||Young trees under existing stands capable of becoming the next crop. Regeneration established before logging that has survived the logging operation.
||A genus of naturally occurring soil bacteria used to transfer genes into plants.
||One of the possible alternative forms of a gene or of any DNA sequence occupying a specific position along a chromosome. The specific combination of alleles in an individual forms its genotype.
||A group of 20 organic compounds, combinations of which are bonded together in long chains to make proteins.
||Cup-shaped ascomatum found in certain ascomycetes fungi and containing the reproductive structures (asci and ascospores).
||A place where many kinds of trees and shrubs are grown for scientific and educational purposes.
||Renewal of a tree crop by direct seeding or by planting seedlings or cuttings.
||Sexual stage of ascomycetes fungi, either an apothecium, a perithecium or a cleistothecium, which contains the asci and ascospores.
||Fungus spore produced within an ascus.
||Bag-like structure that develops within an ascomata and is made up of a membrane in which ascospores are produced; the ascospores are discharged from the ascus at maturity.
||Reproduction without fertilization. New individuals may develop from vegetative parts such as tubers, bulbs, or rooted stems, or from sexual parts such as unfertilized eggs or other cells in the ovule.
||Describes an organ or part of a body that is reduced in size, rudimentary.
||Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole using an auger.
||Plantation à la tarière
||Setting out trees with their roots left undisturbed in a dug-out clod of soil. Note: if trees are bare-rooted, and roots are enclosed in a rough ball of soil, they are properly termed balled.
||Plantation en mottes
||All the silvicultural practices required to achieve free-growing (or established) regeneration of desired species at specified densities and stocking.
||Sylviculture de base
||Fungus spore produced on a basidium.
||Setting out young trees, etc., in loosely-woven baskets in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed.
||Plantation en paniers
||The collection of life on earth; the natural patterns that form from all the species of life (species diversity), the genes that each of them possess (genetic diversity), as well as the ecosystems which these species form (ecosystem diversity).
||A transformation method in which metal particles coated with one organism’s genetic material are propelled into the cells or tissues of another to allow for the uptake of the genetic material.
||A pesticide derived from natural sources such as fungi and bacteria or created to closely resemble or be identical to a chemical produced in nature such as a pheromone. Typically a biopesticide is target-specific and has little or no impact on non-target organisms and the environment.
||A consumer or industrial product that is made from biomass. Bioproducts are often made using a bioprocess and include a broad range of commodities intended for markets such as energy, transportation, chemicals, plastics, foods, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals.
||As defined in the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, the application of science and engineering in the direct or indirect use of living organisms, or parts or products of living organisms, in their natural or modified forms. It refers to the techniques through which organisms such as plants, fungi, or microorganisms can be used to provide products or services.
||Grafting by inserting a bud, with a small amount of tissue, into a slit or hole made in the bark of a stock plant. After union has formed, the portion of the stock plant above the bud is removed.
||Setting out young trees grown in bullet-shaped rigid plastic tubes, which are injected into the ground by a spring-loaded gun, sometimes into prepared holes.
||Plantation en cartouches
||Forest certification is a market-based instrument aimed at promoting sustainable forest management that takes into account environmental, economic and social issues. It involves the independent assessment of forest management according to internationally (or nationally) accepted standards, and the tracking and monitoring of the supply of forest products to the market place. If the forest management is in compliance with a set of specified standards, and the timber from this forest has been tracked and accounted for through all stages of the production process, then it can be given a label which is recognized in the market place.
||A single DNA molecule encoding a portion or all of a living organism’s genetic information; threadlike and located in the cell’s nucleus in higher organisms, circular in bacteria. Each species has a characteristic number of chromosomes.
||Spherical ascomatum (with no opening) found in certain ascomycetes fungi and containing the reproductive structures (asci and ascospores).
||Evaluation of genotypes by comparing clones in a plantation.
||All plants reproduced asexually from a common ancestor and having identical genotypes. Named clones are given non-Latin names preceded by the abbreviation "cl".
