research results, to modify management on a continuing basis to ensure that objectives are being met.
||Young trees under existing stands capable of becoming the next crop. Regeneration established before logging that has survived the logging operation.
||The establishment of a tree crop on an area from which it has always, or for very long, been absent. Where such establishment fails and is repeated, the latter may properly be termed reafforestation.
||Of a forest, crop, or stand that contains trees of all, or almost all, age classes, including those of exploitable age.
||De tous âges
|Allowable annual cut (AAC)
||The amount of timber that is permitted to be cut annually from a particular area. AAC is used as the basis for regulating harvest levels to ensure a sustainable supply of timber.
||Possibilité annuelle de coupe (PAC)
||The volume of wood that may be harvested, under management, for a given period.
||Possibilité de coupe
||Emission caused by human activities (for example, burning fossil fuels or setting fires to clear forest land for agricultural purposes).
||The cultivation, that is, growing and tending, of trees and shrubs, individually or in small groups, generally for ornament, protection, and instruction rather than direct use or profit.
||Includes areas that have been harvested recently (less than 10 years ago), and areas depleted by such natural disturbances as fire, insects and disease.
||Superficie en régénération
||Renewal of a tree crop by direct seeding or by planting seedlings or cuttings.
||Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole using an auger.
||Plantation à la tarière
||An administrative term used to classify inadequately stocked forest land that has been denuded (cut over, burned, etc.).
||Setting out trees with their roots left undisturbed in a dug-out clod of soil. Note: if trees are bare-rooted, and roots are enclosed in a rough ball of soil, they are properly termed balled.
||Plantation en mottes
||Removing the bark of a tree in narrow strips.
||1. Of a tree: The area in square metres of the cross section at breast height of the stem.
2. Of a forest, stand, or forest type: The area in square metres per hectare of the cross section at breast height of all trees.
||All the silvicultural practices required to achieve free-growing (or established) regeneration of desired species at specified densities and stocking.
||Sylviculture de base
||Setting out young trees, etc., in loosely-woven baskets in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed.
||Plantation en paniers
||The collection of life on earth; the natural patterns that form from all the species of life (species diversity), the genes that each of them possess (genetic diversity), as well as the ecosystems which these species form (ecosystem diversity).
|Biological pest control methods
||The application of whole organisms or portions of organisms as biologically sound alternatives to broad-spectrum chemical pesticides.
||Méthodes de lutte biologique contre les ravageurs
||The portion of the earth comprising the lower atmosphere, the seas, and the land surface (mantle rock) in which living organisms exist.
||One of three main forest zones in the world (see also tropical forest, temperate forest) located in northern regions and is characterized by the predominance of conifers (such as pine, spruce, larch and fir) and some deciduous (such as poplar and birch). The boreal forest (singular) is a colloquial term often used to refer to the overall forested area within the boreal zone, and sometimes to refer to the boreal zone itself because forests dominate this landscape. Boreal forests (plural) is the preferred term for the forested areas within the boreal zone.
||Setting out young trees grown in bullet-shaped rigid plastic tubes, which are injected into the ground by a spring-loaded gun, sometimes into prepared holes.
||Plantation en cartouches
|Canadian Standards Association (CSA)
||A leading developer of standards and codes, including an internationally recognized forestry certification system. The CSA is a not-for-profit, membership-based association.
||Association canadienne de normalisation (CSA)
||The more or less continuous cover of branches and foliage formed collectively by the crowns of adjacent trees.
||The amount of foliar cover, combining the extent of canopy closure and crown density.
||Densité du couvert
||A chemical element highly abundant in nature and easily capable of forming polymers. Its unique properties make carbon the chemical basis of all biological compounds—and therefore, the chemical basis of life. Carbon is incorporated into biological processes and biomass mainly through plant photosynthesis. (See also carbon dioxide.)
||Comparative evaluation of the amount of carbon stored in natural forests (sinks) and the amount emitted by them (sources), which is undertaken to determine whether the forests are sequestering more carbon than they are emitting to the atmosphere. Carbon budgets can be drawn up on various scales, including global.
||Bilan de carbone
|Carbon dioxide (CO2)
||A colourless, odourless, non-combustible gas. Humans and all other living organisms give off carbon dioxide in respiration and decomposition. Trees and other plants absorb it and use it during photosynthesis. CO2 also emitted as a by-product of burning fossil fuels.