||In biotechnology, obtaining a group of genetically identical cells from a single cell; making identical copies of a gene.
||Harvesting of cones after seed maturation but before their dispersal.
||Récolte de cônes
||A device for collecting cones from a standing tree; it is lowered from a helicopter, over the crown of a tree. Cones or cone-bearing branches are removed and retrieved by the device.
||Cueilleur de cônes
||Specialized hypha upon which one or more conidia are borne.
||Thin-walled spore produced asexually by certain fungi.
||Portable receptacle (pot, bag, or linked spaces) to hold rooting medium for growing planting stock.
||Setting out of young trees along a contour line.
||Plantation en bandes de niveau
||Setting trees in parallel rows, generally at regular intervals between and in lines, on land either wholly or partially cleared.
||Plantation en lignes
||The fertilization of an egg in one plant by a sperm cell found in a pollen grain of another plant. The resulting seed will have the hereditary characteristics from both parents.
||The preservation of living materials at very low temperatures, often within liquid nitrogen, to protect them against damage.
||A variety of plant cultivated on account of its favourable characteristics for horticulture, forestry or agriculture.
||Sowing seeds or setting out seedlings in rough holes made with a stick or peg. Also termed dibbling if done with a specially adapted tool such as a dibble.
||Plantation au bâton
||Alteration of the normal functions of a whole plant or part of it, caused by a living or dead agent. The main agents involved in the initiation of disease are pollution, animals, fungi and other plants.
||Harmful deviation from normal functioning of physiological processes, generally pathogenic or environmental in origin.
|DNA - Deoxyribonucleic acid
||The molecule that encodes genetic information. It is made up of units called nucleotides, each including one of four bases—adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), or thymine (T). The molecule comprises two strands held together by bonds between A and T and between G and C, resulting in a structure often referred to as a double helix. It is found in the nucleus of cells, within bacteria and some viruses, as well as in organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts.
||ADN - Acide désoxyribonucléique
||A method to isolate and create images of DNA sequences. The image created is an identification aid for organisms, similar to that of taking human fingerprints.
||Analyse des empreintes génétiques
||The linear order of the nucleotides along the DNA strand. This sequence determines the unique genetic composition of an organism.
||The process of determining the exact order of the bases in a DNA segment.
||Séquençage de l'ADN
||Detrimental to the genetic quality of a population and future generations.
||The sum of the plants, animals, environmental influences, and their interactions within a particular habitat.
||Any seedling, whether natural or planted, that has survived in reasonable vigor for some arbitrary time and is so sited that it should make an effective contribution to the crop.
||A laboratory procedure that separates large molecules, such as DNA fragments or proteins, on the basis of their electric charge by running them through a gel placed in an electric field. This is one of the steps in DNA fingerprinting.
||A transformation method in which a weak electric current induces the formation of transient pores in the membrane of a cell, hence allowing new genes to enter the cell.
||Species that are threatened with imminent extinction; includes species whose numbers or habitats have been reduced to critical levels.
||Espèce en voie de disparition
||Favorable to the genetic quality of a population.
|Ex situ conservation
||The preservation of a plant or plant part outside of the species normal or original habitat, for example, within a gene bank.
||Conservation ex situ
||An introduced, non-native tree species.
||Refers to the local extinction of a species that is no longer found in a locality or country, but exists elsewhere in the world.
||Part of the plant bearing the female sexual organ (pistil).
||The union of the nucleus and other cellular constituents of a male gamete (sperm, pollen grain) with those of the female gamete (ovum, egg cell) to form a zygote from which may develop a new organism.
||Generally, measure of the percentage, by number, of seeds in a given sample that germinate and produce a seedling, irrespective of subsequent seedling survival.
||Germination au champ
||A nursery, generally not permanent, established in or near the forest rather than near an administrative or executive headquarters. Also referred to as satellite nursery in Ontario and in the Prairies.
||A general term for all forms of plant life characteristic of a region, period or special environment.
||The reproductive structure of a tree or other plant consisting of the male and/or female parts.