||Dioxyde de carbone (CO2)
The total direct greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions produced by a facility to manufacture a range of products or an individual product.
||When the amount of carbon released into the atmosphere equals the amount sequestered or offset.
||The uptake and storage of carbon. Trees and plants, for example, absorb carbon dioxide, release the oxygen and store the carbon. Fossil fuels were at one time biomass and continue to store the carbon until burned.
||Piégeage de carbone
||A carbon reservoir that absorbs and stores carbon from another part of the carbon cycle. A sink stores more carbon than it emits to the atmosphere. This store of carbon can also be termed a reservoir or pool. Although a growing forest can be considered a carbon sink, when the forest stops growing and its trees die and start decomposing, it becomes a carbon source, because it emits more carbon than it stores.
||Puits de carbone
||A short-term, generally agricultural crop introduced into and at the start of a longer-rotation forest crop, mainly to provide early financial returns.
||Forest certification is a market-based instrument aimed at promoting sustainable forest management that takes into account environmental, economic and social issues. It involves the independent assessment of forest management according to internationally (or nationally) accepted standards, and the tracking and monitoring of the supply of forest products to the market place. If the forest management is in compliance with a set of specified standards, and the timber from this forest has been tracked and accounted for through all stages of the production process, then it can be given a label which is recognized in the market place.
|Chain of custody
||The process of monitoring the production and distribution of goods from the forest to the end-product, i.e., tracing the origin of the product.
||Continuité de possession
||An alteration in measured quantities (for example, precipitation, temperature, radiation, wind and cloudiness) within the climate system that departs significantly from previous average conditions and is seen to endure, bringing about corresponding changes in ecosystems and socio-economic activity.
|Climate change adaptation
||An adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli.
||Adaptation au changement climatique
|Climate change mitigation
||Human intervention to reduce the effects of climate change.
||Atténuation du changement climatique
||Forest land that is able to grow commercial timber within an acceptable time frame and is designated for such a purpose.
||Forêt d'intérêt commercial
||Creating plantations in one area in order to replace, in part or whole, a loss of growing stock elsewhere.
||Reboisement de compensation
|Continuous boreal forest
||Main subarea of the vast boreal zone, which is characterized by relatively dense stands containing primarily boreal coniferous species and shade-intolerant deciduous trees.
||Forêt boréale continue
||Setting out of young trees along a contour line.
||Plantation en bandes de niveau
||A change from one silvicultural system to another, also called conversion cut, or from one stand of trees or ecosystem to another, termed species conversion, the silvicultural procedures involved constituting a conversion system.
||Natural regeneration originating from stump sprouts, stool shoots, or root suckers.
||A method of regenerating a forest stand in which the cut trees produce sprouts, suckers, or shoots.
||Régime du taillis
|Coppice selection method
||A coppice method in which only selected shoots of merchantable size are cut at each felling, giving uneven-aged stands.
||A coppice method in which some of the coppice shoots are reserved for the whole of the next rotation, the rest being cut.
||Setting trees in parallel rows, generally at regular intervals between and in lines, on land either wholly or partially cleared.
||Plantation en lignes
||The harvestable vegetation growing on a forest area, more particularly the major woody growth forming the forest crop.
||Public land that is managed by the federal or provincial/territorial government.
||Terre de la Couronne
||System of cutting treatments applied to a stand at a defined period.
||Timber produced from dead standing trees.
More commonly, timber in dead standing trees.
||Subarea of the northern temperate zone, which is characterized mainly by sugar maple-dominated deciduous forests. This is the subarea with the greatest floristic richness.
||Disease that is characterized by a progressive decline in a tree’s health and in its growth and that may kill it. While the causes of this phenomenon are not known, it is generally believed that a combination of factors is to blame: pollution, soil acidification, drought, freeze-thaw action, etc.
||Permanent removal of forest cover and withdrawal of land from forest use, whether deliberately or circumstantially.
||The study of trees; tree identification.
||The transformation of once-productive arid and semi-arid areas into deserts through prolonged drought or continued mismanagement of land and water resources.
||Sowing seeds or setting out seedlings in rough holes made with a stick or peg. Also termed dibbling if done with a specially adapted tool such as a dibble.
||Plantation au bâton
||Computer-based representation of a mathematical model describing natural phenomena. These models use complex equations to perform essentially mathematical simulations of natural phenomena. They are used to study and test hypotheses about tides, climate change, the changes in an insect population or a forest, and so on.
||Alteration of the normal functions of a whole plant or part of it, caused by a living or dead agent. The main agents involved in the initiation of disease are pollution, animals, fungi and other plants.
||Harmful deviation from normal functioning of physiological processes, generally pathogenic or environmental in origin.
||Hydrology/engineering: The process of removal of water from soil, particularly by surface runoff and subsurface percolation and artificially by measures for hastening removal, e.g., by ditching.
||A general term referring to the litter and humus layers of the forest floor.
||The sum of the plants, animals, environmental influences, and their interactions within a particular habitat.
||The quality of a natural unmanaged or managed ecosystem in which the natural ecological processes sustain the function, composition and structure of the system.
||Intégrité d’un écosystème
||A race (provenance) adapted to the selective action of a particular environment. Ecotypes are described in terms of the primary environmental influence, e.g., climatic or edaphic.
||Waste substances released into the air or water.
||Species that are threatened with imminent extinction; includes species whose numbers or habitats have been reduced to critical levels.
||Espèce en voie de disparition
||A process designed to contribute pertinent environmental information to the decision-making process of forest management or other natural resource projects and programs.
||The process of developing a crop to the stage at which the young trees may be considered established, i.e., safe from juvenile mortality and no longer in need of special protection or special tending, but only routine cleaning and thinning.
||The time elapsing between the initiation of a new crop and its establishment.
||The enrichment of water by nutrients, especially compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus, that will accelerate the growth of algae and higher forms of plant life. This enrichment may interfere with the normal ecological balance of the receiving waters.
||Silvicultural systems in which stands have an even-aged structure, e.g., clearcutting method, coppice method, seed-tree method.
||Refers to the local extinction of a species that is no longer found in a locality or country, but exists elsewhere in the world.
||A type of wildlife management that does not attempt to manage for all species, but selects a few species of particular concern or interest (for example, big game species or endangered species) and aims management programs at them. With respect to habitat, it is generally assumed that providing habitat for these species provides habitat for other species as well.
||Gestion axée sur les espèces
|Fire hazard reduction
||Any treatment of fuels that reduces the threat of ignition and spread of fire.
||Réduction du risque d’incendie
|Fire weather index
||The fire weather index (FWI) is part of an approach that Canadian meteorologists use to estimate the wildfire risk in forest regions. Calculation of the index components is based on consecutive daily observations of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and 24-hour rainfall.
||A general term for all forms of plant life characteristic of a region, period or special environment.
||Ecology: Generally, an ecosystem characterized by a more or less dense and extensive tree cover. More particularly, a plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, growing more or less closely together.
||Ecosystem that generally covers a large area and is composed of woody vegetation dominated by trees growing in a relatively dense pattern.
||Care for the health of the forest, particularly by sanitation cutting.
||Land primarily intended for growing, or currently supporting, forest. It includes land not now forested (for example, clearcut lands and northern lands that are forested but not intended for any commercial forestry use) and plantations.
|Forest management unit
||An area of forest land managed as a unit for fiber production and other renewable resources. This unit can be the entire province or territory, a provincial forest management subdivision, an industrial timber limit, etc.
||Unité d’aménagement forestier
||A computer-based simulation that, within definable parameters, forecasts the development of a forest.
||Modèle de forêt
||Any activities that enhance or recover forest growth or harvest yield (e.g., site preparation, planting, thinning, fertilizing, harvesting, etc.), and road construction or reconstruction within forest lands.
|Forest regions classification
||A process of delineating large geographic areas according to landform and climate, associated with broad variations in overall forest composition.
||Classification des régions forestières
||see forest site type
|Forest site classification
||Grouping of forest sites using either the composition or the productivity of the vegetation as well as soil and topographic position.
||Classification de station forestière
|Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
||An international certification and labelling system under which forests are certified against strict environmental and social standards, and fibre from certified forests is tracked from the forest to consumers.
||Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)
||A group of forested areas or stands of similar composition; forest types are usually separated and identified by species composition and often by height and crown closure classes.
|Forest value chain
||The "chain" of steps in forestry and the manufacturing of forest products from seed to final consumer product.
||Chaîne de valeur forestière
||Subarea of the vast boreal zone characterized by a mosaic of stands of variable density and by tundra consisting mainly of shrubs and lichens. This plant formation is located at the tree line, and marks the division between the boreal zone and the arctic zone.
||Generally, a profession embracing the science, business, and art of creating, conserving, and managing forests and forest lands for the continuing use of their resources, material or other.