||Ecology: Generally, an ecosystem characterized by a more or less dense and extensive tree cover. More particularly, a plant community predominantly of trees and other woody vegetation, growing more or less closely together.
||Ecosystem that generally covers a large area and is composed of woody vegetation dominated by trees growing in a relatively dense pattern.
||The study of heredity in forest trees.
|Forest tree breeding
||The genetic manipulation of trees, usually involving selection, testing, and controlled mating, to solve some specific problem or to produce a specially desired product.
||Amélioration génétique des arbres forestiers
||Generally, a profession embracing the science, business, and art of creating, conserving, and managing forests and forest lands for the continuing use of their resources, material or other.
||A reproductive structure on or in which spores of a fungus are produced.
||syn. fuelwood plantation
Setting out young trees to be hogged for burning.
||Seed showing apparently complete embryo and endosperm or megagametophyte structures, irrespective of actual viability.
||Trees with both parents in common. Defined in Manitoba as trees where both parents are known.
||A functional portion of a chromosome in which inheritable characteristics are determined by the sequence of nucleotides along the DNA.
||An ex situ conservation facility that stores plant germplasm of various species in the form of pollen, seeds, or tissue culture. Also refers to a database of publicly available DNA sequences.
||Banque de gènes
||The multi-step process in which the coded information in a gene is converted into functional products.
||The movement of alleles among interbreeding individuals belonging to different populations, by means of seed or pollen dispersal or the migration of individuals.
||Combining desired traits, for example, pest resistance and herbicide tolerance, in a genetically modified organism.
||Empilement de gènes
||A universal correspondence rule between a three-nucleotide DNA sequence and a specific amino acid that is used when genes are translated into proteins.
||The genetic variation present in a population or species.
||A method used to directly transfer DNA from one organism into another that results in a genetically engineered organism, one form of genetically modified organism.
||A representation of the relative locations of genes along a chromosome marked with probes and/or genetic markers.
||A DNA fragment of known location on the genome that is used to mark specific genes or traits.
|Genetically modified organism (GMO)
||An organism that has had its DNA sequence altered through genetic engineering, a natural process, or the action of mutagens.
||Organisme génétiquement modifié (OGM)
||The complete genetic material in a particular organism. In animals, this includes the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA; in plants, this includes the nuclear, mitochondrial, and chloroplast's DNA.
||The study of an organism’s DNA sequence and the location of genes on its chromosomes (structural genomics) and of the function of an organism’s genes in relation to their products under particular environmental conditions (functional genomics).
||An individual hereditary constitution derived from its parents and forming a unique combination of genes; sometimes referring to trees having similar genetic constitutions with regard to certain common, identifiable genetic characteristics.
||A test made to determine the viability of seeds, spores, or pollen grains in a given sample.
||Essai de germination
||The percentage of seeds, spores, or pollen grains in a given sample that actually germinate, irrespective of time. In any batch of seeds, the percentage that is pure (of the species required) multiplied by the germinative capacity.
||The percentage of seeds, spores, or pollen grains in a given sample germinating within a given period e.g., 7 or 14 days, under optimum or stated conditions.
||The total set of genes of an individual representing a variety or species that may be used for conservation purposes.
||Plate-shaped membrane located under the cap of a fungus; all of the gills together form the hymenium.
||n: A plant that has been grafted.
v: To place a detached cutting or branch tip (scion) in close cambial contact with a rooted plant (understock) in such a manner that scion and rootstock unite.
||Setting out young trees in groups.
||Plantation par bouquets
||All the trees growing in a forest or in a specified part of it, generally expressed in terms of number or volume.
||Matériel sur pied
||Seed having coats that resist cracking or breaking and may be more or less impermeable to water.
|Hardwood(s) (broad-leaved trees)
||Trees whose leaves are not persistent and fall off at the end of a defined growing season or during a period of temperature or moisture stress. This is the predominant tree type in deciduous forests. Also refers to the wood produced by these trees.
||Feuillus (arbres à feuilles caduques)
||Capable of surviving and recovering from the application of herbicides.