||Any activity that is carried out on forest land to facilitate the use of forest resources, including, but not limited to, timber harvesting, road construction, silviculture, grazing, recreation, pest control and wildfire suppression.
||All the operations contributing to the creation of a new forest cover up to the stage where it is considered established.
||syn. fuelwood plantation
Setting out young trees to be hogged for burning.
||The movement of alleles among interbreeding individuals belonging to different populations, by means of seed or pollen dispersal or the migration of individuals.
|Geographic Information System (GIS)
||An organized collection of computer hardware, software and geographic data designed for capturing, storing, updating, manipulating, analyzing and displaying all forms of geographically referenced information.
||Système d'information géographique (SIG)
|Global Positioning System (GPS)
||A system of satellites and receiving devices used to compute positions on the Earth.
||Système de positionnement global (GPS)
||The rise in temperature of the Earth's atmosphere due to the greenhouse effect.
||Geological formation that dates back more than 450 million years and is characterized by vast expanses of granite of volcanic origin. The Canadian Shield is made up largely of granite bedrock. Since granite has little capacity to neutralize acid rain, the forest ecosystems in these regions are fairly vulnerable to the effects of acid deposition.
||The warming of the Earth's atmosphere caused by increasing levels of carbon dioxide and other gases in the air, which trap the sun's heat within the atmosphere.
||Effet de serre
|Greenhouse gas (GHG)
||A gas—such as water vapour, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, and ozone—that is transparent to incoming solar radiation but less so to the infrared radiation reflected back by the Earth’s surface, hence trapping part of the solar energy and warming the planet’s surface enough to sustain life. The build-up of greenhouse gases from industrial activities enhances the natural “greenhouse effect” and is partly responsible for global warming.
||Gaz à effet de serre (GES)
|Greenhouse gas sinks
||Any process, activity or mechanism that removes greenhouse gases or their precursors from the atmosphere. The principal natural mechanism is photosynthesis.
||Puits de gaz à effet de serre
|Greenhouse gas source
||Any process or activity (for example, forest fires or conversion of forest land to agricultural or urban uses) that releases greenhouse gases or precursors of those gases into the atmosphere. As trees and forest products decompose or burn, they release carbon in the form of carbon dioxide.
||Source de gaz à effet de serre
||Setting out young trees in groups.
||Plantation par bouquets
||A method of management by which species are assembled into groups based on similarities in their habitat requirements. One species is selected to indicate the group; conserving the habitat of that particular species ensures the conservation of other members of the guild.
||Gestion par association
||The environment in which a population or individual lives; includes not only the place where a species is found, but also the particular characteristics of the place (for example, climate or the availability of suitable food and shelter) that make it especially well suited to meet the life cycle needs of that species.
|Hardwood(s) (broad-leaved trees)
||Trees whose leaves are not persistent and fall off at the end of a defined growing season or during a period of temperature or moisture stress. This is the predominant tree type in deciduous forests. Also refers to the wood produced by these trees.
||Feuillus (arbres à feuilles caduques)
||Any chemical preparation used to kill or inhibit the growth of forbs, grasses, woody plants, and their seeds.
||A forest managed to harvest forest products and to sustain the natural system, including its bioproductivity, biotic and abiotic diversity. Modern technology, equipment and methods may be used to harvest, restock and tend the forest, with an emphasis on natural restocking, supplemented with artificial restocking of appropriate endemic species.
||Crops and stands of trees, generally of seedling origin, that normally develop a high closed canopy. A term originally used to differentiate the natural, essentially seedling forest of long rotation from the artificial.
||A partial harvest removing only the most valuable species, or trees of desirable size and quality, without regard for the condition of the residual stand.
||Silvicultural systems in which the crops are normally of seedling origin, natural and/or artificial, and the rotation is, traditionally at least, long.
||Régime de la futaie
||An accessory system in which selected trees of the old crop, scattered or in groups, are retained after regeneration is completed, for the whole or a part of the next rotation.
||Futaie avec sur-réserves
||Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole or pit. Roots separated on either side of a wedge or saddle of earth left in situ when the hole was dug is termed saddle planting.
||Plantation sur potets
||Broad brush approach based on a theory according to which a whole cannot be analyzed without considering the sum of its parts or reduced to discrete elements.
||An individual of any value actually impeding the development of another individual of higher grade.