||Tolérant aux herbicides
||That portion of the character variance due to hereditary factors as distinct from factors of environment. Heritability is described in one of two ways, depending on the type of investigation.
||A forest managed to harvest forest products and to sustain the natural system, including its bioproductivity, biotic and abiotic diversity. Modern technology, equipment and methods may be used to harvest, restock and tend the forest, with an emphasis on natural restocking, supplemented with artificial restocking of appropriate endemic species.
||An accessory system in which selected trees of the old crop, scattered or in groups, are retained after regeneration is completed, for the whole or a part of the next rotation.
||Futaie avec sur-réserves
||Setting plants in loosened soil replaced in or brought to a dug hole or pit. Roots separated on either side of a wedge or saddle of earth left in situ when the hole was dug is termed saddle planting.
||Plantation sur potets
||Plant obtained by crossing two genetically dissimilar parent plants.
||The offspring of genetically different parents (usually refers to crosses between two species).
||Sexual reproduction using genetically distinct parents, that is, belonging to different populations, varieties, or species.
||One of many filaments that make up the mycelium or body of a fungus.
||Reduced virulence in a micro-organism caused by genetic mutation or the presence of a virus.
||Within an artificial environment, such as a test tube, as opposed to in vivo.
||The use of a new idea, material or technology to produce new goods or services or to change the way in which goods or services are produced or distributed. Innovation can include improved managerial systems, new production techniques, new technology, the results of research and development, or the application of information technologies.
||Application of cultural measures which, in addition to simply maintaining the forest cover, will allow an increase in the value or volume of the cut.
||Planting young trees among existing natural regeneration or previously planted trees of similar age.
||A survey of a forest area to determine data such as area, condition, timber, volume and species for a specific purpose, such as planning, purchasing, evaluating, managing or harvesting.
||Special form of slit planting involving two slits at right angles with the seedling placed at the apex of the L.
||plantation avec fentes en L
||A tree (marked to be) left standing in an area where other trees are felled.
||Arbre marqué en réserve
|Living modified organism (LMO)
||As defined in the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, a living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology.
||Organisme vivant modifié (OVM)
|Lop and top
||The branches and tops cut from a tree, generally once felled or fallen.
||Part of the plant bearing the male sexual organ (stamen).
||Setting out young trees by means of a machine specially designed for this operation.
||Starting, intermediate, or product compound in a chemical reaction that involves the breaking down of a molecule or the joining of molecules by an enzyme.
||A genetic engineering technique that uses a fine-tipped glass needle to inject DNA into a cell.
||In vitro asexual reproduction of a plant from a fragment of plant tissue. This technique creates multiple copies of progeny that are genetically identical to the parent (clones).
||In vitro techniques that are rapid, efficient, and precise in obtaining novel gene combinations in living organisms. Most modern biotechnologies focus on organisms at the genetic level. (See also traditional biotechnology.)
||See genetic marker.
||1. General: Cultivation of a single crop or product without using the land for other purposes.
2. Biology: Extensive areas of land occupied or dominated by plant species that are closely related genetically.
||Form and structure of living organisms.
||Death or destruction of forest trees as result of competition, disease, insect damage, drought, wind, fire, old age, and other factors, excluding harvesting.
||Setting out young trees on raised microsites.
||Plantation sur butte
||Agents that cause a change in the DNA sequence of a cell. These include chemicals, X-rays, and ultraviolet light.
||A change to the DNA sequence of a gene or chromosome; may be expressed or unexpressed by the cell. If a mutation occurs in a gene, it changes the structure, function, or expression of the protein produced.
||Vegetative part of a fungus, which is composed of a mass of hyphae and distinct from the fruiting body.
||Renewal of a tree crop by natural seeding, sprouting, suckering, or layering.
||Setting out a number of seedlings or seeds close together in a prepared hole, pit, or spot.
||Plantation en nids
||The building blocks of DNA (and RNA), each containing one nitrogenous base—adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine (uracil in RNA)— a phosphate molecule, and a sugar molecule (deoxyribose in DNA or ribose in RNA).