|Integrated pest management
||The use of a mix of techniques and/or strategies to control pests, as opposed to the application of a single method.
||Lutte intégrée contre les ravageurs
|Integrated resource management
||A holistic approach to resource management that entails the management of two or more resources (for example, water, soil, timber, pasture, wildlife, and recreation) and that integrates the values of the community into the design of policies or projects to use and sustain these resources in perpetuity.
||Gestion intégrée des ressources
||Application of cultural measures which, in addition to simply maintaining the forest cover, will allow an increase in the value or volume of the cut.
||Planting young trees among existing natural regeneration or previously planted trees of similar age.
||A survey of a forest area to determine data such as area, condition, timber, volume and species for a specific purpose, such as planning, purchasing, evaluating, managing or harvesting.
||see stocking: partially stocked
||Matériel relatif irrégulier
||Special form of slit planting involving two slits at right angles with the seedling placed at the apex of the L.
||plantation avec fentes en L
||Areas of land that are distinguished by differences in landforms, vegetation, land use, and aesthetic characteristics.
||Uppermost layer of organic debris on a forest floor.
||General term comprising wounds resulting from cutting, breakage, or crushing of trees that resulted from the felling and the removal of trees designated for cutting.
May also include scoring of site and soil leading to exposure
||Dommage de coupe
||In regular crops or stands, that portion of the growing stock retained after an intermediate cutting.
||A predetermined course of action and direction to achieve a set of results, usually specified as goals, objectives and policies.
||Setting out young trees by means of a machine specially designed for this operation.
||A forest of high elevation that occurs along the foggy windward shores of continents and islands.
||Forêt de brouillard
||A stand composed of two or more species in which less than 80% of trees in the main crown canopy are of a single species.
The threshold in Manitoba and New Brunswick is 75%.
cf. pure stand
||Trees belonging to either of the botanical groups Gymnospermae or Angiospermae that are substantially intermingled in stands.
||A forest or designated area including forests and woodlands for which an integrated management plan is created and implemented to achieve multiple objectives on a sustainable basis.
||1. General: Cultivation of a single crop or product without using the land for other purposes.
2. Biology: Extensive areas of land occupied or dominated by plant species that are closely related genetically.
|Montréal Criteria and Indicators Process
||This global initiative was so named because the first meeting sponsored by the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe was held in Montreal. Currently, 12 countries representing 90% of the world's boreal and temperate forests have agreed to collaborate to develop national C&I for the conservation and sustainable management of all boreal and temperate forests.
||Processus de Montréal sur les critères et les indicateurs
||Death or destruction of forest trees as result of competition, disease, insect damage, drought, wind, fire, old age, and other factors, excluding harvesting.
||Setting out young trees on raised microsites.
||Plantation sur butte
|National forest strategy
||An overarching national vision and framework for Canada’s forests developed by the Council of Canadian Forest Ministers. The first strategy appeared in 1981.
||Stratégie nationale sur la forêt
||Renewal of a tree crop by natural seeding, sprouting, suckering, or layering.
||Setting out a number of seedlings or seeds close together in a prepared hole, pit, or spot.
||Plantation en nids
||A forest management philosophy that attempts to retain characteristics of old-growth stands in managed stands.
||A value within the forest other than timber that includes, but is not limited to, biological diversity, fisheries, wildlife, minerals, water quality and quantity, recreation and tourism, cultural heritage values, and wilderness and aesthetic values.
||Valeurs non ligneuses
||Mineral or organic substances (elements or chemical compounds) that plants and animals require for normal growth and activity. Plants and trees obtain nutrients primarily from the soil by absorbing them through their roots.
||A stand of mature or overmature trees relatively uninfluenced by human activity.
||Première venue, de
||An old growth forest differs significantly from younger stands in structure, ecological function and species composition with respect to canopy closure, age class structure, accumulation of woody debris and the presence of species and functional processes that are representative of the potential natural community.
||Forêt anciennne / vieille forêt
||Proposed name for the natural forest commonly found in northern Canada. This forest is a mixture of wetlands and small trees, occasionally interspersed with highly productive forests.
||Considerable reduction of canopy density, e.g., by lopping, felling, or herbicidal treatment of selected trees, or naturally through pests, disease, or drought mortality.
||Ouverture du couvert
||In even-aged management, those trees or stands past the mature stage.
||A form of oxygen (O3) formed naturally in the upper atmosphere by a photochemical reaction with solar ultraviolet radiation and a major agent in the formation of smog.