||A complex spherical body found in most plant, animal, and fungal cells; it is enclosed by a membrane and contains chromosomes.
||An area set aside for the raising of young trees mainly for planting out. Temporary nurseries, particularly those formed beneath a high canopy of large trees, may be termed bush nurseries.
cf. field nursery
||One of the specially prepared plots in a nursery where seed is sown or into which transplants or cuttings are put.
||Group of tissues organized to perform a distinct function.
||A seedling, transplant, or cutting ready to be established on an area.
||Plant sur le terrain
||Form of reproduction in which an organism develops from an unfertilized egg.
|Particle gun transformation
||Transformation par canon à particules
||A microscopic organism or virus directly capable of causing disease. see thinning: precommercial.
||Living or dead agent that alters the normal functions of a whole plant or part of a plant.
||A parasitic organism directly capable of causing disease.
||The study of disease.
||Study of diseases and the effects they have on plants.
||Flask-shaped ascomatum found in certain ascomycetes fungi and containing the reproductive structures (ascus and ascospores).
||A heritable trait that enables an organism (e.g., a tree) to be less damaged by pests compared to its non-resistant relatives.
||Résistance aux ravageurs
||Any preparation used to control populations of injurious organisms, plant or animal.
||The study of timing of periodic phenomena, such as flowering, growth initiation, growth cessation, etc., especially as related to seasonal changes in temperature, photoperiod, etc.
||An organism as observed, i.e., as judged by its visually perceptible characters resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment. Identical phenotypes do not necessarily breed alike.
||Setting out young trees in small depressions, natural or excavated, with a view to collecting and conserving moisture.
||Plantation sur trous
|Plant with novel traits (PNT)
||In accordance with the Seeds Regulations, Part V related to the Seeds Act administered by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, a plant variety possessing a characteristic that is intentionally selected or created through a specific genetic change and is either not previously associated with a distinct and stable population of the plant species in Canada or expressed outside the normal range of a similar existing characteristic in the plant species.
||Végétal à caractères nouveaux (VCN)
||Forest stands established by planting and/or seeding in the process of afforestation or reforestation which are either of introduced species (all planted stands) or intensively managed stands of indigenous species, which meet all the following criteria: one or two species at plantation, even age class, regular spacing.
||Application of forestry principles to an artificial crop or stand.
||Foresterie de plantation
||Establishing a forest by setting out seedlings, transplants, or cuttings in an area.
||The exact spot where a young tree has been set out.
||Emplacement des semis
||Seedlings, transplants, cuttings, and occasionally wildlings, for use in planting.
||Matériel de reproduction
||A small circle of bacterial DNA that is used as a vector to transfer genes from one organism to another. Plasmids have the ability to replicate independently within a host.
||A small container seedling which is to be planted and raised as a bare-root seedling.
||Containing several nuclei.
||A stand containing a preponderance of good phenotypes, but not necessarily plus trees.
||A phenotype judged (but not proved by testing) to be unusually superior in some quality or qualities.
||Transfer of pollen from the anther of a flower to the stigma of a flower of the same species, resulting in fertilization.
||The simultaneous cultivation of a number of crops as opposed to stands composed of a single species.
|Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
||A laboratory procedure that provides the conditions for rapid replication of a specific DNA segment, resulting in a very high number of copies of that segment. PCR makes a DNA segment easier to analyze for genetic research, forensics, the diagnosis of diseases, or other applications.
||Réaction en chaîne de la polymérase (PCR)
||Setting out young trees in pot-shaped receptacles having a closed or only perforated end and made of various materials, in which they have been raised from seed or to which they have been transferred from the seed bed.
||Plantation en pot
||The germination of seed, generally to the stage when the radicle is just emerging, before sowing in the field or nursery.
||A short DNA fragment, radioactively or otherwise labeled, used to locate a specific complementary sequence of DNA or RNA.
||The offspring of a particular tree or a combination of one female and one male tree.
||A test in which the genetic constitution of an individual is evaluated from the performance of its progeny produced by some specific mating system.
||Test de descendance
||1. The geographical area and environment to which the parent trees, etc., are native and within which their genetic constitution has been developed through natural selection.