||A microscopic organism or virus directly capable of causing disease. see thinning: precommercial.
||A parasitic organism directly capable of causing disease.
||The study of disease.
||Study of diseases and the effects they have on plants.
||Scientific discipline that is concerned with all aspects of soils.
||Organism that causes serious damage to plants or foodstuffs.
||Setting out young trees in small depressions, natural or excavated, with a view to collecting and conserving moisture.
||Plantation sur trous
||Forest stands established by planting and/or seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestation which are either of introduced species (all planted stands) or intensively managed stands of indigenous species, which meet all the following criteria: one or two species at plantation, even age class, regular spacing.
||Application of forestry principles to an artificial crop or stand.
||Foresterie de plantation
||Establishing a forest by setting out seedlings, transplants, or cuttings in an area.
||A stand containing a preponderance of good phenotypes, but not necessarily plus trees.
|Pocket of infection
||Area in a stand or plantation where a disease originated.
||The systematic harvest cutting of pollard shoots, with due provision for replacing exhausted or defective pollards.
||Taillis sur têtards
||The simultaneous cultivation of a number of crops as opposed to stands composed of a single species.
||Setting out young trees in pot-shaped receptacles having a closed or only perforated end and made of various materials, in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed.
||Plantation en pot
||The rate of production of wood of given specifications, by volume or weight, for a given area.
cf. site capability
||A geographically defined area which is designated or regulated and managed to achieve specific conservation objectives.
||Zone / aire protégée
||All forest land managed primarily to exert beneficial influence on soil, water, landscape, or for any other purpose when production of merchantable timber, if any, is incidental.
||Forêt de protection
||A legally binding sub-agreement of a framework convention or treaty.
||A small, clearly demarcated sample area of known size on which observations are made.
||Setting out four young trees to form the corners of a square with a fifth tree at its center.
||Plantation en quinconces
||syn. reafforestation Successful renewal of a forest crop by planting or direct seeding.
||Création de forêt
||Renewal of a forest crop by natural, artificial, or vegetative (regrowth) means. Also the new crop so obtained. The new crop is generally less than 1.3 m high.
||The area selected, normally in a working plan or working scheme, for regeneration generally with a specified period of time in view.
||Quartier de régénération
||The year in which the new crop is deemed to be started at an acceptable stocking level, whether by planting, natural or artificial seeding, or by vegetative means.
||Début de la régénération
||The time between the initial regeneration cut and the successful reestablishment of a stand by natural or artificial means.
||Période de régénération
||An inventory of the quantity and quality of regeneration over a given area.
||Relevé de la régénération
||The capacity of a community or ecosystem to maintain or regain normal function and development following disturbance.
||Setting out young trees on a long, narrow crest of excavated soil, generally on a slice thrown up by a plough.
||Plantation sur bourrelet
||At a large scale, it is the band of forest that has a significant influence on a stream ecosystem or is significantly affected by the stream. At a smaller scale, it is the forest at the immediate water’s edge, where some specialized plants and animals form a distinct community.
||A quantitative and qualitative approach to determining the hazardous capacity of a new product. This involves the identification and characterization of hazards, an assessment of exposure to the product, and a final risk characterization of the product.
||Évaluation des risques
||The planned number of years between the formation or regeneration of a crop or stand and its final cutting at a specified stage or maturity.
||Disease caused by a fungus that is parasitic on higher plants and may go through five different developmental stages, usually involving hosts. Following infection, orange pustules appear, possibly followed by premature shedding of foliage, witches' brooms or cankers.
||The study of the material universe or physical reality in order to understand it. This is done by making observations and collecting data about natural events and conditions, then organizing and explaining them with hypotheses, theories, models, laws and principles.
|Science and technology (S&T)
||Systematic activities that are closely concerned with the generation, advancement, dissemination and application of scientific and technical knowledge in all fields of science and technology, including such activities as research and development (R&D), scientific and technical education and training, and scientific and technological services.
||Sciences et technologie (S et T)
||The forest growth that has developed (naturally or artificially) following the removal of the original forest.
||Seconde venue, de
|Second growth forest
||The forest growth that has developed (naturally or artificially) following the removal of the original forest.
||Forêt de seconde venue
||Process whereby one stand or plant community supplants another; it is triggered by a major disturbance in a forest ecosystem.
||aerial [ensemencement aérien]: Broadcast seeding of seeds or seed pellets from aircraft.
broadcast [ensemencement à la volée]: The sowing of seeds more or less evenly over a whole area.
||Forest treated and managed under the selection system.
||The study of the life history and general characteristics of forest trees and stands, with particular reference to locality factors as a basis of silviculture.
||A process that applies silvicultural practices, including tending (thinning, pruning, etc.), harvesting, and replacement, to a stand in order to produce a crop of timber and other forest products.