2. The geographical source, i.e., place of origin.
||An experiment, usually replicated, comparing trees grown from seed or cuttings collected from many parts of a species, natural range.
||Test de provenance
||Spherical or flask-shaped structure (resembles a perithecium, but is asexual) within which conidia are formed.
||Setting out four young trees to form the corners of a square with a fifth tree at its center.
||Plantation en quinconces
||A population that exists within a species and exhibits genetic characteristics distinct from those of the other populations. It is usually an interbreeding unit.
||DNA constructed by joining DNA segments from two or more organisms. (See genetic engineering.)
||Renewal of a forest crop by natural, artificial, or vegetative (regrowth) means. Also the new crop so obtained. The new crop is generally less than 1.3 m high.
|Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
||Molecule found in the cells of living organisms, where it plays an important role in protein synthesis; in some viruses it is the carrier of genetic information.
||Acide ribonucléique (ARN)
||Setting out young trees on a long, narrow crest of excavated soil, generally on a slice thrown up by a plough.
||Plantation sur bourrelet
||A quantitative and qualitative approach to determining the hazardous capacity of a new product. This involves the identification and characterization of hazards, an assessment of exposure to the product, and a final risk characterization of the product.
||Évaluation des risques
||An aerial plant part, often a branchlet, that is grafted onto another root-bearing plant (stock, rootstock).
||Fertilized ovule that contains an embryo and has the capacity to produce a new individual.
||A place in which seeds of rare plant or obsolete varieties are stored, usually vacuum-packed and under cold conditions, to prolong their viability.
||Banque de semences
||1. Any tree producing seed.
2. Any tree retained to provide seed for natural regeneration, e.g., during seed cuttings.
|Seed collection area
||A forest stand that exhibits good characteristics of growth, form, and vigor and that is not managed for cone production, but from which seed is collected, usually at the time of harvest.
||Zone de récolte de semences
||A plantation of trees, assumed or proven genetically to be superior, that has been isolated so as to reduce pollination from genetically inferior outside sources, and intensively managed to improve the genotype and produce frequent, abundant, etc.
||Verger à graines
||The locality where a seed lot was collected usually defined on an eco-geographic basis by distance, elevation, precipitation, latitude, etc.
||Origine des graines
||A device for catching the seeds falling on a small area of ground, from trees or shrubs. Used for determining the amount of seedfall and the time, period, rate, and distance of dissemination.
||Piège à semences
||A tree selected, and often reserved, for seed collection or provision of seed for natural regeneration.
||The year in which a tree species produces, either as an individual or a crop, an adequate amount of seed; applies to any species but particularly to those with irregular or infrequent seed production.
||Young plant that has grown from a seed.
||Choosing individuals with desired qualities to serve as parents for the next generation.
||The average phenotypic value of the selected individuals, expressed as a deviation from the population mean.
||Différentiel de sélection
||Environmental influences on an organism that determine its likelihood of being preferentially selected among its co-habitants, that is, having a better survival and/or reproduction.
||Reproduction that involves the fusion of genetic material from two distinct entities.
||The theory and practice of controlling the establishment, composition, growth, and quality of forest stands to achieve the objectives of management.
||Practices aimed at ensuring wise harvesting of forest resources : conservation, regeneration, reforestation, cutting, etc.
||Prying open a cut made by a spade, mattock, or planting bar (termed bar planting), inserting a young tree, then closing the cut on the latter by pressure.
||Plantation en fente
||A process by which clones are produced by cell growth from a seed embryo.
||Group of individuals that possess common characteristics and are capable of producing fertile progeny
||Cell or group of cells capable of producing a new organism.
||Deposit of spores released into the air or onto a surface when a fungus cap is placed gills downwards.
||Setting out young trees in small, prepared patches.
||Plantation sur placeaux
||Tree incapable of reproducing sexually.