Note: the system is named by the cutting
||The theory and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, growth, and quality of forest stands to achieve the objectives of management.
||Practices aimed at ensuring wise harvesting of forest resources : conservation, regeneration, reforestation, cutting, etc.
|Simple coppice system
||A coppice system in which the crop is clearcut and regenerated by stool shoots, stump sprouts, or root suckers, giving even-aged stands; rotation is relatively short.
||A land area based on its climatic, physiographic, edaphic, and biotic factors that determine its suitability and productivity for particular species and silvicultural alternatives.
||The mean annual increment in merchantable volume which can be expected for a forest area, assuming it is fully stocked by one or more species best adapted to the site, at or near rotation age. Expressed in cubic metres per he
||Potentiel de station
||Any interval into which the site index range is divided for purposes of classification and use.
||Classe de station
||Application of analytical techniques based on macroclimate, soil, land form, and vegetation, to predict yield.
||Classification de station
||An ecological term referring to a physical or biological parameter used to describe and distinguish sites.
||Facteur de station
||An expression of forest site quality based on the height, at a specified age, of dominant and codominant trees in a stand. May be grouped into site classes. Expressed in metres. Usually refers to a particular species.
||Indice de station
||The productive capacity of a site; usually expressed as volume production of a given species per unit area (cubic metres per hectare) or per unit of time (cubic metres per year).
||Qualité de station
||The residue left on the ground after felling and tending and/or accumulating there as a result of storm, fire, girdling, or treatment with herbicide. It includes unutilized logs, uprooted stumps, broken or uprooted stems.
||Prying open a cut made by a spade, mattock, or planting bar (termed bar planting), inserting a young tree, then closing the cut on the latter by pressure.
||Plantation en fente
||Mixture of polluting particles and water drops in the atmosphere that forms a thick fog in industrial regions.
||The distance between trees in a plantation, a thinned stand, or a natural stand.
v: see thinning: spacing
||Setting out young trees in small, prepared patches.
||Plantation sur placeaux
||Describes condition of stands whose growth and development have all but ceased due to poor site and/or excessive stocking.
||A community of trees possessing sufficient uniformity in composition, age, arrangement, or condition to be distinguishable from the forest or other growth on adjoining areas, thus forming a silvicultural or management entity.
||A quantitative measurement of tree stocking, expressed in terms of number of trees, total basal area, or volume, per unit of area. More precisely, a measure of the degree of crowding of trees within a stand.
||Densité de peuplement
||A mathematical model that forecasts the development of a forest stand, usually in terms of mean stand attributes, e.g., mean diameter, height.
||Modèle de peuplement
||A summary table showing the number of trees per unit area by species and diameter classes, for a stand or type. The data may also be presented in the form of a frequency distribution of diameter classes.
||Table de peuplement
||The science, art and skill of responsible and accountable management of resources.
||A summary table showing the volume of trees per unit area by species and diameter classes, for a stand or type.
||Table de stock
|Stocked forest land
||Land supporting tree growth. In this context, tree growth includes seedlings and saplings.
||Terrain forestier boisé
||In regeneration surveys, a quadrat having at least one live tree seedling or regrowth. The criteria for what constitutes a "stocked" area vary with species, site, country, etc.
||A qualitative expression of the adequacy of tree cover on an area, in terms of crown closure, number of trees, basal area, or volume, in relation to a preestablished norm.
||Reference level for the optimum proportion of an area actually occupied by trees, expressed in terms of stocked quadrats or percentage of canopy closure.
||Guide de stocking
|Storied high forest
||A crop of trees in which the canopy can be differentiated into one or more layers, the dominant species in natural forest generally differing in each layer.
||Crop planting in which strips of heavy-rooted plants are alternated with loose-rooted plants which serve as barriers to wind and water erosion.
||Plantation en lisières
||Setting trees, generally in two or more parallel lines, in a long narrow area of land that has been wholly or partially cleared.
||Plantation en bandes
||The distribution of trees in a stand or group by age, size, or crown classes (e.g., all-aged, even-aged, uneven-aged, regular, and irregular structures).