||The storage of seeds under defined conditions of environment (temperature, moisture, gas exchange, medium, etc.) for specified periods in order to overcome passive or active inhibition of germination.
||Crop planting in which strips of heavy-rooted plants are alternated with loose-rooted plants which serve as barriers to wind and water erosion.
||Plantation en lisières
||Setting trees, generally in two or more parallel lines, in a long narrow area of land that has been wholly or partially cleared.
||Plantation en bandes
||A principle for safety assessment that compares a genetically modified product to a traditional non-modified product of the same species with a long history of safe use. A genetically modified product is substantially equivalent to the non-modified one if it is as safe to the environment and human health.
||Équivalence en substance
||The capacity of forests, ranging from stands to ecoregions, to maintain their health, productivity, diversity, and overall integrity, in the long run, in the context of human activity and use. The concept of producing a biological resource under management practices that ensure replacement of the part harvested, by regrowth or reproduction, before another harvest occurs.
|Sustainable Forestry Initiative
||A forest certification program run by a multi-stakeholder (environment, industry, government, academic groups, etc.) board of directors. The SFI standard is a comprehensive system of principles, objectives and performance measures that combines the perpetual growing and harvesting of trees with the long-term protection of wildlife, plants, and soil and water quality.
||Sustainable Forestry Initiative
||see slit planting
||Bêchage en T
||The raising of a forest crop in conjunction with a temporary agricultural crop.
||Plantation en taungya
||A species that is likely to become endangered in Canada if the factors affecting its vulnerability are not reversed.
||A general term for the cultivation of plant or animal tissues in a controlled artificial environment on defined media under aseptic conditions.
||Culture de tissus
||Specifically within forestry, this involves the selection of trees with desirable traits and breeding them to produce improved offspring. (See also modern biotechnology.)
||A distinguishable characteristic of an organism.
||Transfer of foreign DNA into the cell of an organism to change its genetic makeup. This is a natural process for many bacteria.
||Genetically engineered to contain DNA from an external source, such as another species or a different variety. Many transgenic plants are more herbicide tolerant, are resistant to insect or viral pests, or produce modified versions of fruit or flowers.
||A seedling that has been replanted one or more times in a nursery to improve its size and growth potential characteristics. Also a tree that is moved from one place to another.
||A plough used in the nursery to open trench for the roots of plants being lined out, while simultaneously backfilling it.
||Setting out young trees in a shallow trench or a continuous slit.
||Plantation en sillon
||Setting out young trees in narrow, open-ended cylinders of various materials, in which they have been raised from seed or into which they have been transplanted.
||Plantation de semis en tube
||Planting young trees under the canopy of an existing stand.
||Plantation en sous-étage
||A silvicultural system that follows nature’s model by always retaining part of the forest after harvesting. Standing trees are left in a dispersed or aggregated form to meet objectives such as retaining old-growth structure, habitat protection and visual quality. Variable retention retains structural features (snags, large woody debris, live trees of varying sizes, canopy levels) as wildlife habitat.
||Specifically within forestry, any clone or product of breeding given a separate name.
||Subdivision of species, a group of individuals that have common characteristics (example : The different varieties of apples).
||Any DNA-containing structure that is used to transfer DNA into an organism. The most commonly used vectors are plasmid DNA and bacteriophages or other viruses.
||Reproduction by other than sexually produced seed. Includes grafting, budding, rooting of cuttings, and tissue and cell culture, including embryogenesis.
||Of a seed, spore, or pollen grain, its capacity to germinate and develop, under given conditions.
||Measure of a pathogen's ability to multiply in a living organism and harm it.
||Natural regeneration following site preparation and seeding or planting that could either supplement or completely obscure the trees being planted or seeded on the area.
||A species that is considered at risk because it exists in low numbers or in restricted ranges, due to loss of habitat or other factors.
||syn.: wilding, wild seedling
A naturally grown, in contrast to a nursery-raised, seedling, sometimes used in forest planting when nursery stock is scarce.
||Planting between the two lanes created in windrowing.
||Plantation sur entrandain
||A one-year-old seedling.
||Semis de l’année