||The fee paid by an individual or company for the timber they harvest from public forests or privately owned forest land.
||Droit de coupe
||A principle for safety assessment that compares a genetically modified product to a traditional non-modified product of the same species with a long history of safe use. A genetically modified product is substantially equivalent to the non-modified one if it is as safe to the environment and human health.
||Équivalence en substance
||The gradual supplanting of one community of plants by another, the sequence of communities being termed a sere and each stage seral.
||The capacity of forests, ranging from stands to ecoregions, to maintain their health, productivity, diversity, and overall integrity, in the long run, in the context of human activity and use. The concept of producing a biological resource under management practices that ensure replacement of the part harvested, by regrowth or reproduction, before another harvest occurs.
||Sustainable development in forestry expands the principle of sustained timber yield by including wildlife and fish habitats, watersheds and hydrological cycles, as well as gene pools and species diversity.
|Sustainable forest development
||The development of forests to meet current needs without prejudice to their future productivity, ecological diversity or capacity for regeneration.
||Développement durable des forêts
||Management of forested area in order to provide wood products in perpetuity, soil and watershed integrity, persistence of most native species and maintenance of highly sensitive species or suitable conditions.
|Sustainable Forestry Initiative
||A forest certification program run by a multi-stakeholder (environment, industry, government, academic groups, etc.) board of directors. The SFI standard is a comprehensive system of principles, objectives and performance measures that combines the perpetual growing and harvesting of trees with the long-term protection of wildlife, plants, and soil and water quality.
||Sustainable Forestry Initiative
||The yield of defined forest products of specific quality and in projected quantity that a forest can provide continuously at a given intensity of management.
||The yield of defined forest products of specific quality and in projected quantity that a forest can provide continuously at a given intensity of management.
||Foresterie à rendement soutenu
||see slit planting
||Bêchage en T
||Subarea of the extensive boreal zone characterized by open coniferous forest with lichens.
||The raising of a forest crop in conjunction with a temporary agricultural crop.
||Plantation en taungya
||One of three main forest zones in the world (see also boreal forest, tropical forest). The woodland of rather mild climatic areas; composed mainly of deciduous trees.
||Two or more adjacent forest plots that are thinned differently (e.g., to different thinning grades), essentially so as to compare the increment of individual stems.
||Groupe d’éclaircies comparées
||A species that is likely to become endangered in Canada if the factors affecting its vulnerability are not reversed.
||A legally binding agreement, often between two parties.
||Any class into which the trees forming a crop or stand may be divided for a variety of purposes.
||Setting out young trees in a shallow trench or a continuous slit.
||Plantation en sillon
||Setting out young trees in narrow, open-ended cylinders of various materials, in which they have been raised from seed or into which they have been transplanted.
||Plantation de semis en tube
||Planting young trees under the canopy of an existing stand.
||Plantation en sous-étage
||Removal of mature trees while damage to the understory is kept to a minimum.
||Protection du sous-étage
||Of a forest, stand, or forest type in which intermingling trees differ markedly in age. The differences in age permitted in an uneven-aged stand are usually greater than 10-20 years.
||A silvicultural system in which stands have an uneven-aged structure.
||The trees, forests, and associated organisms that grow near buildings and in gardens, green spaces, parks, and golf courses located in village, town, suburban, and urban areas.
||The structure formed by different layers of vegetation in a forest.
||Assumption of the health of a tree based on observation of the foliage.
||Classe de vigueur
||Natural forest, the development of which has been virtually uninfluenced by modern human activity.
||Natural regeneration following site preparation and seeding or planting that could either supplement or completely obscure the trees being planted or seeded on the area.
||A species that is considered at risk because it exists in low numbers or in restricted ranges, due to loss of habitat or other factors.
||Uncultivated land other than fallow. Land currently little influenced by human activity.
||Drying out, loss of colour and shape of leaves, then twigs and branches, caused by a lack of water or the presence of toxins.
||Planting between the two lanes created in windrowing.
||Plantation sur entrandain
||An aggregate of forest stands, or forest stand and forest sites, which are grouped for the purpose of applying a common set of silvicultural treatments (also called operational group).
||That feeds on wood.
||Tables and graphs illustrating volumes per hectare of stands at a specific age.
normal yield table [table de rendement normal]: Estimated stand volume per age class at normal stocking.
||Table de rendement